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MANAGERIAL BEHAVIOUR AND EFFECTIVENESS

INTRODUCTION: Mgt deals with people and managing others people for carrying out the task . People are required and they want always to manage oneself. Executives wanted themselves to make more effective by showing their talents . -are paid well and more for their effectiveness. -without effectiveness no performance Ability to perform and survive depends increasingly on the effectiveness of the people.

Mgt is a process of designing and maintaining an environment in which individuals , working together in groups, accomplish their aims effectively and efficiently. People individually are known as Managers A Manager is a person who performs the managerial functions.[POSDCC]

Managers are the individuals who practise the art of management.

In a typical business enterprise ,managers act as directors,managing directors , general managers,high-level,middle level and low-level managers.
The managers are also called the executives.

According to PETER .F. DRUCKER Mangement implies Effectiveness

Effectiveness involves a set of practices that can be learned .such practices include:
Mgt of time Focusing on employees and customer Building on strength Identifying priorities Making effective decisions.

According to HENRI FAYOL


Management involves process. Through which goals of organisations are attained by channeling the effort of employees.

-It is a continous process consisting of planning organising, staffing, directing and controlling.
-process mgt are inter-dependent and inter-related

Qualities of a Manager : In order to succeed in Managing ,a Manager should possess the following qualities: 1.Education 7.Technical knowledge 2.Training 8.Human relations attitude 3.Intelligence 9.Self-confidence. 4.Leadership 5.Foresight 6.Maturity

The Manager and his Job: - Any person who performs [POSDCC]these function is a called manager .

- The basic job of a manager is the effective utilisation of human and other resources to achieve organisational objectives. Every manager is concerned with
1.Management of ideas - implies use of conceptual skills. -distinct and scientific process. -Planning phase of management -creativity and innovation.

2.Management of things( non- human resources): -Deals with the design of production system and acquisition, allocation and conversion of physical resources to achieve certain goals. 3.Management of people : -is concerned with the procurement , development, maintenance and integration of human resources in the organisation.

Managerial job-Descriptive Dimensions: Generally the major activity of a manager includes *Managing and interacting with people, *coaching low performers to improve their work, *organizing job task, *settling disputes and developing career path for individual employees.

*They make decisions,


*Allocates resources, and direct the activities of others to attain goals. *They function on a relatively continuous basis to achieve a common goal or a set of goals.

General functions of a manager : Planning: The planning function consisting of defining an organisational goals,

Establishing an overall strategy for achieving these goals and developing a comprehensive hierarchy of plans to integrate and coordinate activities.

Organising : *Managers are also responsible for designing an organisation structure. *It includes the determination of what tasks are to be done,how the tasks are to be grouped who reports to whom and where the decision are to be made .

In nut shell it deals with organisational design

Staffing: Every organisation contain people , and the manager job is to direct and coordinate the people to carry out the job. Directing: Manager motivates subordinates through effective communication . Coordination: For monitor the organisations performance.

Functional dimensions of job: According to Henri fayol

The Manager performs six major activities in a business enterprise


Technical(production,manufacturing) Commercial (buying , selling)or marketing . Financial(obtaining and using capitals) Security/human resource (protecting of property and persons ) Accounting (balance sheet, stock taking , costing) Managerial(POSDCC)

HENRY MINTZBERG ROLE DIMENSIONS:

ROLE :The behavioural paterns expected by a manager within an organisation or a unit . HENRY MINTZBERG-1973 conducted a comprehensive study on the nature of managerial roles .

Basic roles roles performed by a managers:

-Inter personal role -Informational role -Decisional role

Interpersonal Role: are as follows : 1.A manager is a symbol, or figurehead: This role is necessary because of the position occupied . It consists of such duties as signing certain documents required by law and officially receiving visitors. 2.A manager serves as a LEADER that is, he trains, encourages,remunerates , judges the subordinates . 3.A manager serves as a LIAISON between outside contacts such as the community , suppliers and others and the organisation.

Informational Roles :The informational roles found by Mintzberg are: 4.As MONITORS , managers gather information in order to be well informed. 5.Managers are DISSEMINATORS (transmit) of information flowing from both external and internal sources. 6.Managers are SPOKES-PERSONS or representatives of the organisation . They speak for subordinates to superiors and represent upper management to subordinates.

