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The Constructal Law in the framework of Physics

A. Heitor Reis
1,2

1
Department of Physics, University of vora, Apartado 94, 7002-554 vora, Portugal
2
Geophysics Centre of vora, Rua Romo Ramalho 59, 7000-671 vora, Portugal
1
Outline
Shape and structure in natural systems
The constructal Law
The Constructal Law as a Minimum Time Principle
The Constructal method
Examples of application
Heat and Fluid flow
running, swimming and flying
Flow architectures of the lungs
Global Circulation and Climate
Scaling Laws of River Basins
Scaling Laws of Street Networks
Beachface Morphing
Towards equilibrium flow structures
Conclusions
2
The Constructal Law in the framework of Physics
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The Constructal Law in the framework of Physics
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The Constructal Law in the framework of Physics
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The Constructal Law in the framework of Physics
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The Constructal Law in the framework of Physics
Which feature is shared by all
these stuctures?
PEM Fuel Cell
The Constructal Law in the framework of Physics
Constructal Law*(A. Bejan, 1996)
For a finite-size system to persist in time (to live), it must evolve in such a way that it provides
easier and easier access to the (global) currents that flow through it.
S
t
r
u
c
t
u
r
a
l

c
o
m
p
l
e
x
i
t
y

Time
System
System
*A. Bejan, Advanced Engineering Thermodynamics, 2
nd
Edition, Wiley, New York, 1997
The Constructal Law in the framework of Physics
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Constructal Theory

Structure optimization at every scale
From the simplest structure to higher complexity structures
The Constructal Law in the framework of Physics
Area to point flows

The optimal structure is constructed by optimizing volume
shape at every length scale, in a hierarchical sequence that
begins with the smallest building block and proceeds towards
larger building blocks (which are called constructs)*
Currents
Heat: q(x, y, z, t, , |, H
j
)
Mass: J(x, y, z, t, , |, H
k
)
Constraints
geometry: |(x, y, z)=0
Parameters: H
i
=Const.
- optimization target
A. Bejan, Shape and Structure, from Engineering to Nature, Camb. Un. Press, 2000
The Constructal Law in the framework of Physics
R n / R
i
=
I nI
i
=

=
=
n
1 i
i
R / 1 R / 1
i i
I R V =
It follows:
Total current fixed, I
The optimized structure minimizes total entropy generation:
T RI T I R S
n
i
i i gen
2
1
2
=

=
=

*A. Heitor Reis, 2004, Constructal Theory: From Engineering to Physics, or How Flow
Systems Develop Shape and Structure, a aparecer em Applied Mechanics Reviews,
i
Minimization of the global resistance at constant I*

