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About Cement

Cement Chemistry Cement is hydraulic material which develops strength when it reacts with water. It is inorganic material which consists of oxides of calcium,silicon,iron,aluminum. Phases in Cement
C3 S (Alite) C2 S (Belite) C3 A C4 AF

C - CaO , S - SiO2 , A - Al2O3 , F - Fe2O3

About Cement

Cement Reaction With Water

Portland cement when mixed with water undergoes the process of Setting & Hardening The initial stiffening or setting of PC pastes appears to be the result of the rapid hydration taking place on the surface of the cement particles. This rapid initial setting is controlled by the presence of calcium sulfate and for this reason a small proportion of gypsum is interground with cement clinker to control the rate of initial setting. Following this the principal reaction is the formation of single calcium silicate hydrate(C-S-H) from the various anhydrous calcium silicates present in the cement particles.

About Cement

Cement Reaction With Water


C3S + 3H --> C-S-H + 2C-H rigid gel C2S + 2H --> C-S-H + C-H rigid gel C3A , C4AF have less hydraulic properties but useful for liquid formation in kiln.

C - CaO , H - H2O

About Cement

Types of Cement OPC - Ordinary Portland Cement


Clinker + Gypsum 33 grade , 44 grade ,53 grade 33 grade :- develop strength upto 330kg/cm2 after 28 days

PPC - Pozzolona Portland Cement

Clinker + Flyash + Gypsum

PSC - Slag Cement

Clinker + Slag + Gypsum

Process Overview
Additives i.e. Iron ore or Clay

Mining & Crushing Crushed Limestone

Raw Mill Grinding

Fine Raw Meal (120)Res. < 3%

Raw Meal Homogenization

Packaging

Blaine 300-350 m2/kg OR (45) Res. <16% Cement 1) OPC 2) PPC 3) Slag Cement

Final Grinding

Lt. wt 1200-1350 Clinker

Pyro Processing Clinkerization

1) Gypsum 2) Flyash 3) Pozzolona 4) Slag

Coal Ash From Coal Fired

Process Overview

Limestone + Additives ------------> Clinker o


Heating 1500 C in Kiln

Grinding

Clinker + Gypsum + Additives ------------> Cement

Grinding

Process Overview

Mining First step in Cement Production Drilling is used to drill deep holes in the soil Blasting is done with the help of drilled holes & explosives Blasted Limestone is excavated with excavator Unearthed Limestone is transported to Crusher

Process Overview

Raw Meal Preparation Crushing Limestone from Mines


Limestone from Quarry requires coarse size reduction as it is in the form of big boulders. Crushers are used in two or three steps for coarse size reduction. Types :Jaw Crusher , Hammer Crusher , Impact crusher.

Pre-homogenization of Limestone
Limestone ,excavated from different benches, has different chemical composition.Hence homogenization is needed. In this Crushed limestone is stacked onto stock pile in such a way that inherent CaCO3 Inconsistency is evened out.

Process Overview

Raw Meal Grinding Pre-homogenized Raw Meal in addition with with additives ,e.g. sandstone, iron oxide,clay etc., is ground in Raw Mill.
Types : VRM , Closed Circuit Ball Mill Hot air from Preheater is used for removing moisture in Raw Meal.

Homogenization of powdered Raw Meal is done in blending silo so that Chemical properties of Raw Meal gets equalized w.r.t. time.

Process Overview

Pyroprocessing The homogenous raw meal is preheated in Preheater. The material is then calcined upto 90% in Calciner. The Calicined raw meal is sintered into clinker in a rotary Kiln. Fuel (Coal , Oil) is fired into Kiln to sinter the raw meal. Red hot Clinker is cooled in cooler. The cooled clinker is crushed in Clinker breaker & stored in silo or Gantry for finished grinding.

Process Overview

Finished Grinding

Crushed Clinker is mixed with gypsum & fed into Cement Mill for fine size reduction.
Gypsum is added to control setting time of cement. Circuit Types : Open circuit Ball Mill , Closed circuit Ball Mill , Roller Press with Ball Mill,VRM with Ball Mill

Depending on final Cement requirements Flyash or Slag is added along with Crushed Clinker.

