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Faktor lingkumgan tanaman dapat dibagi/digolongkan menjadi:

Environmental conditions (Faktor lingkungan yang mengendalikan penyerapan sumber daya = resource); seperti:
Abiotic (e.g., weather, certain soil characteristics)

Biotic (e.g., weeds, pests, pathogens, soil organisms) Consumable resources (Sumber daya yang dapat dikonsumsi) : CO2, light, water, dan nutrients

Environmental conditions: merupakan benda/faktor, baik biotik ataupun abiotik, yang mempengaruhi laju dan efisiensi penangkapan/kehilangan dalam memanfaatkan sumber daya alam Resources merupakan sesuatu yang dikonsumsi tanaman dalam pertumbuhan dan perkembangbiakannya.

Resources (SDA)
SDA: Sesuatu yang sangat dibutuhkan tanaman agar mampu tumbuh berkembang untuk menghasilkan produk pertanian (a harvestable yield). Pada sebagian besar agro-ecosystems, produktivitas tanaman dibatasi oleh ketersediaan satu atau dua resources yang dibutuhkan, seperti: nutrisi, air, dan cahaya. Hasil yang diperoleh tanaman merupakan fungsi dari tingkat keterbatasan SDA yang tersedia dan tingkat efisiensi tanaman dalam memanfaatkan SDA.

FAKTOR-FAKTOR LINGKUNGAN
I. CLIMATE/IKLIM Beberapa unsur iklim yang penting; diantaranya: Light/cahaya matahari Temperature/suhu Humidity/kelembaban udara Precipitation/curah hujan Wind/angin Climate includes both: Resources [light, precipitation (actually, soil water is the resource)] Conditions (e.g., temperature, day length, humidity, wind)

FAKTOR-FAKTOR LINGKUNGAN
II. SOILS/TANAH 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. SOIL CONSTITUENTS/KOMPOSISI TNH MINERAL (INORGANIC) FRACTION/FRAKSI MINERAL SOIL ORGANIC MATTER/BAHAN ORGANIK SOIL STRUCTURE/STRUKTUR TANAH SOIL TYPES/JENIS TANAH SOIL ORGANISMS/ORGANISME DALAM TANAH SOIL Ph/pH tanah

FAKTOR-FAKTOR LINGKUNGAN
III. RESOURCES/(SDA) Light/Cahaya matahari Carbon dioxide/CO2 Water/Air Nutrient/Nutrisi

CLIMATE/IKLIM
I. LIGHT (Solar Radiation = Radiasi Surya) Penyebaran cahaya secara musiman bergantung pada letak lintang. [How does the light environment of tropical latitudes differ from that of temperate and boreal latitudes?] Tumbuhan (termasuk tanaman tertentu) menunjukan tanggap fotoperiodisitas terhadap panjang hari, khususnya fenologinya.

CLIMATE/IKLIM
I. LIGHT (Solar Radiation) Fenologi tanaman didefinisikan sebagai tahapan perkembangan tanaman selama siklus hidupnya dan tahapan tsb dipengaruhi oleh kondisi lingkungan. (Hall, 2001); meliputi: perkecambahan, juvenil, pembungaan, bolting, pembentukan umbi dsb. Tanaman berhari panjang, berhari pendek, dan tanaman neutral. "Long day" (LD) plants; "short-day" (SD) plants; and "day neutral" (DN).

CLIMATE/IKLIM
II. TEMPERATURE/SUHU Variasi suhu musiman dan harian (diurnal) meningkat sejalan dengan peningkatan garis lintang. Suhu menurun seiring peningkatan tinggi suatu tempat. Laju perubahan suhu karena perubahan tinggi tempat dikenal sebagai lapse rate dan laju penurunan suhu udara kering sekitas 1OC 100 m-1 dan 0,6 OC 100 m-1 untuk udara basah.

