You are on page 1of 35

PTT 101, The Science of Soils

Introduction

Reading Materials:

Brady NC, 1990. The Nature and Properties of Soils


Supardi, 1989. Sifat dan Ciri Tanah

Foto: Kurniatun Hairiah, 2002

Course Objectives
To learn the appropriate use of the terms soil To understand the components of soils To understand the concept of soil and its importance. To gain knowledge about the relationship of soil and environment.

Permukaan Bumi terbentuk INTI KERAK BUMI MANTEL melalui dua macam proses:

1. Proses INTERNAL yang berasal dari dalam Bumi

*LITOSFER = Kerak Bumi + Mantel bagian atas


KERAK

BUMI

MANTEL

dipengaruhi oleh: Panas dari interior Bumi Gaya gravitasi ** Panas tinggi menyebabkan mantel meleleh dan mengalir perlahan pergerakan lempeng tektonik + 3 cm/thn

INTI

2. Proses EKSTERNAL yang terjadi di permukaan Bumi

dipengaruhi oleh: Matahari gaya gravitasi angin, gelombang & arus air ** Proses yang terjadi termasuk pelapukan (fisis, kimiawi, biologis) & erosi (mass wasting)

Pengetahuan Lingkungan 2004 Departemen Biologi ITB (dnc/rre)

Ilustrasi: Miller 2000

Proses internal dan eksternal Bumi mengakibatkan terbentuknya:

1 Bentang alam (landscape)


2 Sumber daya mineral* logam (mis. besi, tembaga) dan non-logam (mis. pasir, fosfat, garam, gips), termasuk sumber daya energi (mis. batubara, minyak & gas bumi, uranium)
*Sumber daya mineral : kandungan bahan alam dalam bentuk padat, cairan atau gas di dalam atau di atas permukaan Bumi dalam bentuk dan jumlah yang akan menguntungkan apabila diekstraksi dan dikonversi menjadi bahan yang bermanfaat (sekarang atau di masa yang akan datang) (Miller 2000). Sumber daya mineral terkandung dalam batuan yang membentuk kerak Bumi.

Pengetahuan Lingkungan 2004 Departemen Biologi ITB (dnc/rre)

Tanah mentah

Tanah muda

Tanah matang

*Tipe tanah dipengaruhi oleh : Iklim Topografi Jenis batuan induk Vegetasi & organisme lain Waktu pembentukan

Ilustrasi: Miller 2000

Penampang tegak tanah


Apabila kita menggali tanah dan membuat irisan tegak tanah, maka akan nampak/terlihat adanya lapisan atau horison tanah, irisan tegak tanah tersebut adalah profil tanah.

Penampang tegak tanah (profil tanah)

Horison tanah

Regolit

Bahan lepas satu sama lain yang terdapat dalam horison/lapisan tanah

What is SOIL?
Unconsolidated materials overlying rocks Regolith Part of regolith which weathered biochemically Soil

Solum, lapisan olah dan lapisan bawah


Lapisan olah

Solum tanah
Lapisan bawah

Lapisan batuan/bahan induk tanah

Soil!

Habitat of soil organism System for water supply & purification


Foto: Kurniatun Hairiah, 2002

Medium of plant growth

Pot materials

Pedological or Edaphological or Both?


Pedology :
The study of Soil as a natural body and does not focus on the soils immediate practical use.

It examnies and classifies soil as they occur in their natural environment. Construction engineers, highway etc

Edaphology:
The study of Soil from the standpoint of higher plants. plant production!

Pengertian tanah ditinjau dari segi pedologik dan edafologik


Pengertian tanah ditinjau dari segi pedologi semata-mata merupakan tubuh alami tanpa memperhatikan kegunaannya secara praktikal
Pengertian tanah ditinjau dari segi edafologik merupakan tubuh alami yang dapat digunakan untuk memproduksi tanaman

Soil Function: Nutrient Cycling


Plant Roots

Litter

Litter (Serasah): Dead leaf (Daun gugur )

Twigs (tangkai daun + ranting)


Branches (cabang)

Soil

Road construction

GOLD MINING: Soil is dirt..It has to be removed!