( ) 0 dI I / I R 2
i
n
1 i
2
2
i i
=

=

( ) 0 dI ) nI /( R
i
n
1 i
1 i
=

=

2
gen
I S T R

=
T / VI S
gen
=

I / V R=

) nI ( I R R
n
1 i
i i

=
=

2
n
1 i
2
i i
I I R R

=
=
The Constructal Law in the framework of Physics
"Among the principles that I could mention I noticed that most of them sprang in
one way or another from the least action principle of mechanics and
electrodynamics. But there is also a class that does not. As an example, if
currents are made to go through a piece of material obeying Ohm's law, the
currents distribute themselves inside the piece so that the rate at which heat is
generated is as little as possible. Now, this principle also holds, according to
classical theory, in determining even the distribution of the velocities of the
electrons inside a metal which is carrying a current.
R. P. Feynman (The Feyn. Lect. on Phys., vol II, 19-14, Add.-Wesley, Mass., 1963)
Feynman (1962)
Theorem of Minimum Entropy Production In the linear regime the total entropy
production in a system subject to flow of energy and matter reaches a minimum
value at the nonequilibrium stationnary state.
I. Prigogine (Introd. to Thermod. of Irrev. Proc.,J. Wiley, N. York, 1962)
Prigogine (1962)
The Constructal Law in the framework of Physics
The MEP Hypothesis Climate like other open systems maximize the entropy
production rate, under the existing constraints .
G. W. Paltridge (Global Dynamics and Climate, 1975, Quat. J. R. Met. Soc. 101, 475-484)
Has been confirmed with relation to oceanic circulations (Shimokawa and Osawa 2001,
2002) and atmospheric circulations (Kleidon et al. 2003).
Paltridge (1975)
MEP versus mEP (minimum entropy production)!!
The MEP Hypothesis applies to systems with many degrees of freedom while mEP
applies to systems with fixed boundary conditions and few degrees of freedom
R. Dewar (Information theory explanation of the fluctuation theorem, maximum entropy
production and self-organized criticality in non-equilibrium stationary states, 2003, J. Phys. A,
36, 631-641). See also J. Withfield, Complex systems, order out of chaos, 2005, Nature, 436,
908-908.

Open point:

When and where to use MEP or mEP ?

Dewar (2003)
The Constructal Law in the framework of Physics
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The Constructal Law in the framework of Physics
MEP versus mEP (minimum entropy production)!!
Constructal law
Global I fixed total entropy generation is :
T RI T I R S
n
i
i i gen
2
1
2
=

=
=

Constructal law
V fixed total entropy generation is :
Constructal Theory
Global currents fixed*
mEP
Potential difference
fixed* (driving force)
MEP
Constraints
+
Flow architectures (system design)
*Ver:
A. Heitor Reis, 2006, Constructal Theory: From Engineering to Physics, or How
Flow Systems Develop Shape and Structure, Applied Mechanics Reviews .
The Constructal Law in the framework of Physics
18
(U, S, V, N)
(U0, S0, V0, N0)

For some fixed X(U,S,V,N) transfer between the
two systems, maximum flow access (I max. )
corresponds to minimum transfer time (t min.)
For some fixed X(U,S,V,N) transfer between the two systems, maximum flow access (R
min. ) corresponds to minimum transfer time (t min.)
Constructal law as a Minimum Time principle
A. Heitor Reis, 2006, Constructal Theory: From
Engineering to Physics, and How Flow Systems
Develop Shape and Structure, Applied Mechanics
Reviews, Vol.59, Issue 5, pp. 269-282.
The Constructal Law in the framework of Physics
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The Constructal Law in the framework of Physics
Flow architectures are ubiquitous in Nature
20
The Constructal Law in the framework of Physics
A. Bejan, Shape and Structure, from Engineering to Nature Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 2000.
A. Heitor Reis, 2006, Constructal Theory: From Engineering to Physics, and How Flow Systems Develop Shape and
Structure, Applied Mechanics Reviews, Vol.59, Issue 5, pp. 269-282.
A. Bejan and S. Lorente, Design with Constructal Theory, Wiley, 2008.
Reviews
21
Constructal sequence of assembly and
optimization, from the optimized
elemental area Ao, to progressively
larger area-point flows
13.5.
This global measure of flow imperfection can be minimized
with respect to the shape of the area element. The optimal
elemental shape is:
A. Bejan, Shape and Structure, from Engineering to Nature Cambridge
University Press, Cambridge, UK, 2000
The Constructal Method
Area-to-point flows
The Constructal Law in the framework of Physics
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The Constructal Law in the framework of Physics
Choice between too much fluid-flow
resistance and too much heat-transfer
resistance. The correct choice is to
balance the two negative features so
that their global effect is minimum. This
balance yields the optimal spacing
Be is the dimensionless group

