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Recruitment

After having determined the number and kind of personnel required, the HR manager proceeds with the identification of sources of recruitment and finding suitable candidate for employment. The process of identification of sources of personnel is known as recruitment. According to Edwin B. Flippo, Recruitment is the process of searching the candidates for employment and stimulating them to apply for jobs in the organization. A linking activity that brings together those offering jobs and those seeking jobs.

Recruitment
Recruitment refers to the attempt of getting interested applicants and creating a pool of prospective employees so that the management can select the right person for the right job from this pool. Recruitment precedes the selection process, i.e., selection of right candidates for various positions in the organization. Recruitment has been regarded as the most important function of personnel management, because unless the right type of people are hired, even the best plans, organisation charts, and control system would not do much good.

Recruitment
Recruitment is a positive process as it attracts suitable applicants to apply for available jobs. The process of recruitment: Identifies the different sources of labour supply Assesses their validity Chooses the most suitable source or sources, and Invites applications from the prospective candidates for the vacant jobs.

Methods of Recruitment
Methods of recruitment are different from the source of recruitment. Source are the locations where prospective employees are available. On the other hand, methods are ways of establishing links with prospective employees. Various methods employed for recruiting employees may be classified into the following categories:-

Methods of Recruitment
1. Direct Methods: Under direct recruitment, employee contacts, manned exhibits and waiting lists are used. In scouting (Investigation), representatives of the organization are sent to the educational and training institutions. These traveling recruiters exchange information with the students, clarify their doubts, stimulate them to apply for jobs, conduct campus interviews and short list candidates for further screening. They act in cooperation with the placement head of the institution.

Methods of Recruitment
2. Indirect Methods: Advertisement in newspapers, journals, on the radio and television are used to publicize vacancies. A well thought out and clear advertisement enables candidates to assess their suitability so that only those possessing the requisite qualifications will apply. This method is suitable when the organization wants to reach out to a large target group scattered geographically.

Methods of Recruitment
3. Third Party Methods: These include the use of commercial or private employment agencies, state agencies, placement offices of colleges, recruiting firms, management consulting firms, indoctrination, seminars for college professors and friends and relatives.

Sources of Recruitment
INTERNAL SOURCES (recruitment from within the enterprise) a) Transfer: It involves the shifting of an employee from one job to another one department to another or from one shift to another. At the time of transfer, it should be ensured that the employee to be transferred to another job is capable of performing it. In fact, transfer does not involve any drastic change in the responsibilities, pay and status of the employee. Transfers or job rotations are also used for training of employees in learning different jobs.

Sources of Recruitment
INTERNAL SOURCES (recruitment from within the enterprise) b) Promotion: It leads to shifting an employee to a higher position, carrying higher responsibilities, facilities, status and pay. Many companies follow the practice of filling higher jobs by promoting employees who are considered fit for such positions.

Why should Internal Sources be used?


Employees are motivated to improve their performance. Morale of the employees in increased. Industrial peace prevails in the enterprise because of promotional avenues. Filling of jobs internally is cheaper. A promotion at a higher level may lead to a chain of promotions at lower levels in the organization. This motivates the employees to improve their performance through learning and practice. Transfer or job rotation is a tool of training the employees to prepare them for higher jobs. Transfer has the benefit of shifting workforce from the surplus departments to those where there is shortage of staff.

Why should Internal Sources not to be used? When vacancies are filled through internal promotions, the scope for fresh talent is reduced. The employees may become lethargic if they are sure of time bound promotions. Frequent transfers of employees may reduce the overall productivity of the organisation.

Sources of Recruitment
2. External Sources (Recruitment from outside) a. Direct Recruitment: An important source of recruitment is direct recruitment by placing a notice on the notice board of the enterprise specifying the details of the jobs available. It is also known as recruitment at factory gate.

Sources of Recruitment
2. External Sources (Recruitment from outside) b.Casual Callers or Unsolicited: The organisations which are regarded as good employers draw a steady stream of unsolicited applications in their officers. This serves as a valuable sources of manpower. If adequate attention is paid to maintain pending application folders for various jobs, the personnel department may find the unsolicited applications useful for filling the vacancies whenever they arise.

Sources of Recruitment
2. External Sources (Recruitment from outside) c. Media Advertisement: Advertisement in newspapers or professional journals is generally used when qualified and experienced personnel are not available from the other sources. Most of the senior positions in industry as well as commerce are filled by this method. The advantage of advertising is that more information about the organization, job descriptions and job specifications can be given in advertisement to allow self-screening by the prospective candidates. Advertisement gives the management a wider range of candidates from which to choose. Its disadvantage is that it may bring in a flood of response and many times, from quite unsuitable candidates.

Sources of Recruitment
2. External Sources (Recruitment from outside) d. Employment Agencies: Employment exchanges run by the Government are regarded as a good source of recruitment for unskilled, semi-skilled and skilled operative jobs. In some cases, compulsory notification of vacancies to the employment exchange is required by law. Employment exchanges and selected private agencies provide a nation-wide service in attempting to match personnel demand and supply.

