TOPICS OF DISCUSSION

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CONCEPT OF GOVERNING SYSTEM FEATURES OF KWU GOVERNING SYSTEM OVERVIEW OF GOVERNING RACK FUNCTIONING OF EHC CIRCUITS FREE GOVERNOR MODE OPERATION BEST PRACTICES IN GOVERNING SYSTEM EMERGENCIES IN GOVERNING SYSTEM ANY OTHER ISSUES

WHAT IS GOVERNING SYSTEM ?

Turbine Governing system is meant for regulation of turbine speed under no load and varying load condition. It helps in precise control of grid frequency under normal operation and protects the machine as well as grid during emergency situation.

KWU GOVERNING SYSTEM-FEATURES
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ELECTRO-HYDRAULIC GOVERNING SYSTEM WITH HYDRAULIC BACKUP OPERATION OF STOP VALVES BY STARTING & LOAD LIMITING DEVICE (HYDRAULIC) ROLLING, SYNCHRONIZATION & LOAD OPERATION BY HYDRAULIC / ELECTRO- HYDRAULIC SYSTEM ELECTRO- HYDRAULIC SPEED GOVERNOR WITH HYDRAULIC BACK UP SAFE SHUTDOWN BY HYDRAULIC / ELECTROHYDRAULIC SYSTEM ELECTRICAL AND HYDRAULIC PROTECTION SYSTEM ALONG WITH TEST FACILITIES

HYDRAULIC CONVERTER

FEATURES OF EHC
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AUTO ROLLING & SYNCHRONIZATION THROUGH SPEED CONTROLLER UNDER INFLUENCE OF TSE CONSTANT LOAD OPERATION BY LOAD CONTR. WITH PRESSURE CONTR. AS BACKUP RUNBACK OPERATION THROUGH PRESSURE CONTR. EMERGENCY OPERATION THROUGH SPEED CONTR. AUTO GRID FREQUENCY CONTROL THROUGH EXTERNAL FREQUENCY INFLUENCE AUTO UNLOADING AT HIGH FREQUENCY THROUGH INTERNAL FREQUENCY INFLUENCE CONTROL DURING AUTOMATIC TURBINE TESTING, ISOLATED GRID CONDITION & LSR OPERATION

SPEED CONTROLLER CIRCUIT
1
R M L SETTER GRD STOP

6
FAST

nr

DELAY ELEMENT

nr limit n act

+ + SPEED CONTROLLER

hrnc (+ 10.0 v)

6
+ TRACKING CIRCUIT

3
0.0 V

4

NLC

MV3
Speed signal (0 to 3600 RPM ~ 0 to 10 .8 v)

6 2

SPEED CONTROLLER O/P

NLC

5

n act – 120 RPM n act + 21
RPM

MINIMUM OF 10.0 V UPPER STRESS MARGIN

DRUM PRESSURE

R & L – Raise & Lower command from UCB :

nr – Speed Reference : nr limit – Delayed Speed Reference :

Logic1

NLC – No Load Correction (Ensures required Speed controller O/P for Rolling even when Speed reference n r matches n act.)

n act – Actual Speed : hr nc – Speed Controller O/P with DROOP of + / - 10.0 V for nr lim ~ n act = 150 RPM ( GAIN = 22)

LOAD SET POINT GENERATION CIRCUIT
CMC RUNBACK

ep
R CMC L M

6

OR
FAST DELAY ELEMENT

Pr
SETTER

Pr limit
STOP

+ -

MIN Pr MAX
SETTER

Sigma Pr

1

GRD

Pr delta f
7

+/- 10 V R L

2

+/5 10 V
Frequency signal MIN Upper & Lower Stress Margin 3

R

L

DP/Dt
SETTER 4

R – Raise command L– Lower command Pr – Load set point Pr lim – Delayed load set point Pr max – Load limit Sigma Pr – Final Load set point DP / Dt – Load gradient Pr delta f – External frequency influenced Load reference Ep – Megawatt error (Pr ~ P actual)

1 – SET POINT FOLLOW UP when Automatic Grid Control or CMC In service (Other Raise / Lower commands get blocked) 2 -- TSE ENABLING when A) GCB is closed AND B) Load controller (L C) not OFF AND C) Fast calibration signal 6 absent D) AND

Logic2

I) Load controller (L C) in control OR ii) Pressure controller with initial pressure in action OR iii) Turbine follow mode in service

This helps to bring manually adjusted gradient and stress effect in service. +/- 10 V gradient => +/- 25 MW / MIN for 200 MW units OR +/- 50 MW / MIN for 500 MW units.