Decisional Roles :The decisional role of a manager are: 7.Managers as ENTREPRENEURS are initiators,innovators,problem discoverers, and designers of improvement projects that direct and control change in the organisation. 8.As DISTURBANCE HANDLERS, managers react to situations that are unexpected , such as mass absenteeism,resignation of subordinates , or losing of customers. 9.A third decisional role is that of RESOURCE ALLOCATOR,ie,approves budgets,schedules and programmes. 10.Managers are NEGOTIATORS .The mangers negotiate with customers,suppliers.

Gender leadership, and Managerial job dimension: 1. Task oriented skills are more important for leadership effectiveness than are person-oriented skills. 2. Male managers are more likely to possess task-oriented abilities than female.whereas female managers are more likely to possess person oriented skills than male managers.

3.Inorder to maximize managerial effectiveness , men should be given the jobs that require task oriented abilities and women should be given the jobs that require interpersonal skills. 4.If women want to rise to the top level of management , they need to be more like men.

Levels of manager : Refers to the line of demarcation between various managerial positions in a organisation.
Top

Middle Lower

Managerial skills:

Toplevel manager

Strategic planning and Decision making

Middle level managers Conceptual Skill idea Human skill person Lower level managers

Coodination and planning for implementation

Technical Skill job


implementation

Conceptual skills; Ability to see the organisation as a whole to recognise inter-relationships among different functions of the business and external force to guide. Conceptual skills are used for abstract thinking and concept development involved in planning and strategy formulation.

Human skill: Ability to work with , understand and motivate other persons. Technical skill: Ability to use the procedure , techniques and knowledge of specialised field.

FRED LUTHANS description of effective and successful managers: Fred luthans and his associates studied more than 450 managers and found that all managers are engaged in four different managerial activities. *Traditional management : Decision making, planning, and controlling. *Communication:Exchanging routine information and processing paper work. *HRM:motivating , disciplining, managing conflict,staffing.and trainning. *Networking: socializing, political, and interacting,with outsiders.

Various other job criteria dimension: Some of the other functions that a manager performs are Communication Listening Oral presentation Written communication etc.

Social responsibilities of managers and ethics to be followed: Responsibility towards shareholders. Responsibility towards consumer Responsibility towards employees Responsibility towards creditors Responsibility towards the government Responsibility towards suppliers Responsibility towards competitiors Responsibility towards general public. Eg: Tata group of companies took up social project as part of its corporate policy. Tata steel rural development society adopted 32 cluster of village around Jamshedpur initally,today it serves more than 800 villages in eight Dt of Bihar,Orissa and MP.

Time management
Time is the most valuable thing we deal with . It cannot be bought. It cannot be captured . It must be utilized with highest degree of effectiveness possible. Time is the most important resource . Unless it is managed nothing else can be managed.

Definition: Time management refers to a range of skills ,tools and techniques used to manage time when accomplishing specific tasks,projects and goals. The process of scheduling and organisation of time to determine how much time is required to complete multiple direct and indirect tasks and when such tasks are required . Eg: In education direct tasks consist of reading ,assignment,home work,projects, test preparation.

Benefits of time management 1.Control 2.Greater productivity 3.Confidence 4.Ability to meet goals 5.The opportunity to have fun and gain control over ones life

The objective of time management is to increase and optimize the use of your time effectively.
Time management relates to: Getting the best out of your time. Time management is the same as managing your life. Sets priorities as per time. Managing your mind and Awareness.

Major areas that help in the management of time: The five major areas ,which are imperative to improve the management of time are : *Habitual use of time . *Goal setting *Priorities . *Proper communication. *Procrastination(to postpone ,delay needlessly).

Principles of time management: Principle of Establishing goal Principle of Brevity Principle of habit Principle of Proper planning Principle of Prioritization Principle of Effectiveness Principle of Equal distribution Principle of Time estimate Principle of Delegation of authority Principle of Management of authority Principle of Proper implementation Principle of Follw-up

SOME OF THE TIME WASTERS

INTERNAL TIME WASTERS Poor communication Procrastination Inability to say No Inadequate planning Failure to delegate

EXTERNAL TIME WASTERS vistors meeting paper and correspondences telephone travel Information reading

Three laws of time & effort management : The law for planning our time The law for applying our effort The law for investing our talent.