CLIMATE/iklim
II. TEMPERATURE/SUHU Sebagian besar proses=proses di dalam tubuh tanaman memiliki suhu optimum. Respirasi meningkat sejalan dengan peningkatan suhu. Perkembangan tanaman umumnya dikendalikan oleh suhu. Satuan tanggap tanaman terhadap temperatur lingkungan biasa dikenal dengan istilah degree days jumlah kumulatif derajat suhu di atas suhu dasar (base or threshold temperature). Tanaman yang tumbuh pada temperatur lebih tinggi dari temperatur normalnya akan tumbuh lebih cepat (contoh: cepat berbunga), yang dapat mengakibatkan penurunan hasil.

CLIMATE
III. PRECIPITATION GO TO ANOTHER SLIDE : RAINFALL N CROPPING SYSTEMS IN INDONESIA

SOILS
I. SOIL CONSTITUENTS Atmosphere Water Mineral (inorganic) materials Soil organic matter (SOM) Soil organisms The atmosphere below ground in the soil difference substantially from that aboveground. The soil atmosphere is higher in CO2 and lower in O2

SOILS
Soil provide an important environment for plants/crops due to: 1. Plants need anchorage, so that there should be adequate soil layer. 2. Plants need water, so that soil should hold adequate water and supply. 3. Plants need oxygen for respiration, so that soil should be able to provide it without any interruption. 4. Plant roots release CO2 during respiration, and soil should be able to regulate the movement of this gas without allowing it to build up to toxic levels

SOILS
5. Plants need nutrients from soils, which are absorbed by roots, so that soils should have some characteristics to supply and retain nutrients. 6. Plants add a lot of dead material (OM) and the soil should have able break them to some form so that they will not interfere with plants and their root systems. 7. Some plants through root exudates add to soil toxic chemicals (allelo-chemicals) and soil should be able to decompose them to avoid root damage.

SOILS
8. During heavy rainy periods, large volumes of water are added with a very high intensities and the soil should be able to handle these volumes without severe soil losses 9. There are toxic gases released when animal and root systems grow in soils and soil should be able to either release these gases to atmosphere or convert to non-toxic form by other reaction

SOILS
10.When both plant and animals live in soil, it should be able to maintain suitable temperatures required by those living beings

SOILS
Therefore Soils is suitable for everything at anytime It is required to treat the soil with the right knowledge of it in order to receive benefits the mankind wants soil always have many associations and interactions among these factors (physical, chemical, physico-chemical and biological factors)

Physical factors
Soil texture Particle size distribution (clay, silt and sand) In general Coarse sand 0.25 2.0 mm Find sand 0.05 0.2 mm Silt 0.002 0.05 mm Clay < 0.002 mm

Physical factors Bulk density and porosity Both factors related to: 1. Capacity for gas exchange 2. Root growth and penetration 3. Drainage and retain water 4. Infiltration and percolation

Physical factors Soil structure Composition of pores and soil aggregates Pores consist of : Micro pores (capillary water retained) Macro pores (gas exchange and drainage) Crumb structure best for agriculture 50 % each of micro and macro pores.

Physical factors
Soil water content Saturated condition Field capacity Permanent wilting point Soil temperature Increase root growth and activities Increase microbial population Increase organic matter decomposition Increase seed germination

Chemical factors
Nutrient contents in soil Gas content Chemical reactions

Physico-chemical factors
(good for agriculture) pH (6 7) CEC (Cation exchange capacity) (> 40 mg/100 g soil) EC (electrical conductivity) = water quality parameter (0.4 0.7 m mhos/cm)

Biological factors
Micro and macro both fauna and flora Important activities: Mineralization of organic matter Nitrogen fixation in legumes Micorrhyza promoting P absorption Enzymes activities and nutrient transformation in soils Improve porosity by earthworm (tunneling) Improve root absorption activities

RESOURCES
Light Quantity Full Sunlight: 200-500 Wm-2 or 1000-2000 mol m-2 s-1 (W = J s-1) Cloudy sky: 20-90 Wm-2 or 100-400 mol m-2 s-1 Seasonality: The highest monthly (i.e., growing season) maximum light levels are at higher latitudes. Crop yields in the tropics (compared to temperate zones) are ultimately limited by: incident radiation cloudiness-compare wet season and dry season yields

RESOURCES
Growth and Yield are ultimately related to light interception. At the leaf level: There is a minimum amount of light required for a positive net photosynthesis to occur, called the light compensation point. At the canopy level: Some leaves in a canopy will be shaded by other leaves, some below, and perhaps some below the light compensation point. Rates of canopy photosynthesis are usually proportional to LAI

RESOURCES
At the crop level: Crop growth (and yield) is generally a function of leafarea duration (LAD), the area under a curve of LAI vs. time. LAD is proportional to the total amount of light energy absorbed during the crop's growing season, and thus to yield.