LOAD CONTROLLER CIRCUIT
Frequency Signal 5% DROOP + P act (0 – 10 V) +1V 8 + 50 + Σ Pr Gains - 10 V +1 TO TRANSFER CKT ONLY

hr Pc
+ 0.1
(+/- 10 V)

9

MV 3

hr Pc hr nc hr min hr Prc

+

100 % Load Set point

LOAD SIGNALS

h Vu
+

Unloading Droop (5%)

Σ Pr

h V0

f

Frequency

(f + 2.5) Hz

P act
Σ Pr

--

Actual load

-- Final Load set point -- Load controller output

Hr Pc

Hr Prc -- Pressure controller output Hrnc -- Speed controller output Hr min -- Selected output from Speed & load controller

Logic3

PRESSURE CONTROLLER CIRCUIT
4V ( Lower limit )
-

Set Pressure ( 0- 250 BAR ) Pr ( 0-10V ) Actual Pressure ( 0-250 BAR ), Pact ( 0-10V )

+

0.4 V (10 BAR)

+1 + 0.1

Gain

hr Pr c ( +4V to + 10 V )

Initial Pressure Mode

Lower limit of 4V (adjustable) does not allow the Pressure controller output (hr Prc) to come to very low value; interference with Speed controller is also avoided.

Addition of 0.4 V in limit pressure mode helps to saturate Pressure controller output when Load controller is brought in service. This also helps to bring Pressure controller in service when Pressure drops 10 ksc from set point in Load controller mode.

EHC TRANSFER CIRCUIT
hrpc hrnc
M A X

M I N

hr min

M I N

hr
0 to 10 v
+

ha
B

+

+10 v

OSC

hrprc

+ P/A PLUNGER COIL ON

EHC PLUN GER COIL

+

COLLINS 1 FEEDBACK M I COLLINS 1 FEEDBACK N

0 to -10 v
DESK INDICATION (EHC FEEDBACK)

O SC–

Over Speed Channel for m/c unloading when frequency increases above the limit of speed reference tracking

hr min – Selected o/p from Speed & Load controller hrFinal controller output (EHC output) Collins feedback - Position of ElectrohydraulicAmplifier Piston(Governing Rack) P/A – Position / Admission controller ha – Admission controller output BElectronic card which produces balance voltage for EHC plunger coil, which is ideally
adjusted = -1.0 v

FGMO – BACKGROUND
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Unique frequency band of 49.0 Hz to 50.5 Hz, as specified by IEGC Scheduling & dispatch by RLDCs/SLDCs is based on day ahead demand & availability Frequency control by load-generation balance in every 15 mins time block Wide frequency variation during Grid disturbance, Unit outage, change in demand, etc. No primary response by generators to maintain frequency under such system contingency Emergencies caused due to frequency control only through importing /cutting load by system operator

FGMO – GRID CODES

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All generating units should have their speed governors in normal operation at all times to enable Grid frequency control by loading / unloading Droop characteristic for primary response should be within 3% to 6% Each unit shall be capable of instantaneously picking up at least 5% extra load for a minimum of 5 mins (up to 105%MCR), during fall in frequency No dead bands and/or time delays shall be deliberately introduced Facilities like load limiters, CMC, etc. shall not be used to suppress the normal governor action

IMPLEMENTATION OF FGMO
In line with clause Clause 1.6 of IEGC and CERC order dated 30-10-99, date of FGMO implementation, as decided by REBs are :Western Region - 19-05-03 ( ABT – 01-07-02 ) Southern Region - 01-08-03 ( ABT – 01-01-03 ) Northern Region - 01-10-03 ( ABT – 01-12-02 ) Nor-East Region - 22-12-03 ( ABT – 01-11-03 ) Eastern Region – 02-01-04 ( ABT – 01-04-03 )

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FGMO CHARACTERISTIC FOR KWU M/C
MW (+)
+200 (+80)

. Changed Setting

+75 (+30)
5 0 37 .50 . 0 0. 50 50 5
52 0 .5

25 6 2. 5

49.00 5% DROOP (± 2.5Hz.) 0.5 Hz. = 100MW (40) 0.1 Hz. = 20MW (8)

49.625 -75 (-30) -100(-40) -500 (-200)

Hz. Manufac. Setting

(-)

UNIT RESPONSE UNDER FGMO

Wide and frequent variation of freq. Perpetual oscillations in critical parameters due to Boiler response time M/C subjected to cyclic loading and fatigue stresses Frequent HP/LP Bypass valve operation Continuous manual interventions Self-defeating feature(Unloading when freq. improving towards 50 Hz) Conflict with ABT(Offsetting freq. correction)

