You are on page 1of 27

Chapter 2 Operational Amplifiers

Introduction

Textbook CD

Chapter 2 – Operational Amplifiers Introduction <a href=http://engr.calvin.edu/PRibeiro_WEBPAGE/courses/engr311/Handouts/OpAmp-tutorial-1.ppt Textbook CD http://www.clarkson.edu/%7Esvoboda/eta/designLab/InvertingAmplifierDesign.html " id="pdf-obj-0-14" src="pdf-obj-0-14.jpg">

The OP-AMP Terminals

Symbol Power Supplies

The OP-AMP Terminals Symbol Power Supplies
The OP-AMP Terminals Symbol Power Supplies
The OP-AMP Terminals Symbol Power Supplies
The OP-AMP Terminals Symbol Power Supplies

Fairchild uA702 The first op-amp designed by Bob Widlar

Fairchild uA702 – The first op-amp designed by Bob Widlar

The OP-AMP Terminals

The OP-AMP Terminals
The OP-AMP Terminals

The OP-AMP Terminals

The OP-AMP Terminals
The OP-AMP Terminals

The Ideal OP-AMP

_ i (-) Inverting R O v id A R i Output v O = A
_
i
(-)
Inverting
R O
v
id
A
R i
Output
v O = A d v id
Noninverting
i
(+)
+
-V S

Open-loop gain

Analysis of Circuits Containing Ideal OP-AMPS

The Inverting Configuration

Analysis of Circuits Containing Ideal OP-AMPS The Inverting Configuration Closed-Loop Gain Virtual Short-Circuit Virtual Ground Negative

Closed-Loop Gain Virtual Short-Circuit Virtual Ground

Negative and Positive Feedback

The inverting closed-loop configuration.

Analysis of Circuits Containing Ideal OP-AMPS

The Closed-Loop Gain

-
-

Analysis of the inverting configuration

Analysis of Circuits Containing Ideal OP-AMPS

Effect of Finite Open-Loop Gain

Analysis of Circuits Containing Ideal OP-AMPS Effect of Finite Open-Loop Gain   v  

v

o

A

R1

 

i

 R2

 

1

 

1

 

v o

 v I A R1   v o    v I  v
v I
A
R1
v o
v I
v o
A
A
R1

v

I

i 1

Analysis of Circuits Containing Ideal OP-AMPS Effect of Finite Open-Loop Gain   v  
G
G

v o

v o

Analysis of Circuits Containing Ideal OP-AMPS Effect of Finite Open-Loop Gain   v  

A

R2

v o

Analysis of Circuits Containing Ideal OP-AMPS Effect of Finite Open-Loop Gain   v  

v

I

R1

R2

R1

1

A

R2

Analysis of Circuits Containing Ideal OP-AMPS

Exercise 2.1

Analysis of Circuits Containing Ideal OP-AMPS

Input and Output Resistances

Analysis of Circuits Containing Ideal OP-AMPS Input and Output Resistances i R o v I v

R i

R o

v I v I v i I I R1 0
v I
v I
v
i I
I
R1
0

R1

Analysis of Circuits Containing Ideal OP-AMPS

Exercise 2.2

Other Applications of the Inverting Configuration

With General Impedances

v s

R 2

 

Z2

Other Applications of the Inverting Configuration With General Impedances v s R 2 Z2 R 1
 

R 1

 

Z1

i

s

+
+
Other Applications of the Inverting Configuration With General Impedances v s R 2 Z2 R 1
Other Applications of the Inverting Configuration With General Impedances v s R 2 Z2 R 1
Other Applications of the Inverting Configuration With General Impedances v s R 2 Z2 R 1

v

o

Other Applications of the Inverting Configuration

The Integrator

v s

Other Applications of the Inverting Configuration The Integrator v s i c C i - +

i

  • c C

i - +
i
-
+
Other Applications of the Inverting Configuration The Integrator v s i c C i - +

v o

R
i

s
s

v o (t)

t  1  v (t) d t  I C R  0
t
1
v
(t)
d
t
I
C R
0
V o 1 s C R V I
V o
1
s C R
V I

Other Applications of the Inverting Configuration

PSpice Simulation Tips

Other Applications of the Inverting Configuration PSpice Simulation Tips

Other Applications of the Inverting Configuration

The Differentiator

Z2 = R

v s

R 2

 
Other Applications of the Inverting Configuration The Differentiator Z2 = R v s R 2 R
R 1
R 1

