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Renewable Energy in Global Perspective

World Environment Day: Green Economy

June 5th 2012


Center for Biodiversity and Conservation - SALU

Engr. Khalil Raza Bhatti

Content
Introduction Shift to Renewables Renewable Energies Forms Applications Storage Facility Fuel Cells and Compressed Energy Statistics Conclusion

History: 300 Hundred Years of Fossil Fuels


Big Bang Birth of Earth Middle age: people run out of firewood Started burning surface coal Surface coal ran out Miners dig deep coal mines filled with water Thomas Newcomen invents steam engine to pump water to ease miners to dig the coal James Watt use that engine for other applications and electricity production. Rails introduced to transport coal Rails and steam engines combined make a rail road

First Electric Motor by Faraday Alternating Current by Tesla Companies started generating electrcity as a utiltiy Edwin Drake drills the first petroleum in Pennsylvania. Daimler Builds an Autmobile Wright Brothers Fritz Hater and Carl Bosch

Food Production Increased WW I: first fossil fuel conflict WW II: Guided Missiles and Atom Bombs Depression due to Overproduction Advertising and consumerism introduced Oil Shock in 70s Personal Computers and Globalization Environmental Problems

Where are we Headed?


Shortage of foods, water and energy. Unstable Economy and unemployment

Human Population Carbon Fossil fueled base economy Growing Consumption Cant print more money

Shift to Renewable Energy


Learn to live without fossil fuels Adapt to the end of economic growth as we have known it Supports seven billions humans and stabilize population at a sustainable level.

Can we do it?

Overview
Current Global Consumption 1 billion rich people use electric equivalent of 2 kWe/person 5 billion poor people use 0.6 kWe/person Now (2 kWe/person 6 billion people) 12 TWe NEEDED GLOBAL POWER By 2050 10 billion prosperous people will need 20 Twe Power must be clean, safe, affordable, dependable, & sustainable

Renewable Energy
Any sustainable energy source that comes from natural environment It exists in abundant in the environment Ready to be harnessed, inexhustible It is Clean Alternative to Fossil Fuels Energy that is derived from natural process that are replenished constantly

Renewable Energy Sources


Hydro Energy Wind Energy Solar Energy Biomass Energy Tidal Energy Geothermal Energy Wave Energy Bio-fuel

Hydroelectricity

Derived from the energy of falling water. Conventional Hydroelectrics Run of the River Small Hydro : 10 MW Micro Hydro : Few to 100 KW Pumped Storage

Hydroelectricity Potential

World Gen. Capacity: 3,427 terawatt-hours (2010) Largest Producer: 721 TW (China) 16 % of Global Electricity Consumption Pakistan Gen. Capacity: 6464 MW 11 % of Pakistan Electricity Consumption Tarbela Mangla Warsak - Chashma 3046 MW 1000 MW 240 MW 184 MW

Wind Power

Conversion of Kinetic Energy of Wind to Mechanical, Electrical and Thermal Sail Boats, Water Pumps and Electricity Offshore/Onshore Wind Turbines: Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines (HAWT) Vertical Axis Wind Turbines (VAWT)

Horizontal vs Vertical Wind Turbines

( R )A vertical axis Twisted Savonius type turbine.

HAWT = 7.58 MW by Enercon High Wind Speed High RPM

VAWT = 3.8 MW by Chap Chat Qubec Wind from any Direction Low wind Speed and RPM

Wind Power

Global Total Installed Capacity : 238,351 MW 2.5 % of total world power. Largest producer: 62,000 MW (China) Growth 25 % annually

Pakistan Installed Capacity Total: 50 MW (OnGrid) Ghar-Keti Bandar: Wind Corridor 50000 MW Wind Potential: 346 GW (Source: NREL) Jhimpir Project 50 MW Jhampir Wind Energy Project 50 MW FFC

Wind

First On-Grid Wind Power 50 MW

Solar Energy

Solar power is the conversion of sunlight into electricity, either directly using photovoltaics (PV), or indirectly using concentrated solar power (CSP) Source: SUN

Inexhaustible
Pollution Free and Clean Free Energy

Solar Energy Cont.