RESOURCES
CO2

The direct (physiological) effects of this increase in atmospheric CO2 are: increased rates of photosynthesis, especially in C3 plants, resulting in higher crop yields. increased water-use efficiency. higher C:N ratios in plant biomass. Higher CO2 concentrations induce partial closing of the stomates, which increases the resistance to the flow of water vapor, reducing transpiration and thus increasing water-use efficiency.

RESOURCES
Higher leaf temperatures (caused by stomatal closure) associated with increased [CO2] can lead to increased leaf turnover rate (higher leaf temperatures and more rapid leaf aging), Decreased specific leaf area, reducing the CO2-fertilization effect.

RESOURCES

Soil Water Field capacity is the amount of water held in a saturated soil after all excess water has drained off; the water potential at field capacity is -0.1 to 0.2 MPa. Permanent wilting point is the point at which a (particular) plant can no longer absorb water from the soil, for most plants in most soils the water potential at the permanent wilting point is about -1.5 MPa.

RESOURCES
Available water is the amount of water between field capacity and permanent wilting point. Soil water content is influenced by both soil texture and soil organic matter (SOM). Fine-textured soils have a higher total pore volume, and hence can hold more water. Clay particles hold water more tightly. SOM functions similar to clay particles in affecting soil water-holding capacity and soil water potential.

RESOURCES
Nutrition Macronutrients, those required in rather high amounts by plants, are nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), and sulfur (S). Most fertilizers contain N, P, and/or K. Micronutrients are elements that are also essential for growth but are required in lower amounts; these include iron (Fe), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), boron (Bo), molybdenum (Mo), manganese (Mn), cobalt (Co), and chlorine (Cl).

Nutrient cycling
Refers to the processes that transfer nutrients to and from plants and the various soil (and atmospheric) pools. These pools can be characterized as: active, inorganic forms and microbial biomass-very rapid turnover; slow, new crop residues and coarse particulate organic matter; and Passive, fine particulate organic matter and humic substances-very slow turnover.

Interactions between Resources and Environmental Factors


Crop yield is a function of resource use. In general, resource-use efficiencies are the products of resource uptake (capture) and resource utilization (biomass or yield produced per unit of resource captured) (Janssen, 1998). That is the relationship between yield (Y) and resource supply (S) involves resource uptake (U): Y/S = U/S (resource uptake) Y/U (resource utilization efficiency) Y/U is the physiological RUE, whereas U/S is the ecological RUE.

Factors that influence crop yield are of several types and include:
Resources not under grower control: light, CO2, water (precipitation), nutrients released by mineralization. Environmental conditions, not under grower control: temperature, wind, seasonality, topography, length of growing season, relative humidity; soil type, soil depth, SOM, soil pH; pest, weed and pathogen populations (in part). Resources under grower control: nutrients (from fertilizer), water (from irrigation).

Factors that influence crop yield are of several types and include:

Environmental conditions under partial grower control: pest, weed, and pathogen populations; SOM; soil structure; soil pH. Crop varieties. Management: land preparation, choice of cropping system; choice of cultivars; date of planting; plant population; timing of nutrient input; timing of pest, weed and pathogen control; date of harvest; management of residues. Infrastructural or institutional factors: access to credit, suitable varieties, extension services, inputs, markets.

Interactions Among Species in Agroecosystems

This part of the course considers some of the other organisms, in addition to crops and soil organisms, that occur in agroecosystems, particular herbivores (mostly insects) and their predators, and competitors (weeds). Pathogens are discussed only briefly.