Process Overview

Different Type of Process Wet Process

Raw feed fed to kiln contains 30-40% water by weight Raw feed, prepared by either the wet or dry methods according to the nature of the raw materials is formed into pellets or modules, which are fed into the kiln by way of a grate preheater in which the moving bed of nodulized material is dried and brought upto calcining temperature by heat from kiln. Raw Material fed to kiln contains 2-4% water by weight

Semi Wet Process / Semi Dry Process

Dry Process

Size Reduction in Cement Industry

Raw Meal Crushing Jaw,Impact,Hammer,Gyratory Crusher Raw Meal Grinding Ball Mill , Vertical Roller Mill (VRM) Clinker Crushing Hammer Crusher Final Grinding Ball Mill , VRM , Roller Press, Hybrid

Grinding in Cement Industry

Objectives Size Reduction


Reduces feed size increases reactivity

Drying
Grinding Efficiency improves due to moisture removal Better thermal efficiency in kiln

Blending
Raw material with different property get mixed Achieves better homogeneity

Grinding in Cement Industry

Locations in Cement process

Size reduction and drying of Raw meal.

VRM , Ball Mill VRM , Ball Mill , E-Mill

Size reduction and drying of Coal.

Size reduction of cement clinker.

VRM , Ball Mill , Roller Press

Grinding in Cement Industry

Different Type of Grinding Equipment

Ball Mill Vertical Roller Mill (VRM) Roller Press

Dry Grinding Open Circuit

Ball Mill

Mill Product is Final Product

Closed Circuit
Mill Product is Fed to Air Separator & Coarse Material is fed back to mill Material from Mill to Separator is conveyed by Elevator

Air-Swept Operation

Material from Mill to Separator is conveyed by Air

Wet Grinding Open Circuit Closed Circuit

Ball Mill

Operational philosophy

Grinding By Impact
Primary size reduction process in first chamber of mill. Large diameter grinding media climbs along the mill lining due to centrifugal force. At the point when the weight of ball exceeds centrifugal force the ball falls down. The impact of the falling grinding charge with Mill lining causes particles entrapped between the charge & lining to fracture and undergo size reduction

Ball Mill

Operational philosophy

Grinding By Attrition
Grinding action in the Fine grinding compartment is generally by abrasion & shearing action Small particles , which are in an agglomerated form before grinding, are sheared off from the surface due to rubbing between multiple large sized aggregates and/or the grinding media.

Air Separator

Operational philosophy The performance of closed circuit mill very much depends upon performance of separator that is used. There are two broad categories of separator. These are
Conventional Type Of separator (mechanical air separator) High Efficiency Separator (static separator)

Both types use Air for separation in which centrifugal force of circulating air separates fines from coarse.

Mechanical Air Separator

Separation In this type of Separator Due to drag force of air separation of fines from coarse takes place. Fresh feed is fed to distributing plate, which disperse feed into air stream flowing up. Fines get entrained in air stream & coarse hits the wall of separator. After hitting the wall coarse gets collected into cone.

Mechanical Air Separator

Fineness Control
Circulating Air Volume in Separator is only MV that can control Fineness. The less is the volume more is Fineness. Auxiliary fan in separator can very the circulating air volume. As Auxiliary fan rpm increases circulating air volume decreases which intern decrease material dragged by air to fines of separator. Thus Fineness can be increased. Sp. Power requirement for such separator is around 6 kWh/ton.

Mechanical Air Separator

Limitations
High Fineness of product is difficult or can be achieved with high circulating load.

Mismatches between sizes of mill & separator


It is not possible to have selective size gradation (3-30 micron for cement.) In case of conventional separator 50% of fine (below 30 micron) if returned to mill.

High efficiency Static Air Separator

Separation
The Mill discharge material is fed on dispersion plate. The material then cascade down to separating (classifying zone) where tangential inlet air suspends feed particles against the opposing centrifugal force of the rotor.

Intense shearing force breaks apart the particle agglomerates for highly efficient classification.
Product size particles, controlled by rotor speed, pass through the rotor blades to the cyclone. Rejects fall down to the collection hopper & fed back to mill. An externally located fan sucks the fine. Air is again recirculated to the separator. Small amount of recirculated air is vented off.

