Renewable Energy in Global Perspective

World Environment Day: Green Economy

June 5th 2012
Center for Biodiversity and Conservation - SALU

Engr. Khalil Raza Bhatti

Content
• • • • • • • • Introduction Shift to Renewables Renewable Energies Forms Applications Storage Facility Fuel Cells and Compressed Energy Statistics Conclusion

History: 300 Hundred Years of Fossil Fuels
• Big Bang • Birth of Earth • Middle age: people run out of firewood • Started burning surface coal • Surface coal ran out • Miners dig deep coal mines filled with water • Thomas Newcomen invents steam engine to pump water to ease miners to dig the coal • James Watt use that engine for other applications and electricity production. • Rails introduced to transport coal • Rails and steam engines combined make a rail road

• First Electric Motor by Faraday • Alternating Current by Tesla • Companies started generating electrcity as a utiltiy • Edwin Drake drills the first petroleum in Pennsylvania. • Daimler Builds an Autmobile • Wright Brothers • Fritz Hater and Carl Bosch

• Food Production Increased • WW I: first fossil fuel conflict • WW II: Guided Missiles and Atom Bombs • Depression due to Overproduction • Advertising and consumerism introduced • Oil Shock in 70s • Personal Computers and Globalization • Environmental Problems

Where are we Headed?
• Shortage of foods, water and energy. • Unstable Economy and unemployment

• • • • •

Human Population Carbon Fossil fueled base economy Growing Consumption Can’t print more money

Shift to Renewable Energy
• Learn to live without fossil fuels • Adapt to the end of economic growth as we have known it • Supports seven billions humans and stabilize population at a sustainable level.

Can we do it?

Overview
Current Global Consumption 1 billion “rich” people use electric equivalent of ≥2 kWe/person 5 billion “poor” people use ≤0.6 kWe/person Now (≥2 kWe/person • 6 billion people) ≥ 12 TWe NEEDED GLOBAL POWER By 2050 10 billion prosperous people will need ≥ 20 Twe Power must be clean, safe, affordable, dependable, & sustainable

• • • • •

Renewable Energy
• Any sustainable energy source that comes from natural environment • It exists in abundant in the environment • Ready to be harnessed, inexhustible • It is Clean Alternative to Fossil Fuels • Energy that is derived from natural process that are replenished constantly

Renewable Energy Sources
• • • • • • Hydro Energy Wind Energy Solar Energy Biomass Energy Tidal Energy Geothermal Energy • Wave Energy • Bio-fuel

Hydroelectricity

• • • • • •

Derived from the energy of falling water. Conventional Hydroelectrics Run of the River Small Hydro : 10 MW Micro Hydro : Few to 100 KW Pumped Storage

Hydroelectricity Potential

World • Gen. Capacity: 3,427 terawatt-hours (2010) • Largest Producer: 721 TW (China) • 16 % of Global Electricity Consumption Pakistan • Gen. Capacity: 6464 MW • 11 % of Pakistan Electricity Consumption • Tarbela – Mangla – Warsak - Chashma 3046 MW 1000 MW 240 MW 184 MW

Wind Power

• Conversion of Kinetic Energy of Wind to Mechanical, Electrical and Thermal • Sail Boats, Water Pumps and Electricity • Offshore/Onshore • Wind Turbines: Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines (HAWT) Vertical Axis Wind Turbines (VAWT)

Horizontal vs Vertical Wind Turbines

( R )A vertical axis Twisted Savonius type turbine.

HAWT = 7.58 MW by Enercon High Wind Speed High RPM

VAWT = 3.8 MW by Chap Chat – Qubec Wind from any Direction Low wind Speed and RPM

Wind Power

• • • •

Global Total Installed Capacity : 238,351 MW 2.5 % of total world power. Largest producer: 62,000 MW (China) Growth 25 % annually

Pakistan • Installed Capacity Total: 50 MW (OnGrid) • Ghar-Keti Bandar: Wind Corridor 50000 MW • Wind Potential: 346 GW (Source: NREL)  Jhimpir Project – 50 MW  Jhampir Wind Energy Project – 50 MW –FFC

Wind

•First On-Grid Wind Power • 50 MW

Solar Energy

• Solar power is the conversion of sunlight into electricity, either directly using photovoltaics (PV), or indirectly using concentrated solar power (CSP) • Source: SUN

• Inexhaustible
• Pollution Free and Clean • Free Energy

Solar Energy Cont.
Photovoltaic PV Cells

Solar Thermal or Concentric Solar Power

Photovoltaic

• Semiconductors • When a photon hits the panel, it has enough energy to knock an electron loose, allowing it to flow freely. • The panel then has several electrical fields to force the electrons to move in a certain direction, creating a current which can be used to do work.