DETERMINERS OF MANAGERIAL EFFECTIVENESS: Understanding effective managerial performance requires answer to: 1.What are the personal demands of the manager job? 2.What sorts of people are effective manager? 3.Why people tends to fail? 4.What are specific causes for success and failure? 5.What are the products of effective management?

Managerial model
Organisational environment

IINPUT Individual characteristics *intelligence *aptitude *knowledge *temperament *preference *expectation *ability *motivation *opportunity

Transformation Process Managerial job Dimension General function & Specialised Functions

OUTPUT Organisational result *profit maximation *organisational effeciency *high productivity *employee welfare/ satisfaction *social welfare

Person

Process

Product

Model of managerial effectiveness: 1.Heuristic model: In this model The ability and motivation of a manager provides an opportunity to produce an out- put in a given organisational environment. It involves personal characteristics and resourcefulness of a manager , expectation of the individual in goal attainment . Administrative and social environment of the organisation and feed back , incentives and rewards ,organisational policies and practices also play an important role in bring managerial effectiveness.

2.Heroic model: In this model the manager is involved in planning, assigning,monitoring and coordinating the activities of the organisation. It is manager centered and the success relies heavily on the controlling capabilities of the manager. Participative decision-making is lacking in this model.

3.Manager as master technicians: In this model emphasizes is given more for the technical knowledge for success. Individualistic attention and expectations are given more importance . Such model becomes applicable in organisation where knowledge of manager is wide, interpersonal relational is minimal and where subordinates are not committed ,co-operative and highly dependent. The problem that crop up in such a situation is that objective solution are ignored ,subordinates confidence is undermined and organisational system are over looked.

4.Manager as conductor: In this model the manager tries to resolve conflicts between managerial and subordinate thinking. Involvement in any activities of the organisational is higher on the part of subordinates . A key feature of this model is that acceptance of subordinate precedes action. On the contrary there are also some weakness attached to this model. The first one would be getting subordinates to buy ideas may be time consuming.Next the subordinates may also violate action through resistance at discussion stage.

5.Manager as developer: In this model subordinates share managerial and task responsibility . Some of the merits of this model is that crisis management is possible,new opportunities can be assessed easily, knowledge and expertise sharing becomes possible . Task performance through job challenge creates opportunities for personal learning,team and individual development skills,becomes possible for accoplishment of goals.This model is a effective one.

Unit ii Designing the Managerial Job


IDENTIFYING THE MANAGERIAL TALENT

RECRUITMENT
A process of locating , identifying and attracting capable applicants. A process of searching for prospective employees and stimulating and encouraging them to apply for jobs in an organisation.

Factors affecting recruitment Internal factors Size of the organisation Recruiting policy Image of organisation Image of job External factors Demographic factors labour market unemployment situation labourlaws legalconsiderations.

Sources of recruitment

Internal sources Present employees Employee referrals FormerEmployees

External sources Employment exchange Advertisements Employment Agencies Professional association Campus recruitment Deputation Words-of-mouth Jobfair cyberspace recruiting

Previous Applicants

Recruitment process 1.Recruitment planning 2.Stategy development 3.Searching 4.Screening 5.Evaluation and control

Recruitment process
Personnel planning

Job analysis

Employee requistion

Job vacancies

Recruitment Planning Numbers types

Searching activation

Applicant pool

screening

Potential hires

Strategy Development -where -how -when

Applicant population

Evaluation and control

Method of recruitment 1.Direct method 2.Indirect method 3.Third party method

Effectiveness of recruitment programme:


1.A well defined recruitment policy. 2.A proper organisational structure. 3.A well-laid down procedure for locating potential job seekers. 4.A suitable method and technique for tapping and utilizing these candidates. 5.A continuous assessment of effectiveness of recruitment programme and incorporation of suitable modifactions from time to time to improve the effectiveness of the programme. 6.An ethically sound and fool-proof practice telling an applicant all about the job and its position, the firm to enable the candidate to judiciously decide whether or not to apply and join the firm , if selected.

SELECTION
Selection is the process of choosing from among the candidates from within the organisation or from the outside,the most suitable person for the current position or for the future position
knootz

Selection methods 1.Preliminary interview 2.Application blank 3.Selection tests 4.Selection interview 5.Reference checks 6.Medical examination /physical examination 7.Final selection.

