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Give Wings to Imagination

Coordinator : Er.Harpreet Singh Aujula Presented by : Ratandeep Pandey Hriman Singh Khera

DETAILS AND CONSTRUCTION

How Wings Lift the Plane


Airplane wings are curved on the top which makes air move faster over the top wing. The slower air underneath the wing pushes up from below. The faster air pushes down from the top. This forces the wing to lift up into the air.

WING CONSTRUCTION
Several airfoils are cut from balsa wood These airfoils are connected using aluminium rod and balsa support rods The structure is partially covered with 1mm sheet balsa throughout the wing span Finally ailerons are attached to the wing.

What is SERVO
A "servo" is a generic term used for an automatic control system. comes from the Latin word "servus" - slave, It that means a mechanism that you can set and forget.

RC

servos are remote control devices servos typically employed in radio-controlled models.

How Does it works ?


RC servos are composed of an electric motor mechanically linked to a potentiometer. standard RC receiver sends pulse-width modulation A (PWM) signals to the servo. The electronics inside the servo translate the width of the pulse into a position. When the servo is commanded to rotate, the motor is powered until the potentiometer reaches the value corresponding to the commanded position.

Functioning of SERVO
The servo is controlled by three wires: 1. ground, 2. power, and 3. control. servo will move based on the pulses sent over the The control wire, which set the angle of the actuator arm. servo expects a pulse every 20 ms in order to gain The correct information about the angle. The width of the servo pulse dictates the range of the servo's angular motion.

Small R/C servo mechanism 1. electric motor 2. position feedback potentiometer 3. reduction gear 4. actuator arm

SERVOS
These are responsible for controls of RC Plane. The control parts ailerons, elevators, engine throttle and rudders are connected to the servos using push rods. All servos are connected to receiver. Rotation of servos (torque) on receiving signal from transmitter causes the movements of control parts.

AILERON SPECIFICATIONS
Length of aileron
Breadth of aileron The edges of the aileron were rounded to minimize drag effect.

MAKING TAIL
One point to be kept in mind while making the elevator and rudder is that their area too is to be included in the area of the tail and vertical stabilizer respectively.

VERTICAL STABILIZER AND RUDDER

FUSELAGE
In an aircraft reliability is a very important

issue. Hence the strength of the plane is a very critical issue and needed to be handled carefully.

FUSELAGE
To maintain the proper aerodynamic shape of the fuselage several scanners are set in the hind section of the fuselage. Between the scanners trusses are made. Similarly on the base we make trusses.
At

some places 6 mm balsa wood is also used to give strength.

FUSELAGE
Proper strength must be there because it must not break due to the vibrations of engine. Also, the part where Landing Gear have to be mounted must be very strong, so that it can take up the vibrations at the time of landing. These parts are made using double layers of 6 mm ply.

ENGINE
Engine types- IC engines, turbofan, turbojet,

electric etc. We use IC engine(OS 0.46 and OS 0.15) and electric engines. Engine mount is first fixed to the front of fuselage using nuts and bolts. Engine is attached to the mount.

WHEELS
(Landing gears)

FUEL TANK
We use a mixture of methanol and castor oil. Level of fuel tank must match the oil input valve. internal mechanics of a glow engine pulls fuel into the The carburetor and does not require a fuel pump

"T" coupler

FINDING THE POSITION OF WING


One of the most important thing is to find a suitable position for the wing. For if the centre of gravity of the entire system is not in between the aerodynamic centre and the tail then the plane will not be stable. We try to keep the position of centre of gravity at a distance of 0.1c to 0.2c from the aerodynamic centre. The aerodynamic centre is located at a distance of 0.25c (approximately) from the leading edge of the wing for subsonic speeds.

FIXING WING
The wing is attached to the fuselage with the help of thin rubber tubes. With this we can separate the two parts and change the position of the wing as per the requirements. Like we can use a engine of better capacity. But with that the weight will increase and so the position of centre of gravity will vary. So, we will have to readjust the wings position.

Dynamics of Flight
The ailerons raise and lower the wings. The roll of the plane is controls by raising one (right) aileron and lowers the other (left) aileron, rolls the aircraft to the right.

Picture of plane in roll

The rudder controls the yaw of the plane. They moves left and right. Moving the rudder to the right, yaws the aircraft to the

right. The rudder and the ailerons are used to turn the plane.

Picture of plane Yaw

The elevators are fixed on the tail section and are used to

control the pitch of the plane. The elevators can be raised and lowered. Lowering the elevators makes the plane nose go down and allows the plane to go down.

Picture of Plane Pitch

Each type of above mentioned motion helps control the direction and level of the plane.

COVERING