Photovoltaic PV Cells

Solar Thermal or Concentric Solar Power

Photovoltaic

Semiconductors When a photon hits the panel, it has enough energy to knock an electron loose, allowing it to flow freely. The panel then has several electrical fields to force the electrons to move in a certain direction, creating a current which can be used to do work.

Growing Trend In Khairpur

Solar Thermal / Concentric Solar Power


lenses and tracking systems to focus a large area of sunlight into a small beam. Heat beam is focused as a heat source as conventional power plant. Types: concentrating linear Fresnel reflector parabolic trough Stirling dish solar power tower

Stirling Dish

Stand-alone parabolic reflector that concentrates light onto a receiver positioned at the reflector's focal point. Temperature Range: 250700 C

Fresnel Reflector

Made of many thin, flat mirror strips to concentrate sunlight onto tubes through which working fluid is pumped. Cheaper but less efficient then Parabolic Troughs

Solar Trough

Consists of a linear parabolic reflector that concentrates light onto a receiver positioned along the reflector's focal line. Temperature Range: 150 to 350 C

Solar Tower

Uses an array of dual-axis tracking reflectors (heliostats) that concentrate sunlight on a central receiver atop a tower Temperature Range: 5001000 C

Biomass
Biological material from living, or recently living organisms. Carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. Sources: garbage, wood, waste, landfill gases, and alcohol fuels Industrial biomass: Miscanthus, Switchgrass, hemp , corn, poplar, willow, sorghum, sugarcane, and a variety of tree species i.e. eucalyptus or oil palm

Biomass Cont.
Estimated potential of biogas production: 8.8 to 17.2 billion m3 (equiv. to 55 to 106 TWh of energy equal to Pakistan current total power requirements) Additionally an estimate electricity production from biogas: 5700 GWh (6.6% of Pakistan current power generation)
Source: Study of Energy Economics and Policy ETH Zurich

Tidal Power
Converts the energy of tides into useful forms of power. Generating Methods: a) Tidal stream generator b) Tidal barrage c) Dynamic tidal power Pakistan Coastline: 1050 KMs Tides are more predictable than wind energy and solar power

Tidal Power

Constrains: Ecological Corrosion

Geothermal
Thermal energy generated and stored in the Earth Originates from the original formation of the planet (20%) and from radioactive decay of minerals (80%) Worlds Capacity: 10,959.7 MW Temperatures may reach over 5000 deg C. Cost effective, reliable, sustainable, and environmentally friendly Plate tectonics

Fuel Cells

A fuel cell is a device that generates electricity by a chemical reaction Basic Fuel: Hydrogen and Oxygen. Products: Electricity, Water and Heat Consist of an anode , a cathode and an electrolyte that allows charges to move between the two sides of the fuel cell Efficiency: 40-60%, or up to 85% efficient if waste heat is captured for use

Fuel Cells Types


Proton exchange membrane fuel cells High temperature fuel cells: Solid oxide fuel cells Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells Applications: Power Cogenerations Vehicles

Hybrid Vehicles

Vehicle that uses two or more distinct power sources to move the vehicle Uses both Internal Combustion Engine and Electric Motor Better fuel economy than a conventional vehicle, or better performance. Fuel mileage 50 % more then conventional vehicles

Storage for Renewable Energy

Battery: Is one or more electrochemical cells that convert stored chemical energy into electrical energy Largest Battery: 140 MW Storage (China)

Compressed Air Energy


Is a way to store energy generated at one time for use at another time Energy generated during periods of low energy demand (off peak) can be released to meet higher demand

Integrated Wind Compressed Air Energy


Conventional
Wind Turbine Generator Batteries Load

Integrated
Wind Turbine
Compressed Air Storage Pneumatic Motor

Generator

Compressor

Load

Wind + Compressed Air Energy Storage

Demonstration

Electricity Outlook: 2000 - 2025

Price Chart

Annual % Growth Rate

Conclusion

Changing to different energy sources will require us to redesign cities, manufacturing processes, health care and more. Plan a transition that supports robust communities of healthy, creativity of people and ecosystems with million of species. coordination and aligned decisions between relevant agencies of GoP required (AEDB, NEPRA, MoW&P, MoP&NRS etc.) to improve investment in Renewable Energ