High efficiency Static Air Separator

Fineness Control
Fineness can be controlled by rotor speed & air volume in separator. By increasing rotor speed feed material requires more turn & energy against centrifugal force to get through rotor blades. Due to this fineness of product increases.

Also by decreasing air volume in separator increases fineness of product.

Process Fresh feed is fed to ball mill with Separator rejects. Ball mill product goes to Separator for separation Rejects is fed back to mill
Rejects
Recirculating Load

Ball Mill - Dry Grinding Close Circuit

Ball Mill
Fresh Feed
TPH Accum Mill kW

Separator
Mill Product
TPH RPM Damper

Final Product
TPH Blaine/Residue

Ball Mill - Dry Grinding Close Circuit

MV-CV relation

Ball Mill - Dry Grinding Close Circuit

Abnormal Conditions & there control

Sudden increase in Mill accumulation

Cause :
Feed Size increase Moisture increase in feed Hardness of Feed increase

Control:
Cut the fresh Feed

Ball Mill - Dry Grinding Close Circuit

Abnormal Conditions & there control

Separator Resonance

Cause :
Mechanical structure natural frequency matches with Separator at certain RPM

Control:
Prohibit RPM for resonance range

Ball Mill - Dry Grinding Close Circuit

Malfunctions

Decrease in Mill Output

Cause :
Feed hardness & size Worn out Mill charge Blocked diaphragm High moisture content Fractured diaphragm

Ball Mill - Dry Grinding Close Circuit

Malfunctions

Product too coarse

Cause :
Increased feed hardness Grinding media too large Too few grinding media Diaphragm slots worn out Mill feed overloading Malfunction of separator Mill fan damper jammed

Ball Mill - Dry Grinding Close Circuit

Malfunctions

Mill inlet pressure low

Cause :
Low mill draught Excessive wet feed

Ball Mill v/s VRM/Roller press


Ball Mill
Grinding-Impact/Attrition Lower fines Higher kWh/ton Non flexible Easy to maintain

VRM/Roller Press
Grinding-Compressive stress Greater Fines Lower kWh/ton Flexible for different products Requires High skills

Vertical Roller Mill

Operational philosophy

Grinding by Compressive force


Feed is ground between horizontal grinding table & two or more rollers , which are pressed against the grinding table under high pressure

VRM - Typical Raw Mill

Process VRM is widely used for Raw Meal Grinding. Raw Material is fed to table . Raw Material get grounded between table & roller. Hot air with re-circulation air enters from bottom of the mill through perforated plates. Air carries ground material to separator inlet which is integral part of Mill. Separator reject falls back to grinding table & fines are carried by air to cyclone.

Vertical Roller Mill

Major Operating Parameters


Mill Vibration Bed Layer Thickness Mill DP Fan Power Mill Outlet Temp. Residue/Blaine

: : : : : :

Health of Mill Stability Stability Air Volume Feed Moisture Drying Quality

Vertical Roller Mill

MV - CV relation

Vertical Roller Mill

Abnormal Conditions & there control

Vibration High

Cause :
Imbalance between Material DP & Air DP

Control:
Cut/Increase Feed Increase Water Spray

Vertical Roller Mill

Abnormal Conditions & there control

High increase rate in DP or High DP

Cause :
Inlet Material Property changes e.g. Moisture , Grindability High Feed rate

Control:
Cut Feed

Roller Press

Operational philosophy

Grinding by Compressive force


Feed is ground between horizontal grinding roll , one of which is pressed against the another immovable roll under high pressure

Roller Press

Process Roller Press is widely used for Finished Grinding in hybrid mode of operation. Raw Material is fed to overhead silo . Material bed is always maintained above roller press. Ground material is fed to separator by elevator. Separator reject is fed to roller press & fines are carried by air to cyclone. Sometime ground material doesnt goto Separator. Only divider divides ground product ,one part of which goes back to Roller Press.