Gatra, August 02

TANAH
Tubuh alam yang dinamis.
Terbentuk karena adanya proses alam (fisik, kimia dan biologi). Dipengaruhi oleh iklim, topografi, bahan induk tanah, waktu.
Foto: Meine van Noordwijk, 2002

Soil is a living entity that is continually undergoing development; dirt is stagnant remnants of organic and mineral matter

SOIL COMPONENTS
For optimum plant growth

Air 25 %

Water 25 % Mineral 45%


organic 5%

representative, medium-textured surface soil (by volume)

Tanah mineral dan tanah organik


Tanah mineral adalah tanah yang terbentuk dari hasil pelapukan mineral-meniral tanah (batuan) kandungan bahan organik tanah kurang dari 5%
Tanah organik adalah tanah yang terbentu dari hasil pelapukan bahan organik tanah, kandungan bahan organik tanah lebih besar dari 30% hing kedalaman 60 cm.

Soil is alive!

Ekologi Tanah, gabungan: Ekologi (orientasi organisma)

Ilmu Tanah: klasifikasi, genesis, fisika, kimia, biologi


Overlap ke dua ilmu

a. b.

c. d.

TANAH : Bahan anorganik (liat, debu, pasir) Bahan organik tanah Hidup (biomas) Mati (nekromas) Air Udara

GOOD SOIL, MORE DIVERSITY !


Foto: M.van Noordwijk, 2002

Herbi- & detritivores


dungbeetle spider

Predators
scorpion

snail millipede
Isopoda centipede earthworm termite

fungi bacteria algae

protozoa

Collembola

Belowground ZOO

Beetle larva

nematoda

Staphylinid beetle

Solid Phase - Mineral


Classification by Size primary particles
USDA size separates effective diameter
Gravel - >2000 m Sand 50 m to 2000 m Silt 2 m to 50 m Clay < 2 m Colloids < 1 m

Relative proportion (by mass) of size separates determines Soil Texture

Solid Phase - Mineral


Classification by Mineralogy

Primary minerals rock


Formed at high temp/pressure Gravel, sand, silt

Secondary minerals soil or clay


Formed at low temp/pressure Clay and some silt

Solid Phase - Mineral


Classification by Shape secondary part.

Primary particles - individual crystals Secondary particles group of primary particles adhering together
Clods, peds, aggregates, micelles

Shape/arrangement of secondary particles describes Soil Structure

Solid Phase - Organic


Biomass (plant roots, organisms) Residue (dead but identifiable) Organic matter (everything else) Decomposed and re-synthesized Humus Soluble (liquid phase) 0 to 6% (by mass) in A horizons <1% (by mass) in subsurface horizons Biomass/Residue variable OM stable

Solid Phase - Organic


Organic matter always considered a positive feature of soil Holds water in sandy soil Helps drain and aerate clayey soil Increase aggregation of sandy soil Decreases clods in clayey soils Source/Reservoir of complete nutrition Mineralization - Immobilization

Liquid Phase Soil Water


Soil water is a solution not pure Soil water bonds to soil and water
Adhesion water to soil Cohesion water to water Soil holds on to water more tightly when there is less water in soil

Water and air share pore space Water/air interface important for physical properties and water flow

Liquid Phase Soil Water


Soil Solution is aqueous solution
Essential plant nutrients supplied by soil are water soluble Uptake from mineral surf is unlikely

Soil pH refers to soil solution pH Solution chemistry usually dominates chemistry of added pollutants Soil/water interface is most reactive part of soil (surface chemistry)

Gas Phase Soil Air


Dominate gases same as air O2 depleted by respiration (0-20%) soil can be anoxic/anaerobic CO2 enriched by respiration (0.3-5%) Plant roots require ~ direct access to air Diffusion of gas through water too slow Balance between soil water and soil air Soil air responsible for transport of volatile organics and water vapor

Consequences of Misuse: Horticulture on steep slope (West Lampung, 2002)

Foto: Kurniatun Hairiah, 2002

Consequences of Misuse: Coffee monoculture on sloping land (West Lampung, 2002)

Foto: Kurniatun Hairiah, 2002

Consequences of Misuse: Water pollution

Consequences of Misuse: Sand Mining in the Forest Land (C. Kalimantan, 2002)

Lets SAFE our SOIL!

Foto: Eko Handayanto, 2002