and are the fluid viscosity and
thermal diffusivity, respectively.
Balancing global resistances
Flow spacings
A. Bejan, Convection Heat Transfer, 3rd ed. Wiley,
Hoboken, NJ, 2004
A. Bejan, Shape and Structure, from Engineering to Nature
Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 2000
The Constructal Law in the framework of Physics
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To optimize the arrangement of heat-generating components, plate
spacing and number of columns can vary. If spacing is too large or too
small, the hot-spot temperature is high (in red). The optimal spacing is
shown in the middle frame, where the hot spots are the coolest
A. Bejan, Shape and Structure, from Engineering to Nature Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 2000.
L fixed
The Constructal Law in the framework of Physics
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LINE-TO-LINE TREE FLOW
maximization of flow access between the points of one line and the points of a parallel line
Explanation for the occurrence of large pores and
fissures through natural porous structures. These
large features are strangely oriented, at an angle,
not directly across the porous layer. Now we see
why. The large channel PP has two duties, to carry
fluid across the layer directly and to feed the
neighboring trees, which also carry fluid across the
layer. The appearance of raggedness and
disorganization is an illusion: such features
come from the same principle as all the other
features of the tree drawings.

S. Lorente and A. Bejan, JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS
100, 2006
The Constructal Law in the framework of Physics
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Making engineering design a Science
Flow architecture is the result and never is assumed in advance
Counterflow heat exchanger with two point-circle flow trees
A. K. da Silva, S. Lorente, and A. Bejan, J. Appl. Phys. 96, 1709 2004
A. Bejan and S. Lorente, Design with Constructal Theory, Wiley, 2008.
The Constructal Law in the framework of Physics
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A. Bejan and J. H. Marden, 2006, The Journal of Experimental Biology 209, 238-248
constructal theory for scale effects in running, swimming and flying
The Constructal Law in the framework of Physics
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A. Bejan, J.H. Marden. The constructal
unification of biological and geophysical
design. Physics of Life Reviews (2008)
The Constructal Law in the framework of Physics
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The Constructal Law in the framework of Physics
Constructal theory of flow
architectures of the lungs
A. H. Reis, A. F. Miguel and M. Aydin, 2004 Constructal theory of flow
architectures of the lungs, Medical Physics, V. 31 (5) pp.1135-1140.

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The Constructal Law in the framework of Physics
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The respiratory tree
Starts at the trachea;
Channels bifurcate 23 times
before reaching the alveolar sac.
Has this special flow architecture been developed by chance or
does it represent the optimum structure for the lungs purpose,
which is the oxygenation of the blood?
The Constructal Law in the framework of Physics
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Constructal law (principle) the flow architectures evolve in time in order to
maximize the flow access under the constraints posed to the flow
Minimization of the global resistance to oxygen access
with respect to level of bifurcation
N
opt
= 23 (23.4)
Minimization of the global resistance to carbon dioxide
removal with respect to level of bifurcation
N
opt
= 23 (23.2)
( )
( )
(
(

|
|
.
|

\
|

=

1
D L
T R D 10 35 . 2
ln 164 . 2 N
ox
0
ox
ox
2
0
ox
g
4
0
4
opt
|
|
v
The Constructal Law in the framework of Physics
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Total resistance to oxygen and carbon dioxide transport between the
entrance of the trachea and the alveolar surface is plotted as function of
the level of bifurcation (N).
The Constructal Law in the framework of Physics
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Constructal laws of the human respiratory tree
(I)
If the number N
opt
=23 is common to mankind then a constructal rule
emerges:
m 10 6 . 1 . const
L
D
3
0
2
0
= = =
the ratio between the square of the trachea diameter and its length is
constant and a length characteristic of mankind:

The Constructal Law in the framework of Physics
36
( ) ( )
2 / 1
ox 0 ox
ox
g
ox ox
0
2
0
) ) ( T R
D
V
AL
63 . 8
L
D
|
|
.
|