Roller Press

Major Operating Parameters


Roller Gap - Health of mill Back Pressure - Good grinding Over head Silo level - Choke feed Residue/Blaine Returns Mill Power

Modes of Operation

Roller press & Ball mill for finished grinding can work in following modes

One Pass Mode Pre-grinding Mode Hybrid Mode

Clinkerization Overview

Main Aim of this section is to produce Clinker from Raw meal in energy efficient manner
Kiln Operation can be in following mode

Wet Process : Kiln Feed Water 30 - 40% Semi Dry/Wet process Dry Process : Kiln Feed Water 2 - 3%

Clinkerization Overview

The choice of the process to be used depends upon a complex combination of different factors This includes:

The nature of the raw materials. The thermal efficiency of the different processes and their variations fuel and other energy prices

Clinkerization Overview

Three sections in Dry Process Preheater :


Preheat the Kiln feed Using Waste Heat Gas Calcination Using Waste heat gas & Coal in Calciner

Kiln :

Clinker Formation from Calcined Kiln feed using Coal fuel.

Cooler :
Heat Recovery from Hot Clinker Cooling Clinker rapidly to form reactive clinker

Clinkerization Overview

Reactions - Heating 30 - 300

Evaporation of Water

400 - 900
Removal of structural water and OH group from clay minerals Clacination

above 800

Formation of C2S , intermediate product , aluminate , ferrite

above 1250
Formation of liquid phase (aluminate & Ferrite melt) Crystalization of Alite ,Belite I.e Completion of phase formation

Clinkerization Overview

Reactions - Cooling 1300 - 1240

Crystalization of liquid phase into mainly aluminate & ferrite

Clinkerization Overview
Raw Meal

Preheater
Raw Meal Preheating 30oC to 100oC Removal of Water 100oC to 300oC

30oC to 900oC

Calcination Oxide Formation CaCO3 -> CaO + CO2

CaO SiO2 Fe2O3 Al2O3

(CaO)2.SiO2 + CaO -> (CaO)3.SiO2 Cooling Crystalization 1350oC to 1250oC Liquid & Phase formation

above 800oC

Belite formation Above 1200oC CaO + SiO2 -> CaO.SiO2 CaO.SiO2 + CaO -> (CaO)2.SiO2

Kiln
Clinker

(CaO)3.(Al2O3) ----- C3A (CaO)4.(Al2O3).Fe2O3--- C4AF

Different Type of Preheater System 4 , 5 , 6 stage ,One string - With or Without Calciner 4 , 5 stage ,Two String - Calciner String , Kiln String 4, 5 stage ,Two string - Both Calciner String

Preheater

Typical : 5 stage , Two String - Calciner & Kiln String

More Stages gets added in Preheater String More Heat Recovery from Waste Heat Gas More Capital Cost Less Temperature For Raw Mill Grinding

Preheater

Aim Maximum Heat Recovery from waste heat gas Maximum Calcination without melting raw meal Operational Philosophy Heat exchange between Waste Heat Gas & Raw Meal takes place through Direct Heat Exchange in Riser Duct Separation of Raw Meal Solid from Gas is carried out in Cyclone at each stage. Maximum Calcination is carried out in Pre-Calciner by burning Coal.

Preheater

Process Gas enters from bottom cyclone Raw meal enters from top cyclone Gas is sucked by induced draft fan from kiln Fan is placed at Preheater Outlet From Last but One cyclone raw meal goes to PreCalciner where coal is fired Tertiary air is sucked in Calciner from cooler After Pre-Calciner Raw meal is carried to last cyclone by air & Separated raw meal from this cyclone goes to Kiln

Major Operating Parameter PHOutlet Temp PHOutlet CO

Preheater
: Heat Recovery : ESP security, Oxygen Shortage : Completion of Calcination : Material Fusion Temp : Excess Air , Leakage : Cyclone Jamming

Calciner Outlet Temp Kiln inlet Material Temp PHOutlet Draft / O2 Cyclone Cone Draft Handles PHOutlet Fan Damper /RPM : Air Quantity Calciner Coal : Heat Quantity

Preheater

MV-CV Relation

Preheater

Abnormal Conditions & control High PHOutlet CO

Cause:
Less Oxygen for Coal Combustion High Calciner Coal Feed rate

Control:
Cut Calciner Coal Increase PHFan RPM or Damper

Preheater

Abnormal Conditions & control

High Kiln inlet material temp

Cause :
High Calciner Coal Feed rate Less Raw Meal Rate Secondary Burning of Coal in preheater