Herbivores
Why don't insects (and other herbivores) consume all available plant biomass? That is, Why is the world green?-most likely answers are plant defenses that limit which herbivores can feed on which plants, and predators that keep herbivore populations in check. Groups of herbivores: Vertebrates-birds, mammals Invertebrates-insects, arachnids (mites), mollusks (snails, slugs). Of these groups insects cause the greatest crop losses in most agroecosystems.

Herbivores
Plant Strategies to cope with herbivory: Escape-short life cycle Tolerance--Compensation for tissue loss Defense--protection of tissues Ecological problems associated with insecticide use: 1. Insecticide resistance 2. Pest Resurgence 3. Secondary Pest Outbreaks

Integrated Pest Management (IPM).

Competitors (Weeds)
Characteristics of Weeds High seed production, competitiveness, low attractiveness, seed longevity, seed dormancy, rapid emergence. Most weeds evolved from early successional species; many are crop relatives

Competition/Niche Theory
Two species can occupy the same habitat and not compete if: The species use different resources. This is often true for animals, but seldom true for plants. Resources are sufficient for both. For example, plants in the desert seldom compete for light. The species obtain their resources from different parts of the habitat. I.e., the species have a somewhat different niche with respect to resource acquisition. Many plant ecologists (e.g., David Tilman) maintain that plant species specialize with respect to their ability to capture different resources. This is probably not true, however, for crops and weeds.

Competitors (Weeds)
Weeds reduce crop yield by reducing the supply of resources through competition. Plants use common resources--Light, C02, Water, Nutrients. Plants obtain resources from resource depletion zones, which depend on root and shoot architecture, and on resource mobility. Intensity of competition depends on the degree of overlap of resource depletion zones.

Pathogens
Diseases reduce ecological resource use efficiency by reducing resource uptake by various mechanisms: obstructing vascular tissues, damaging roots, restricting root growth, or removing leaf area. Plants possess morphological and chemical defenses against pathogens: Morphological-- cuticle Chemical-- both constitutive and inducible (inducible defenses against pathogens are called phytoalexins) These defenses most effective for aboveground pathogens.

The Functional Role of Diversity in Agroecosystems


Diversification is the Key to sustainability, according to most agroecologists. Diversity in cropping systems: Monoculture: Continuous Crop Rotation-short rotations vs. long rotations Polyculture: Intercropping Agroforestry Home-garden systems

Diversity has been defined as: Richness-number of species Equitability-number and relative abundance Connectance or complexity-usually as foodweb complexity Ecosystem function is usually defined in terms: energy capture (i.e., productivity-yield inagriculture) nutrient cycling population regulation (including food web structure) stability

Crop Rotation
Prior to development of agrichemicals, rotations were the standard practice to control pests and diseases and maintain soil fertility. Development of pesticides and herbicides made continuous monoculture possible. Thus continuous monoculture is a relatively recent agricultural practice.

Crop Rotation
Short rotations vs Long (Extended) Rotations: Short rotation: Usually just 2 years Objective is typically pest control Corn-soybean is the commonest crop system in the US-both crops have a high demand Long (extended) rotations: 3 years or longer Objectives are pest control, maintain soil organic matter, reduce agrichemical inputs Usually includes hay, pasture, or "green manure" to improve soil fertility.

Crop Rotation
Rotation Effect! This term refers generally to the higher yields of most crops when grown in rotation, and more specifically to the yield increases that cannot be compensated for by input substitutions. Most crops produce higher yields in rotation than in continuous cultivation, usually 1015% higher in maize (Singer & Cox, 1998).

Intercropping
Intercropping involves growing two crops in the same field at the same time. The following are different ways of intercropping, in order of increasing degree of association between crop components: Relay-intercropping-planting a second crop before harvesting the first crop. Strip-intercropping-growing 2 or more crops in alternating strips. Smith & Carter (1997) found that maize grown in a strip intercrop with alfalfa produced yields 6% higher in 40-ft wide strips, 11% higher in 20-ft wide strips, and 17% higher in 10-ft wide strips. May be due to extra light in border rows of maize. Between-row intercropping -growing 2 or more crops in alternating rows. Within-row intercropping -growing 2 or more crops in the same rows. Between-row and within-row intercrops may be either additive or replacement designs.