MAJOR ISSUES EVOLVED

MODIFIED FGMO SCHEME
Technical committee constituted by CEA submitted report to CERC in Nov,04 Subsequently the Member(Thermal) suggested few changes Modified scheme implemented in CMC circuit and tested in Simhadri in Dec,04 All NTPC coal stations are directed to implement the modified scheme

MODIFIED FGMO - OBJECTIVES
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Frequency Droop of 5% to 10% (49HZ TO 50.5HZ) Floating frequency set point with tracking of frequency @ 0.02 Hz/min Deletion of holding circuit Limited response of + 5% within frequency range of 49.0Hz to 50.5Hz Above 50.5Hz, load reduction can be 10% up to technical minimum Deletion of feed forward signal to Boiler Preferred mode without varying fuel to Boiler Parametric variation within + 1% with tuning

IMPLEMENTATION IN EHC PANEL
BE 163 X24 Z10

R 11

D18

Z14 (-15V) AVB 11.3 BP 035

BL 051 D4

BH 107 X21 B4 (+) D14 D26 X12 B22 (-) AVG 11.1 D22

X14 D22 (+) D6

X24

BH 027 D22 (+) X24

n act
D18

X21 D2 D6

f0
AFU 12 D8 AVB 11.2 (RAMP

B24 (-) AVG 11.2

AFZ 11.1 AFZ 11

(-) AVG 11 BL 059

GENERATOR) Z8 R13 B6 D22 X22

X11 DROOP (8%)

X25 B20

R12

B14(+15V) AVG 11.6 AFL 11

Z14(-15V) AVB 11.4 AVG 11 (COMPARATOR)

Wiring

AVB 11 (LIMITER MODULE)

UNIT RESPONSE UNDER MODIFIED FGMO

BEST PRACTICES IN POWER SYSTEM
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Replacement of critical fuses of power supply panels during each overhauling Load testing of ATRS power packs(AKS11) Checking and replacement of failure-prone capacitors of ATRS cards Checking of healthiness of system ground connections and reference potential Checking of ATRS panel bus terminal tightness Regular monitoring of healthiness of ATRS power supply systems Ensuring voltage level within 10% above rated voltage at ATRS panel end

BEST PRACTICES IN CONTROL SYSTEM

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Checking of EHC and TSE card settings during overhauling Adjustment of Plunger coil balance voltage and Collins feedback Cleaning of pilot valves of HP/IP control valves Cleaning of Duplex and Simplex Plate filters of Governing Rack Checking of EHC and Hydraulic Governing characteristics with Tracking OFF and ON condition and control valves calibration checking

BEST PRACTICES IN OPERATION
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PHYSICAL INSPECTION OF VALVE ROOM AND GOVERNING RACK AUTO ROLLING AND SYNCHRONISATION(SGC) PERIODIC CHECKING OF TRIP DEVICES(ATT) DAILY ROTATION OF DUPLEX & SIMPLEX FILTERS IN GOVERNING RACK PERIODIC CHECKING OF AVAILABILITY OF AOP AND JOP DAILY CHECKING OF AVAILABILITY OF EOP EMERGECY HANDLING THROUGH LAID DOWN PROCEDURE

EMERGENCY IN GOVERNING SYSTEM
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FAILURE OF POWER PACKS OF CONTROLLER RACKS IN EHC PANEL POWER SUPPLY FAILURE IN ATRS PANEL SIGNAL ACQUISITION PROBLEM FAILURE IN TURBINE SYSTEM ELECTRICAL SYSTEM FAILURE COMPONENT FAILURE IN GOVERNING RACK OPERATIONAL EMERGENCY

CONTROL RACK SUPPLY FAILURE
M/C is on EHC. Power supply fails in Load control/Pressure control / transfer circuit rack. Starting device becomes off automatically due to EHC fault. Observation: EHC output is minimum/zero and load minimum/ zero with EHC fault alarm. Machine on bar with ESV & IV open (Turbine not tripped). Action: Confirm HP/LP bypass opening, isolate EHC from governing rack and parallely adjust starting device position from UCB. Reduce boiler firing to restrict rise in boiler pressure.

SUPPLY FAILURE IN ATRS PANEL
M/C is on EHC. Power supply fails in CCA panels only. Observation: All indication lamps in ATRS consoles will go off. EHC output and Load will become zero due loss of GCB close feedback. All ATRS drives will become inoperative. Action: Confirm HP/LP bypass opening , isolate EHC. Reduce boiler firing. Adjust starting device position from local. Normalize power supply in CCA panels at the earliest.