Control:
Cut Calciner Coal

Preheater

Abnormal Conditions & control

High Calciner Outlet temp

Cause :
High Calciner Coal Feed rate Less Raw Meal Rate

Control:
Cut Calciner Coal

Preheater

Abnormal Conditions & control

Low Cyclone cone draft

Cause :
Less Air Coating in cyclone Brick lining failure , Flap damper Malfunction

Control:
Cut Raw Meal Feed Rate

Kiln

Aim Maintain Clinker Quality Minimize Heat Consumption Operational Philosophy Heat is generated by Coal combustion High residence time i.e. 20 min High Temp 1500oC Maximum Contact area of Hot air & Material by circulatory motion (4 rpm)

Process Kiln is cylindrical rotating furnace (60 m length) & installed slightly slant (3-4degree) to carry the material to lower end when rotating. At Lower end is the burner where coal is fired through using primary air for conveying. Cooler Secondary air is sucked into Kiln which is at high temp ( Due to heat recuperation from hot clinker ). Secondary Air from Cooler & Primary Air gets heated by combustion of coal. This air travels opposite to material flow & Heat Exchange between air & material takes place

Kiln

Kiln

Major Operating Parameter Kiln Torque Burning Zone Temp. Clinker Lt..wt. & Free Lime Kiln Hood Draft Kiln inlet CO or O2 Handles Kiln Feed Kiln RPM Kiln Coal

: : : : :

Clinker Quality Good Heat Content Clinker Quality Safety & Maintenance Oxygen Availability

Clinker Quality Clinker Phase Requirement


C3 S (Alite) C2 S (Belite) C3 A C4 AF

Kiln

- 40 to 60% - 20 to 30% - 5 to 12% - 5 to 12%

:Rapid Contribution to strength : Slow Contribution to strength : Rapid Contribution to strength : V. Slow Contribution to strnth

Indirect/Direct Measurement of Good Clinker


Litre Weight (density) Free Lime (CaO)

- Represent phase% - Should be minimized

Clinker Quality

Kiln

Affecting Parameters
Degree of Kiln feed mixing Kiln Feed Granulometry Burnability of kiln feed Degree of heating Retention time Clinker Cooling Rate

Kiln

MV-CV Relation

Kiln

Abnormal Conditions & control

High Kiln inlet CO

Cause :
Less Air More Kiln Coal

Control:
Cut Kiln Coal Increase PH fan RPM / Open Damper

Kiln

Abnormal Conditions & control

LOW kiln Torque/ Dusty Kiln

Cause :
Less Heat Content in Kiln High Kiln filling

Control:
Reduce Kiln RPM & Increase Kiln Coal Decrease Kiln Feed

Kiln

Abnormal Conditions & there control

Red Spot

Cause :
Coating Deformation Brick dislodging

Control:
Reduce Kiln RPM Stop Kiln

Aim Recuperate Maximum Heat from Clinker Maintain Clinker Quality Minimize Clinker Temperature

Cooler

Operational Philosophy Maximum Heat Recuperation in first few compartments is achieved by keeping high bed height of Clinker Lower Clinker temperature is achieved in last few compartments by Low Clinker bed height & High Air volume

Process Types Of Cooler

Cooler

Reciprocating Grate Cooler


Perforated Grates moving one over other creating forward motion for clinker. Air with high velocity flows vertically up 90 degree to Clinker flow.

IKN Cooler
Grates Doesnt move. Forward motion for clinker is created by Horizontal Air Jet with very high velocity. Air with very high velocity flows parallel to Clinker flow & then moves vertically up.

Major Operating Parameter Under-Grate Pressure Grate Drive Amps Clinker Temperature Secondary Air Temp. Hood Draft Cooler Vent Temperature Handles Air Volume / Fan Damper / Grate Drive Speed Vent fan Damper / RPM

Cooler
: : : : : : Clinker Bed Clinker Bed Clinker property , Safety Recuperation Safety Heat Loss

Fan RPM

Cooler

MV-CV Relation

Cooler

Abnormal Conditions & control

Grate Drive Amps High

Cause :
High Clinker Bed Height Lumps

Control:
Increase Grate Speed