PLACEMENT
Placement is understood as assigning jobs to the selected candidates. the determination of the job to which an accepted candidate is to be assigned, and his assignment to that job.
Pigors and Myers

The importance of placement lies in the fact that, a proper placement of employees reduces employees turnover,absenteeism,accidents and dissatisfaction,on the other hand, and improves their morale,on the other.

Induction Induction is the process of receiving and welcoming an employee when he first joins a company and giving him basic information he needs to settle down quickly and happily and start work
Michael Armstrong

Obiectives of induction: 1.To reduce the initial anxiety all new entrants feel when they join a new job in a new organisation. 2. To familiarize the new employees with the job, people , work-place ,work environment and the organisation. 3.To facilitate outsider insider transition in an intergrated manner. 4.To reduce exploitation by the unscrupulous co-workers. 5.To reduce the cultural shock faced in the new organisation.

Benefits of induction programme : 1. A well designed induction programme reduces anxiety, nervousness,absenteesim and employee turnover. 2. Induction helps minimize the reality or cultural shock new employees undergo on joining a new organisation. 3. Effective induction also helps integrate the new employees into the organisation and fosters feeling of belongingness to new organisation. 4. Induction also binds the newcomer and the present employees in a team.

The induction programme may be formal and informal. Informal-unplanned induction programme. *supervisory systemThe immediate job supervisor conducts the induction programme for the new entrants. *buddy or sponsor systemThe immediate supervisor assigns the responsibility of induction of the new entrant to an old employee.

Formal-planned programme HR specialists

PHASES OF INDUCTION A carefully designed induction programme consists of the following three phases: 1.General induction 2.Specific induction 3.Follow-up induction

Socialisation

Socialisation is the process of adaptation that takes place as individuals attempt to learn the values and norms of work roles.

Phases of socialisation process: 1.Pre arrival :Refers to all the learning that occurs before a new member joins the organisation.

2.Encounter :The new member enters the organisation and role playing starts here.The member starts comparing expectations the image of the organisationwhich he had formed during pre-arrival phase with reality.
3.Metamorphosis : The member- masters the Skills required to adjust with the organisations norms and values. This is a stage going through changes.hence ,this is called metamorphosis stage.

Contents of socialization: *Preliminary Learning. *Learning about the organisation. *Learning to function in the work group. *Learning how to perform the job. *Personal Learning

Benefits: 1. Helps in understanding organisation culture. 2. Contributes to employees long-term success. 3. Helps in adjustment 4. Helps in employee engagement. 5. Provides job satisfaction

CAREER PLANNING
A Career can be defined as all the jobs held by a person during his working life. According to Edwin Flippo a career is a sequence but related work activities that provides continuity, order,and meaning in a persons life.

Factors
A persons career is shaped by many factors. Education Experience Performance Parents Caste links and some occasional luck.

Career planning
Careering planning can be defined as a systematic process by which one decides his/her career goals and the path to reach these goals. Career planning is a managerial technique for mapping out the entire career of employees from the employment stage to the retirement stage.It involves discovery,development,planned employment and reemployment.

Career goal: The future positions one strives to reach in his career. Career path: The sequential and progressive path or line through which one moves towards his/her career goal.

Career Anchors: Are the basic drives acquired by an individual during the socialisation process which urge him to take up career of certain types.

Five career anchors identified are : 1.Managerial competence 2.Technical functional competence 3.Security 4.Creativity 5.autonomy-independence Career Progression: Making progress in ones career through a series of right moves in the form of promotion.

Mentoring : A process wherein a senior employee serves in an informal way as a teacher , guide,friend, philosopher and confidante to the new employee in the organisation. Careering planning : This is the process by which an employee selects career goals and the path to these goals.

Career Development: The personal improvements one undertakes to achieve a personal career plan. Career Management: Is the process of designing and implementing goals,plans and strategies to enable the organisation to satisfy employee needs while allowing individuals to achieve their career goals.

Career stages: 1.Exploratory stage 2.Establishment stage 3.Mid career stage 4.Late career stage 5.Decline stage.

CAREER PLANNING PROCESS 1.Analysis employee needs and aspirations. 2.Analysis career opportunities 3.Identifying congruence and incongruence 4.Action plans and periodic review