SIGNAL ACQUISITION PROBLEM
Loss of speed signal occurs due to Hall Probe / card failure. Observation: Speed indication will become zero. M/C will be loaded through speed controller. Subsequently Pressure controller will come in service. AOP & JOP will take auto start & Barring Gear valve Will open on auto. Action: Isolate EHC and adjust Starting device position. If pressure oil pressure is normal, make SLC of AOP, JOP and Barring Gear vlv OFF and stop AOP, JOP and close Barring Gear vlv.

FAILURE IN TURBINE SYSTEM
Loss of speed signal occurs due to breakage of MOP shaft. Observation: Speed indication and pressure oil pressure will come down. M/C will be loaded through speed controller and Pressure controller will come in service. Subsequently, AOP & JOP will take auto start &Barring Gear valve. will open on auto.

Action: Safe shutdown of M/C is to be ensured.

ELECTRICAL SYSTEM FAILURE

M/C is on EHC with Tracking on. Starting device becomes inoperative due to Electrical module trouble/motor failure/overload.

Observation: During increase in boiler firing, Boiler pressure will increase due to load restriction by Starting device. EHC output will go to 100%. Action: Switch off the electrical module of Starting device and increase Starting device position from local so that EHC can take control.

FAILURE IN GOVRRNING RACK
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EHC Plunger coil failure EHC Pilot valve bearing failure

Observation: EHC starts hunting Action: Isolate EHC and take Hydraulic mode in service. Replace the failed omponent. Governing characteristic checking should be done before EHC is put in service

FAILURE IN GOVRRNING RACK

Speeder Gear spring tension gets altered.

Observation: M/C may get unloaded at frequency lower than recommended value. Action: Speeder Gear spring tension may be adjusted to increase the start of unloading.Testing for proper setting should be checked during suitable opportunity.

OPERATIONAL EMERGENCY

M/C is just synchronized in Speed control

mode and changed over to Load controller. Load above block load is not stabilized due to low drum pressure operation. Observation: EHC will get saturated(100%). Load controller may changeover to speed controller when M/C will be unloaded. Action: Isolate EHC.Stabilize load in Hydraulic mode and then put EHC in service

OPERATIONAL EMERGENCY

M/C is on EHC. Unloading takes place due to restriction by TSE margin.

Observation: TSE indicator will show abnormal margins and load will come down. Speed controller will be active if load comes below 10%(block load). Action: Isolate EHC to take M/C on Hydraulic mode. Decrease load for stabilization.

SPEED CONTROLLER LOGICS
1 Command for slow rate at nr > 2850 RPM to facilitate easy synchronisation

2

TSE Influence ON, when min of all the upper stress margins comes into picture to control gradient of nr lim and hence, acceleration of Rolling speed. Upper stress margin = 30 deg C => 10.0 V => 600 RPM ~ (Acceleration < 108 RPM ~ causes dn / dt tripping)

3

Stopping of nr lim when a) GCB open AND b) n act is < nr lim by approx. 45 RPM. This restricts hr nc up to around 30 % during Rolling to avoid wide v/v opening.

4

Stopping speed set point control when, a) n act > 2850 RPM AND b) nr raised ( I.e, nr > nr lim) AND c) I) TSE ON and faulted in GCB open condition

OR ii) Stop command from SGC in SGC ON condition.

SPEED CONTROLLER LOGICS
5 Tracking in synchronized condition if a) Frequency within limit (adjustable, say 48.5 to 51.5 Hz.) b) Load controller O/P , hr pc > hr nc AND c) I) Load controller (L C) in control OR ii)Pressure controller in action 6 Set Point Follow Up (Fast Calibration) during a) Tracking condition 5 ( nr = n act + 21 RPM ) OR b) Turbine Trip ( nr = n act – 120 RPM ). Simultaneously nr lim immediately equals to nr Condition (a) ensures certain speed controller O/P during emergency to keep machine in rolled condition along with some load. Condition (b) ensures negative speed controller O/P during Trip condition. AND

LOAD CONTROLLER (L C) IN CONTROL CONDITIONS – a) Speed OR Pressure Controller not in action AND b) Isolated Grid condition absent AND

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c) Both Load Controller OFF and Schedule OFF absent (I.e, L C ON) LOAD CONTROLLER SCHEDULE OFF – L C can be made OFF if Speed controller is in action and hrnc > hr pc. Otherwise, with OFF command OFF lamp blinks – called Schedule OFF

