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# Introduction

### http://www.clarkson.edu/%7Esvoboda/eta/designLab/InvertingAmplifierDesign.html

http://engr.calvin.edu/PRibeiro_WEBPAGE/courses/engr311/Handouts/OpAmp-tutorial-1.ppt Textbook CD http://www.clarkson.edu/%7Esvoboda/eta/designLab/InvertingAmplifierDesign.html " id="pdf-obj-0-14" src="pdf-obj-0-14.jpg">

_
i
(-)
Inverting
R O
v
id
A
R i
Output
v O = A d v id
Noninverting
i
(+)
+
-V S

# The Closed-Loop Gain

-

Analysis of the inverting configuration

# Effect of Finite Open-Loop Gain

   v    o A   R1 i  R2 1  1  

v o

v I
A
R1
v o
v I
v o
A
A
R1

v

I

i 1

G

v o

v o

A

R2

v o

v

I

R1

R2

R1

1

A

R2

R i

R o

v I
v I
v
i I
I
R1
0

R1

v s

R 2

R 1

i

s

+

v

o

v s

i

• c C

i
-
+

v o

R
i

s

v o (t)

t
1
v
(t)
d
t
I
C R
0
V o
1
s C R
V I

v s

 R 2
R 1

i

s

+

v

o

vi
• v 2

• v o

v 1
v I

v o

A

v I

R1

R2

v o

v I

1

R2

R1

A

infinit

# The Difference Amplifier

A difference amplifier.

# Other Applications of the Inverting Configuration The Difference Amplifier – Input Resistances

Finding the input resistance of the difference amplifier.

# The Difference Amplifier – Common-Mode and Differential Components of the input signal

Representation of the common-mode and differential components of the input signal to a difference amplifier. Note that v 1 = v CM - v d /2 and v 2 = v CM + v d /2.

# Instrumentation Amplifier

(a) A popular circuit for an instrumentation amplifier. (b) Analysis of the circuit in (a) assuming ideal op-amps. (c) To make the gain variable, R 1 is implemented as the series combination of a fixed resister R 1f and a variable resistor R 1v . Resistor R 1f ensures that the maximum available gain is limited.

# ft = unity gain bandwidth

(a) Unity-gain follower. (b) Input step waveform. (c) Linearly rising output waveform obtained when the amplifier is slew-rate limited. (d) Exponentially rising output waveform obtained when V is sufficiently small so that the initial slope (w t V) is smaller then or equal to SR.

Effect of slew-rate limiting on output sinusoidal waveforms.