Z1 = 1/sC

i

s

+
+
Other Applications of the Inverting Configuration The Differentiator Z2 = R v s R 2 R
Other Applications of the Inverting Configuration The Differentiator Z2 = R v s R 2 R

v

o

Other Applications of the Inverting Configuration

The Weighted Summer

Other Applications of the Inverting Configuration

The Non-Inverting Configuration

vi
vi
  • v 2

  • v o

 v 1 v I
v 1
v I

v o

Other Applications of the Inverting Configuration The Non-Inverting Configuration vi v 2 v o  v

A

v I

R1

R2

v o

Other Applications of the Inverting Configuration The Non-Inverting Configuration vi v 2 v o  v

v I

1

R2

R1

A

Other Applications of the Inverting Configuration The Non-Inverting Configuration vi v 2 v o  v

infinit

Other Applications of the Inverting Configuration

The Voltage Follower

Other Applications of the Inverting Configuration The Voltage Follower

Other Applications of the Inverting Configuration

The Difference Amplifier

Other Applications of the Inverting Configuration The Difference Amplifier A difference amplifier.

A difference amplifier.

Other Applications of the Inverting Configuration

The Difference Amplifier

Other Applications of the Inverting Configuration The Difference Amplifier Applications of superposition to the analysis of
Other Applications of the Inverting Configuration The Difference Amplifier Applications of superposition to the analysis of

Other Applications of the Inverting Configuration The Difference Amplifier Input Resistances

Other Applications of the Inverting Configuration The Difference Amplifier – Input Resistances Finding the input resistance

Finding the input resistance of the difference amplifier.

Other Applications of the Inverting Configuration

The Difference Amplifier Common-Mode and Differential Components of the input signal

Other Applications of the Inverting Configuration The Difference Amplifier – Common-Mode and Differential Components of the

Representation of the common-mode and differential components of the input signal to a difference amplifier. Note that v 1 = v CM - v d /2 and v 2 = v CM + v d /2.

Other Applications of the Inverting Configuration

Instrumentation Amplifier

Other Applications of the Inverting Configuration Instrumentation Amplifier (a) A popular circuit for an instrumentation amplifier.
Other Applications of the Inverting Configuration Instrumentation Amplifier (a) A popular circuit for an instrumentation amplifier.
Other Applications of the Inverting Configuration Instrumentation Amplifier (a) A popular circuit for an instrumentation amplifier.

(a) A popular circuit for an instrumentation amplifier. (b) Analysis of the circuit in (a) assuming ideal op-amps. (c) To make the gain variable, R 1 is implemented as the series combination of a fixed resister R 1f and a variable resistor R 1v . Resistor R 1f ensures that the maximum available gain is limited.

Effect Of Finite Open-Loop Gain and Bandwidth On Circuit

Performance

Effect Of Finite Open-Loop Gain and Bandwidth On Circuit Performance Open-loop gain of a typical general-purpose

Open-loop gain of a typical general-purpose internally compensated op amp.

fb = 3-db or break frequency

ft = unity gain bandwidth

(a) Unity-gain follower. (b) Input step waveform. (c) Linearly rising output waveform obtained when the amplifier
(a) Unity-gain follower. (b) Input step waveform. (c) Linearly rising output waveform obtained when the amplifier
(a) Unity-gain follower. (b) Input step waveform. (c) Linearly rising output waveform obtained when the amplifier
(a) Unity-gain follower. (b) Input step waveform. (c) Linearly rising output waveform obtained when the amplifier

(a) Unity-gain follower. (b) Input step waveform. (c) Linearly rising output waveform obtained when the amplifier is slew-rate limited. (d) Exponentially rising output waveform obtained when V is sufficiently small so that the initial slope (w t V) is smaller then or equal to SR.

Effect of slew-rate limiting on output sinusoidal waveforms.

Effect of slew-rate limiting on output sinusoidal waveforms.