LOAD SET POINT GENERATION LOGICS
3
4

-- TSE ON AND NOT FAULTED
This helps to keep stress effect for gradient control in service. -- LOAD GRADIENT ON This helps to keep manual gradient control in service

5

-- STOP POWER SET POINT CONTROL when a) TSE ON and Faulted OR

b) Stop command from SGC OR c) Pr raised when Pressure controller is in action with CMC ON OR Limit pressure mode selected OR Boiler follow mode selected In above conditions Pr lim stops, I.e,Set point can not be increased. 6 -- FAST CALIBRATION when a) Pressure controller is in action OR

b) Follow above (h v0) condition present Under this condition MW error (ep) is selected and Pr lim immediately equals to Actual load (P act) without any gradient . 7 -- FREQUENCY INFLUENCE ON This is made ON from ATRS panel to put EXTERNAL FREQUENCY EFFECT in service for loading / unloading w.r.t. 50 Hz ( with 2.5 % to 8 % Frequency Droop) TSE TEST RELEASE : TSE TEST (For checking healthiness of TSE Margins) can be done when a) b) TSE Influence is OFF OR Both Pr, Pr lim and hr, hr lim are balanced, I.e, Speed and Power set point controls are not in action.

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LOAD CONTROLLER LOGICS
FOLLOW ABOVE ( h v0 ) -a) GCB closed and load < 10 % (station load) b) GCB open c) Load controller OFF Absence of these conditions help Load controller output to track above Pressure controller output when Pressure controller is in service. OR OR

FOLLOW LOW ( h vu ) – GCB CLOSED AND Speed controller in action. This helps Load controller output to track below Speed controller output.

8

-- Either a) Initial pressure mode selected b) Turbine follow mode in action c) CMC Runback active

OR OR

This ensures Load controller output above pressure controller output

9

-- Load controller OFF

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This defeats transmission of Load Controller output to Transfer circuit.

MODIFIED FGMO WIRING
IMPLEMENTATION IN: ATRS PANEL ( CJJ02 ) CARDS USED: 1) LIMITER MODULE AVB 11 AT LOCATION BE 163 SPARE CHANNELS - 2,3,4 2) RAMP MODULE AFZ 11 AT LOCATION BH 107 SPARE CHANNEL - 1 3) COMPARATOR MODULE AVG 11 AT LOCATION BP 035 SPARE CHANNEL – 1,2,6 WIRING DETAILS: REMOVE: CONNECT: BL 051-D18 BE 163-D4 BE 163-D8 BE 163-Z14 BE 163-Z14 BE 163-D6 BE 163-D6 BH 107-D26 BP 035-D20 BP 035-B24 BP 035-B14 BP 035-D6 BL 051-D18 TO TO TO TO TO TO TO TO TO TO TO TO TO BH 027-D22 BE 163 -D18 BE 163- B20 BE 163 -Z10 BE 163 -D22 BH 107-D14 BP 035-B4 BP 035-B22 BP 035-D22 BP 035-B6 BP 035-Z8 BH 027-D22 BE 163-D2

MODIFIED FGMO SETTINGS
1) 2) SPEED INPUT: MEASURE 0 TO –10V AT BL 051-X21 FOR INPUT 2800 RPM TO 3200 RPM LIMITER (49 HZ TO 50.5 HZ): MAKE S 2.1 ON AND S 2.4 ON IN AVB 11(BE 163) SET - 3.5 V AT BE163-X25 BY R12 (49 HZ) SET - 5.7 V AT BE163-X24 BY R11 (50.5 HZ) CONFIRM LIMITATION AT BE163-X21 3) FREQ. RAMP (0.04HZ/MIN/): MAKE S 2.3 ON, S 3 OFF AND S 4 OFF IN AFZ 11(BH 107) SET 30mV/MIN(FOR 0.02 HZ/MIN) AT BH 107-X12 BY -R12 FOR UPWARD & R13 FOR DOWNWARD RAMP 4) COMPARATOR (FREQ. DEVIATION): MEASURE FREQ. DEVIATION AT BP 035-X14 SET + 5 V AT BP 035-X22 BY R13 MEASURE 0 TO –10V AT BP 035-X24 5) DROOP (WITH + 5% RESPONSE): MEASURE FULL RESPONSE AT BH 027-X24 SET 8% DROOP AT BL 059 SET + 0.415V(FOR + 5% RESPONSE )AT BL 059-X11

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