Sources of Recruitment
2. External Sources (Recruitment from outside) e. Management Consultants or Head Hunters: Management consultancy firms help the organisations to recruit technical, professional and managerial personnel. The specialize in middle level and top level executive placement. The maintain data bank of persons with different qualifications and skills and even advertise the jobs on behalf their clients to recruit right type of personnel. E.g. of head hunters are A.F. Ferguson and Co., ABC consultants, Godmans International, Mantec Consultants, etc.

Sources of Recruitment
2. External Sources (Recruitment from outside) f. Educational Institutions or Campus Recruitment: Jobs in commerce and industry have become technical and complex to the point where college degrees or diplomas are widely required. Consequently, big organisations maintain a close liaison with the universities, vocational institutes, and management institutes for recruitment of various jobs. Reputed industrial houses which require management trainees and send their officials to campuses of various management institutes for picking up talented candidates doing MBA.

Sources of Recruitment
2. External Sources (Recruitment from outside) g. Recommendations : Applicants introduced by friends and relatives may prove to be a good source of recruitment. In fact, many employers prefer to take such persons because something about their background is known. When a present employee or a business friend recommends some one for a job, a type of preliminary screening is done and the person is placed on a job.

Sources of Recruitment
2. External Sources (Recruitment from outside) h. Labour Contractors: Labour contractors are an important source of recruitment in some industries in India. Workers are recruited through labour contractors who are themselves employees of the organization. The disadvantage of this system that if the contractor leaves the organization, all the workers employed through him will also leave. Recruitment though labour contractors has been banned for the public sector units. However, this practice is still common in case of construction industry.

Sources of Recruitment
2. External Sources (Recruitment from outside) i. Telecasting: The practice of telecasting of vacant posts over T.V. (Doordarshan and other channels) is gaining importance these days. Special programmes like Job Watch, Youth Pulse, Employment News, etc. over the T.V. have become quite popular in recruitment for various types of jobs. The detailed requirements of the job and the qualities required to do it are publicised alongwith the profile of the organization where vacancy exits.

Sources of Recruitment
2. External Sources (Recruitment from outside) j. Outsourcing: Under this arrangement, a company may draw the required personnel from the outsourcing firms or agencies on commission basis rather than offering them employment. This is also called leasing of human resources. The outsourcing firms develop their human resource pools by employing people for them and make available the personnel to various companies (called clients) as per their needs. The outsourcing firms get payment for their services to their clients and give salary directly to the personnel.

Sources of Recruitment
2. External Sources (Recruitment from outside) k. Poaching or Raiding: Poaching means employing competent and experienced person already working with another reputed company which might be a rival in the industry. A company can attract talent from another firm by offering attractive pay packages and other terms and conditions. In fact, raiding has become a challenge for the human resource managers of modern organizations because poaching of a key executive by a rival firm will weaken the competitive strength of the firm.

Sources of Recruitment
2. External Sources (Recruitment from outside) l. Website or e-Recruitment: Many big organisations use internet as a source of recruitment. The advertise the job vacancies throught worldwide web (www). The job seekers send their applications or Curriculam Vitae, i.e. CV, through e-mail using the internet. Alternatively, job seekers place their CVs in the world wide web/internet, which can be drawn by the prospective employers depending upon their requirement.

Why should External Sources be used?


Qualified Personnel: By using external sources of recruitment, the management can make qualified and trained people to apply for vacant jobs.

Wider choice: When vacancies are advertised widely, a large number of applicants from outside the org. apply. The mgt. has a wider choice while selecting the people for employment.

Why should External Sources be used?


Fresh Talent: The insiders may have limited talents. External sources facilitate infusion of fresh blood with new ideas into the enterprise. This will improve the overall working of the enterprise. Competitive Spirit: If a company can tap external sources, the existing staff will have to compete with the outsiders. They will work harder to show better performance.

Why should External Sources not to be used? Dissatisfaction among Existing Staff: External recruitment may lead to dissatisfaction and frustration among existing employees. They may feel that their chances of promotion are reduced. Lengthy Process: Recruitment from outside takes a long time. The business has to notify the vacancies and wait for applications to initiate the selection process.

Why should External Sources not to be used? Costly Process: It is very costly to recruit staff from external sources. A lot of money has to be spent an advertisement and processing of applications.

Uncertain Response: The candidates from outside may not be suitable for the enterprise. There is no guarantee that the enterprise will be able to attract right kinds of people from external sources.

Factors Affecting Recruitment


Size of the organization and the kinds of human resources required. Effect of past recruitment efforts. Nature of labour market of the region. Extent and strength of unionization in the region. Working conditions, wages and other benefits offered by other concerns. Social and political environment. Legal obligations created by various statutes.