\
|
| |
| v
=
V Global volume of the respiratory tree; L average length
A Area allocated to gas (O
2
and CO
2
) exchange
(II)
The non-dimensional number AL/V, determines the characteristic length =D
0
2
/L
0
,
which determines the number of bifurcations of the respiratory tree by:
The alveolar area required for gas exchange, A, the volume allocated to the
respiratory system, V, and the length of the respiratory tree, L, which are
constraints posed to the respiratory process determine univocally the structure of
the lungs, namely the bifurcation level of the bronchial tree.
The Constructal Law in the framework of Physics
CONSTRUCTAL THEORY OF GLOBAL CIRCULATION AND CLIMATE
A.Heitor Reis
1
2

1
University of vora, Department of Physics and Geophysics Center of vora, Colgio Luis Verney, Rua
Romo Ramalho, 59, 7000-671, Evora, Portugal
2
Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Duke University, Box 90300, Durham, NC 27708-
0300 USA
37
The Constructal Law in the framework of Physics
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The Constructal Law in the framework of Physics
Streamfunction lines of atmospherical long-term meridional
circulation. The isoline unit is 10 Sverdrups and the ordinate
represents altitude (adap. Phys. of, Climate, Peixoto and Oort,
1991)
Long-term meridional circulation

0 0
0
0
2
0
2
4
6
-6
-4
-2
-2
-1
20 20 40 40 60 60 N S
10
8
6
4
2
P
R
E
S
S
U
R
E

(
1
0
4
P
a
)

0
LATITUDE
39
The Constructal Law in the framework of Physics
40
Fig. 3 Zonal mean zonal velocity in ms1 (shaded contours) and mass stream function in
1010 kg/s (lines) for a) DTR = 20K, b) 30 K, c) 60 K, d) 130 K and e)190 K ().
Stenzel and Storch (2004)
Model ECHAM (Modified) of ECMRWF
Earths rotation rate constant and equal to 24 h/day
R
) allowed to vary
Question:
What induces the formation of the three-cell system of earths meridional
circulation, really?
For AT
R
= 20 K only one cell develops;
For AT
R
= 30 K two cell develop;
For AT
R
= 60 K (actual earths conditions) and AT
R
= 130 K
three cell develop;
For ATR = 190 K only two cell develop; the Polar cell
disappears!
The Constructal Law in the framework of Physics
41
Constructal Law
Maximization of heat flow leaving the equatorial belt To each T
H
corresponds
infinity surface partitions x=A
H
/A. One maximizes the heat flow q)
0
x
T
, 0
x
T
, 0
x
q
2
L
2
L
T
H
>
c
c
=
c
c
= |
.
|

\
|
c
c
With T
H
fixed, each curve q(x)
TH
, shows a maximum,
which defines T
L.
. Then, with both T
L
and T
H
, x may
be determined from the equation:
4.3
4.4
4.5
4.6
0.4 0.42 0.44 0.46 0.48
x
q
X
1
0
1
5
W

T
L
=275.56K
T
L
=275.51K
T
H
=294.1K
T
H
=294.0K
T
H
=293.9K
T
L
=275.53K
B
2
T ) x 1 ( T x
4
L
4
H
t
= +
The optimum point is determined from the
minimum T
L
and corresponds to T
L
=275.51K and
T
H
=294.0K, with x
opt.
= 0.434, which corresponds
to latitude 2540
The Constructal Law in the framework of Physics
42
0
x
T
, 0
x
T
, 0
x
q
2
H
2
H
T
L
<
c
c
=
c
c
= |
.
|

\
|
c
c
B
2
T ) x 1 ( T x
4
L
4
H
t
= +
The optimum point is defined by the maximum of
T
H
and corresponds to T
H
=288K e T
L
=265.5K, with
x
opt.
= 0.8, which corresponds to latitude 5310
5.8
6.2
6.4
6.6
0.75 0.8 0.85
x
q

(
X
1
0
1
5
W
)

6.0
T
L
=267.0K
T
L
=266.5K
T
L
=266.0K
T
H
=287.97K
T
H
=288.03K
T
H
=288.01K
Maximization of heat flow reaching the polar zone To each T
L
corresponds
infinity surface partitions x=A
H
/A.
Constructal Law
With T
L
fixed, each curve q(x)
Tl
, shows a maximum,
which defines T
L.
. Then, with both T
L
and T
H
, x may
be determined from the equation:
The Constructal Law in the framework of Physics
43