Intercropping Concepts.
Additive vs. replacement intercrops. In an additive intercrop both species are planted at the same density as in their respective monoculture; in a replacement intercrop a row of one crop "replaces" a row of the second crop in forming the intercrop. Additive intercrops double the density, and therefore may use resources more completely. Duration refers to the temporal overlap of the intercrop components: Differing duration-usually combines a short season crop and a long season crop. Intercrops of differing duration are usually additive. Similar duration-competition more intense because both components are using resources at the same time. Intercrops of similar duration tend to be replacement types.

Intercropping Concepts.
Dominant vs. subordinate components. Typically, one crop component of the intercrop is more competitive and hence dominates the mixture in terms of growth and yield. Dominance may be due to: Rapid initial growth Height Photosynthetic pathway (C4 crops tend to be dominant when grown with C3 crops) Legumes are usually subordinate

Measuring Intercrop Performance


The performance of intercrops relative to monocultures of the component crops is usually measured as Land-equivalent ratios (LER) or relative yield totals (RYT): Relative Yield (RY) = Yield in intercrop/Yield in monoculture LER = RYT = Y(i)/Y(m) = RY(1) + RY(2) + RY(3) + .... When LER or RYT > 1, the intercrop is said to show overyielding. That is, the intercrops are more productive than the monocultures of the components crops. The RYs of dominant components are often close to 1.0; efforts to increase intercrop performance often center on increasing the RY of the subordinate component.

Global Change and Agriculture


Global warming

Evidence of global warming: Temperature records-most of the increase has been in night temperature Retreat of glaciers; decreased snow and ice cover Measurable rise in sea level Increased heat content of oceans Increased plant growth (Myneni et al. 1997)

Global Change and Agriculture


The latter include: Increased values of NDVI (normalized difference vegetation index) detected by remote sensing Increased biomass deposition in European forests Increased recent tree-ring growth in Mongolia Upward migration of plants on European mountain tops The increase in plant growth is likely due to longer growing seasons; high latitude winter temperatures increased up to 4 C in the winter. Nicholls (1997) attributes 30-50% of the increased wheat yield in Australia since 1952 to decreased frequency of frost.

Global Change and Agriculture


Presumed causes of global warming: 2, CH4, N 0 (nitrous Greenhouse gases-CO 2 oxide), CFCs (chloroflurocarbons) Land-use changes. Deforestation Increased fire frequency That greenhouse gases have caused global warming as not been "proved", there are still valid disagreements.

Global Change and Agriculture


Robinson et al. (1998, unpublished paper privately distributed) dispute that any global warming has occurred in response to increased CO2. It is accurate to say that there is currently a strong concensus among scientists that changes in atmospheric chemistry are affecting climate in predictable and understandable ways.

Global Change and Agriculture


Effects of [CO2] on Plant Growth Gross photosynthesis increases and photorespiration decreases. Stomatal resistance increases (stomates close partially in response to increased [CO2]), transpiration therefore decreases, and water-use efficiency increases (since stomatal closure affects transpiration rates more than CO2 uptake rates). C3 vs C4 plants: Growth of C3 plants would be enhanced more than that of C4 plants

Global Change and Agriculture


Interactions need to be considered: [CO2] and other resources. For example, if N is limiting, increased [CO2] may not increase crop growth. [CO2] and environmental influences (especially temperature).

Global Change and Agriculture


Affects of Global Change on Agriculture The overwhelming evidence from (short term) experiments with increased [CO2] (either greenhouse or FACE-free atmosphere carbon dioxide enrichment-studies) is that biomass and/or seed production increases with increasing [CO2]. These studies are almost always done with (1) no temperature increase, and (2) optimum levels of other resources, especially N and water. [One interesting conclusion we might draw is that much of the crop yields experienced in the past 50 years must be due to increased [CO2] and not just breeding and improved management, as usually assumed.]

Example of case

CROP ECOLOGY