Growing Trend In Khairpur

Solar Thermal / Concentric Solar Power
• lenses and tracking systems to focus a large area of sunlight into a small beam. • Heat beam is focused as a heat source as conventional power plant. Types: • concentrating linear Fresnel reflector • parabolic trough • Stirling dish • solar power tower

Stirling Dish

• Stand-alone parabolic reflector that concentrates light onto a receiver positioned at the reflector's focal point. • Temperature Range: 250–700 °C

Fresnel Reflector

•Made of many thin, flat mirror strips to concentrate sunlight onto tubes through which working fluid is pumped. •Cheaper but less efficient then Parabolic Troughs

Solar Trough

• Consists of a linear parabolic reflector that concentrates light onto a receiver positioned along the reflector's focal line. •Temperature Range: 150 to 350 °C

Solar Tower

• Uses an array of dual-axis tracking reflectors (heliostats) that concentrate sunlight on a central receiver atop a tower • Temperature Range: 500–1000 °C

Biomass
• Biological material from living, or recently living organisms. • Carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. • Sources: garbage, wood, waste, landfill gases, and alcohol fuels • Industrial biomass: Miscanthus, Switchgrass, hemp , corn, poplar, willow, sorghum, sugarcane, and a variety of tree species i.e. eucalyptus or oil palm

Biomass Cont.
• Estimated potential of biogas production: 8.8 to 17.2 billion m3 (equiv. to 55 to 106 TWh of energy equal to Pakistan current total power requirements) • Additionally an estimate electricity production from biogas: 5700 GWh (6.6% of Pakistan current power generation)
Source: Study of Energy Economics and Policy ETH Zurich

Tidal Power
• Converts the energy of tides into useful forms of power. • Generating Methods: a) Tidal stream generator b) Tidal barrage c) Dynamic tidal power • Pakistan Coastline: 1050 KMs • Tides are more predictable than wind energy and solar power

Tidal Power

• Constrains: Ecological Corrosion

Geothermal
• Thermal energy generated and stored in the Earth • Originates from the original formation of the planet (20%) and from radioactive decay of minerals (80%) • World’s Capacity: 10,959.7 MW • Temperatures may reach over 5000 deg C. • Cost effective, reliable, sustainable, and environmentally friendly • Plate tectonics

Fuel Cells

• A fuel cell is a device that generates electricity by a chemical reaction • Basic Fuel: Hydrogen and Oxygen. • Products: Electricity, Water and Heat • Consist of an anode , a cathode and an electrolyte that allows charges to move between the two sides of the fuel cell • Efficiency: 40-60%, or up to 85% efficient if waste heat is captured for use

Fuel Cells Types
• Proton exchange membrane fuel cells • High temperature fuel cells: Solid oxide fuel cells Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells • Applications: Power Cogenerations Vehicles

Hybrid Vehicles

• Vehicle that uses two or more distinct power sources to move the vehicle • Uses both Internal Combustion Engine and Electric Motor • Better fuel economy than a conventional vehicle, or better performance. • Fuel mileage 50 % more then conventional vehicles

Storage for Renewable Energy

• Battery: Is one or more electrochemical cells that convert stored chemical energy into electrical energy • Largest Battery: 140 MW Storage (China)

Compressed Air Energy
• Is a way to store energy generated at one time for use at another time • Energy generated during periods of low energy demand (off peak) can be released to meet higher demand

Integrated Wind – Compressed Air Energy
Conventional
Wind Turbine Generator Batteries Load

Integrated
Wind Turbine
Compressed Air Storage Pneumatic Motor

Generator

Compressor

Load

Wind + Compressed Air Energy Storage

Demonstration

Electricity Outlook: 2000 - 2025

Price Chart

Annual % Growth Rate

Conclusion

• Changing to different energy sources will require us to redesign cities, manufacturing processes, health care and more. • Plan a transition that supports robust communities of healthy, creativity of people and ecosystems with million of species. • coordination and aligned decisions between relevant agencies of GoP required (AEDB, NEPRA, MoW&P, MoP&NRS etc.) to improve investment in Renewable Energ

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