LAT=2540 N
LAT=2540 S

x=0. 43
q

q

LAT=5310 N

LAT=5310 S
x=0. 80
q

q

I

II

T
L
=275. 7K
T
L
=275. 7K
T
H
=293. 9K
T
L
=265. 5K
T
L
=265. 5K
T
H
=288. 0K
240
250
260
270
280
290
300
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
x
T
(
K
)

L
A
T
=
2
5

4
0

L
A
T
=
5
3

1
0

T
L

T
L

T
H

T
H

The Constructal Law in the framework of Physics
44
Average temperature on earths surface
<T>I = 0.434 293.9 K + (1 0.434) 275.5 = 283.5 K
<T>II = 0.800 288 K + (1 0.800) 265.5 = 283.5 K
Average temperature in the zone between the heat source and the heat sink
(Ferrel Cell), T
HL
=281.5K
0.434 293.5 K + (0.8 0.434)T
HL
= 0.8 288 K
3.86
3.87
3.88
3.89
3.90
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90
LAT ()
S
g
e
n

(
1
0
1
4

W
/
K
)

x
=
0
.
4
3

x
=
0
.
8

Entropy generated as function of
surface partition, x
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
t o =
H L s H
2
0 gen
T
1
T
1
q
T
1
T
1
R ) 1 ( S S
The Constructal Law in the framework of Physics
45

The constructal optimization provided the equator to pole temperature difference
and the three-cell regime of meridional circulation. The poleward heat transfer
seems to be determinant of the flow structure in line with the results of Stenzel
and von Storch (2004)
At slow rotation, the role of Earths rotation rate is determinant because it
controls the temperature gradient between dark and illuminate
hemispheres, but for values of day rotation period lower that 24 h it does
not affect significantly the position of the three cells, as shown by
Jenkins (1996)
What is behind the three-cell system ?
Earths rotation rate and/or equator to pole temperature difference?
The Constructal Law in the framework of Physics

River basins -
Constructal theory

A. Heitor Reis (2006) Geomorphology, 78, 201-206
Bejan, A., Lorente, S., Miguel, A. F. and Reis, A. H.: Constructal
theory of distribution of river sizes, 13. 4, pp. 774-779, in
Bejan, A.: Advanced Engineering Thermodynamics, 3rd ed.,
Wiley, Hoboken, NJ, 2006

46

River Douro

Length (km): 897
Drainage Area (km
2
): 97290
Discharge (m
3
/s): 488
The Constructal Law in the framework of Physics
47
CONSTRUCTAL THEORY (Bejan)
River basins as area-to-point flows
First construct made of elemental areas, A
0
= H
0
L
0
.
A new channel of higher permeability collects flow from the
elemental areas.
The Constructal Law in the framework of Physics
e
e1
e2
e3
River networks are self-similar structures over a range of scales
L 1 i i
R L L =

lengths:
1.5 <R
L
<3.5
B i 1 i
R n n =

Hortons law of stream

numbers:
3 <R
B
<5

L
e
= o(A
e
)
b

b ~0.56 0.5
Hacks law
( )
2
s
D 694 . 0 F =
Meltons law:
D
e
= L
T
/A ; F
s
= N
e
/A
The Constructal Law in the framework of Physics
49
D2
Do
D1
Ao Ao
Do
D1
D2
Lo
5 2
i i i i
D L m z A
(a) (b)
Paris, 1 Juin 2009
Thorie constructale et gomtries multi-chelle
Minimization of Az
Total area, total channel
volume fixed
7 4
1 0
2
/
D D

=
7 2
2 1
2
/
D D

=
7 3
1 0
2
/
D D

=
7 3
2 1
2
/
D D

=
m

Turbulent flow
The Constructal Law in the framework of Physics
50
D2
Do
D1
Ao
D3
Ao
Do
D1
D2
D3
D4
815 0. z z
d c
= A A
Quadrupling is better than assembling 8 elements
(c)
(d)
m

The Constructal Law in the framework of Physics

51
The Constructal Law in the framework of Physics
52
Conclusions
The scaling laws of geometric features of river basins can be anticipated based on Constructal
Theory, which views the pathways by which drainage networks develop in a basin not as the result
of chance but as flow architectures that originate naturally as the result of minimization of the
overall resistance to flow (Constructal Law).
The ratios of constructal lengths of consecutive streams match Hortons law for the same ratio.
Agreement is also found with the number of consecutive streams that match Hortons law of
ratios of consecutive stream numbers.
Hacks law is also correctly anticipated by Constructal Theory, which provides Hacks exponent
accurately.
Meltons law is verified approximately by Constructal Theory, which indicates 2.45 instead of 2
for the Meltons exponent.
It was also shown that also with turbulent flow quadrupling is better than assembling eight
elements, therefore anticipating Hortons law of ratios of consecutive stream numbers
As has been demonstrated with many other examples either from engineering or from animate
structures, the development of flow architectures is governed by the Constructal Law.
The Constructal Law in the framework of Physics
53
Scaling laws of street networks
A. Heitor Reis (2007), Physica A, 387, 617622
Paris, 11 Jui 2009
Thorie constructale et gomtries multi-chelle The Constructal Law in the framework of Physics
54
Lisboa, Portugal
The Constructal Law in the framework of Physics
55
Cities possess self-similar structures that repeat
over a hierarchy of scales (Alexander, 1977, Krier, 1998).
Idealism: Because cities are complex man-made systems
self-similarity springs out of the congenital ideas of beauty and
harmony shared by mankind.
Constructal theory: As with every living system, city
networks have evolved in time such as to provide easier and
Are city structures fractal objects? (Salingaros, 1995,
Salingaros and West 1999). If yes, then why? Fractal geometry
provides descriptions, rather than explanations!
The Constructal Law in the framework of Physics
56
FRACTAL DESCRIPTION
Hierarchically organized structures:
a structure of dimension x is repeated at the scales rx, r
2
x, r
3
x, ...,
Self-similarity at various scales

The number of pieces N(X) of size X seems to follow an inverse-power
distribution law of the type
or
m fractal dimension
n
0 n
r X X

=
nm
0 n
r CX ) X ( N

=
( )
m
CX X N

=
( ) ( ) x r rx
m
| = |
The Constructal Law in the framework of Physics
57
FLOW STRUCTURES IN A LIVING CITY
The Constructal Law in the framework of Physics
58
Rivers of People and goods
and drainage basins
Self-similarity at various scales
The same scaling
laws hold
( )
n
L 0 n
R L L

=
( )
n
N n
R N =
The Constructal Law in the framework of Physics
59
Notice that the scale factor is given by
2 ~ r
L
L
1 n
n
=
+
Therefore
( ) ( ) L N 2 L 2 N
m
=
, therefore m = 2 4 ~
N
N
n
1 n+
m = fractal dimension
( ) ( ) x r rx
m
| = |
mn
n
r ) L ( N =
nm
0 n
r CX ) X ( N

=
The Constructal Law in the framework of Physics
60
Chen and Zhou (2006) found that the fractal dimension of some German cities
range from 1.5 (Frankfurt) to 1.8 (Stuttgart).
Batty and Longley (1994) have determined the fractal dimension of cities by using
maps from different years. They found values typically between 1.4 and 1.9.
Londons fr actal dimension in 1962 was 1.77, Berlins in 1945 was 1.69, and
Pittsburghs in 1990 was 1.78. Dimensions closer to 2 stand for denser cities.
Shen (2002), carried out a study on the fractal dimension of the major 20 US
cities and found that the fractal dimension, m, varied in between 1.3 for Omaha
(population 0.86 million) and 1.7 for New York City (population 16.4 million).
In the same study it is also shown that in the period 17921992 the fractal
dimension of Baltimore has increased from 0.7 to 1.7, which indicates that the
city network has been optimized in time.

The Constructal Law in the framework of Physics
61
( )
m
0 n n
L L ) L ( N

=
1000
500
250
125
62,5
31,25
15,625
7,8125
1
10
100
1000
10000
100000
0 200 400 600 800 1000
Dimension (m)
n
u
m
b
e
r

o
f

p
i
e
c
e
s

scale of the largest street
1000m
The Constructal Law in the framework of Physics
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Plan of a medieval city
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CONCLUSIONS
Systems out of equilibrium with internal freedom to morph
develop internal structured flow structures that are predicted by
the Constructal Law.

The internal flow structures evolve in time so as to provide
them.

easier and easier access means progress towards minimum
global resistance (and flow time) that match the system
constraints.

The Constructal Law is a law of Nature.

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Sand size versus beachface slope a constructal explanation
A. Heitor Reis and Cristina Gama, Geomorphology, (2009)

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Paris, 11 Juin 2009
Thorie construcale et gomtries multi-chelle

Darcy flow
Kozeny-Carman
Mannings eq.
Mass conservation:
SWASH FLOWS
uprush backwash
Iribarren Number
H0 - Open ocean wave height
Plunging waves Spilling waves
d - sand grain size
= tan (beachface slope)
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Constructal law (equivalent formulation)
Equivalent to flow maximization under the existing constraints is minimization of
total time for a fixed amount of water to complete a swash cycle
H0 and d are fixed
Equilibrium beachface slope
0 Iribarren Number; H0 Open ocean wave height; S grain sphericity ; | - Sand bed porosity;
v viscosity (water ); h equivalent channel wetted perimeter: n Mannings coefficient (sand bed)
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A B : normal beachface evolution
A B : beachface evolution at constant
sand grain size (same sand bed implies
decreasing slope)
A B : beachface evolution with
modification of sand bed (coarser sands
allow keeping steeper beachface )
Plunging waves
Spillingwaves
Sand grain size against equilibrium beachface slope
As the response to wave
climate beachface morph in
slope and sand bed
composition
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Sand grain size against equilibrium beachface slope
Spilling waves
Spilling waves are common
in pocket beaches
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Beachface Engineering
E F : normal beachface evolution
E F: beachface evolution at constant
sand grain size (if the bed rock does not
allow reaching the equilibrium slope all
sand will be removed to the sea bottom)
F G: beachface slope can be restored if
the is fed with coarser sand
F H : sand bar may be formed that
decreases wave height
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Towards equilibrium flow structures
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Performance vs freedom to change configuration, at fixed global external size
L - length scale of the body bathed by the tree flow
V - global internal size, e.g., the total volume of the ducts
L
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Performance vs freedom to change configuration, at fixed global internal size
L - length scale of the body bathed by the tree flow
V - global internal size, e.g., the total volume of the ducts
L
The Constructal Law in the framework of Physics
TERMODINMICA TEORIA CONSTRUCTAL
Processo Mudana de estrutura
Propriedades (U, S, V, ...) Objectivo e constrangimentos globais (R, L, V,...)
Estado de equilbrio Arquitectura de escoamentos de equilbrio
Relao fundamental U(S, V, ...) Relao fundamental R(L, V, ...)
Estados de no-equilbrio Arquitectura de escoamentos de no-equilbrio
Remoo de constrangimentos Liberdade de evoluo de forma e estrutura
2 Lei Lei Constructal
S mximo a U, V, ... constantes;
U mnimo a S, V, ... constantes;
V mximo a S, U, ... constantes
R mnimo a L, V, ... constantes;
V mnimo a R, L, ... constantes;
L mximo a R, V, ... constantes;
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