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STRUCTURE 2

CONJUNCTION TYPES
A conjunction is a word that joins two parts or more of a sentence. There are three types of conjunctions: 1. Coordinating Conjunctions 2. Subordinating Conjunctions 3. Correlative Conjunctions

COORDINATING CONJUNCTION: WORDS


Coordinating conjunction (And, Or, But) is used to join parallel units or words such as: nouns, verbs, adjectives and adverbs. Parallel units mean the words are at the same type like nouns with nouns, verbs with verbs, adjectives with adjectives and adverbs with adverbs. Non parallel units cannot be joined by a coordinating conjunction. A comma used for more than two units. Examples: Nouns: Verbs: Anton and Toni jumped and ran Pens or pencils sing, dance, and play Adjectives: Adverbs: Stupid, careless, but beautiful slowly and carefully Happy or cheerful quickly but quietly

COORDINATING CONJUNCTION: PHRASES


Coordinating conjunction (And, Or, But) is used to join two phrases or more. A phrase is a group of related words that does not have neither a subject, predicate nor complement. Examples: The traditional songs and the national anthem. (noun phrase) The swimming girl and the climbing boy. (verbal phrase: present participle) Helped by friends, saved by brothers, and taken care by parents. (verbal phrase: past participle) My big brother, my mother, and my little sister. (noun phrase) In the classroom or under the trees. (prep phrase) I enjoy eating healthy food and drinking mineral water. (verbal phrase: gerund) By their own cars but by public transportation. (prep phrase) On vacation or on business. (prep phrase)

COORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS: CLAUSES


Coordinating conjunction is used to join two independent clauses. Coordinating conjunctions for joining dependent clauses are and, or, and but. And is to give an additional information. Or is to show an option/an alternative. But is to show a contradiction. Examples: I dont know where he left the town, or why he wanted to do so. Even though we have been through hard times, and we fall so many times, I believe we can bear it. The officers were sure that he robbed the bank, but they could not find the evidence.

COORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS: CLAUSES


Coordinating conjunctions for joining independent clauses are for, and, but, or, yet, and so. For is to give a reason. Yet is similar to but to show a contradiction. So is to give an effect. Examples: Our parents expect us to be behaved children, so they educate us well. The sun shone very brightly, but the wind blew very coldly. He understand the lesson, yet he keeps getting bad scores. I love the actor, for he acts amazingly. The spring has just started, and the flowers begin to blossom.

FUNCTIONAL UNIT JOINED BY COORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS


1. Compound Subjects Amir and Maruli are from North Sumatra. Where I live and where they live are in the same city. What he does or why he does it is not my business. 2. Compound Predicates I got up, took a bath, and had a breakfast. On Sundays she goes to the restaurant or goes shopping in a department store 3. Compound Objects My mother likes knitting and sewing. They asked the parents and their children to be quiet.

FUNCTIONAL UNIT JOINED BY COORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS


4. Compound Modifiers He was tired but happy. The movie is uninteresting but educating. The lesson is important and interesting. Note: Compound subjects use plural verb if they are plural Nouns (countable nouns). - Mr. Carlos and his wife are very friendly. Compound subjects use singular verb if they are singular nouns (uncountable nouns). - Rice and bread is good to boost our energy.

FUNCTIONAL UNIT JOINED BY COORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS


Note: Singular compound subjects joined by or use singular verb. The president or the vice president dedicates the national museum. Compound subjects with different numbers depend on the last subject to decide whether the verb is singular or plural. The players or the couch is figuring out how to win. The teacher and the students receive the award.

SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS
A subordinating conjunction is used to join a dependent clause and an independent clause. A. Single-word subordinating conjunctions B. Two-word subordinating conjunctions C. Prepositional phrase subordinating conjunctions D. Split conjunctions

List of single-word subordinating conjunctions

after, before, that, until, although, if, though, whenever, as, once, till, whereas, because, since, unless, while

TIME: after, as, before, once, since, till, until, when(ever), while. Examples: After you finish the task, you may leave. I screamed as someone broke in the house. She cried before she said goodbye. Once the secret is revealed, everyone will be shocked. I am fond of biking since I was young. He wont let you go till you say sorry. Until the restaurant is open, we can eat there. The participant may start when(ever) they are ready.

Single-word subordinating conjunction functions

PLACE: where(ver) Examples: You need someone to talk to where/wherever you live. CAUSE: as, because, since Examples: He got upset as the crew made many mistakes. The cat is sleepy because it eats a lot. I am preparing a party since its my best friends birth day.

Single-word subordinating conjunction functions

CONTRAST: although, though, whereas, while Examples: Although they are poor, they always look happy. I have to attend the night class though I am sleepy. We smile at each other whereas we often fight. While he gets lazy, his brother studies hard. CONDITION: if, unless, when Examples: If I am rich, I will buy luxurious cars. You cannot take the exam unless you finish the task. When it rains, children get inside their houses.

Single-word subordinating conjunction functions

Single-word subordinating conjunction functions


PURPOSE: that Examples: They had to install the alarm system in their houses that they might have a better protection of their belongings. The convict should hire a lawyer that he can be bailed out from the prison. My father will see a doctor that he has his body examined .

Two-word subordinating conjunction


In as much as Assuming (that) If only Provided/providing that As if In case So that As though Only if

CAUSE: in as much as, now (that) Examples: The government must had found a way to defend in as much as the colony invaded the country and its citizens. Now that you understand the rule, you cannot violate it anymore. CONTRAST: assuming that Example: Assuming that the weather broadcast said it is raining today, the sky is now very bright and shiny.

Two-word subordinating conjunction functions

Two-word subordinating conjunction functions


CONDITION: provided/providing that, if only, in case, only if Examples: Provided/providing that the bank is already open, I will draw some money. He could have been better if only the nurse took care of him more carefully. You can contact me in case you need a help. We shall go to the zoo only if you stop crying.

Two-word subordinating conjunction functions


MANNER: as if, as though The children act as if they were adults. He carried the box as if it was very light. You are asking many questions as though you do not understand anything. They spend money as though there is no tomorrow. PURPOSE & RESULT: so that The restaurant gives many extra services so that the costumers will come over and over again.

Prepositional phrase subordinating conjunction


There are three types of subordinating conjunction begin with prepositional phrase: 1.Prepositional phrase + as: as far as, as long as 2.Prepositional phrase + that: for the purpose that, for fear that, in order that, in the hope that, to the end that, in the event that, on condition that, on the ground(s) that 3.Prepositional phrase + the fact that: because of the fact that, on account of the fact that, owing to the fact that, in view of the fact that, despite the fact that, in spite of the fact that, not with standing the fact that, regardless of the fact that

Prepositional phrase + as subordinating conjunction functions


DEGREE (EXTENT): as far as As far as I am concerned, we can use the short cut to go there. TIME: as long as As long as I stay here, I will make friends. CONDITION: as long as You can pass the exam as long as you work hard. CAUSE: as long as He kept watching as long as it was his favorite show.

PURPOSE: for the purpose that, for fear that, in order that, in the hope that, in the end that The football team is selected for the purpose that they may win the competition. My daughter studies all the time for fear that she may not pass the final exam. They left very early in order that they could catch the train. The lotion is applied in the hope that the skin will be moisture. I fertilize the plants in the end that they can grow fast.

Prepositional phrase + that subordinating conjunction functions

Prepositional phrase + the fact that subordinating conjunction functions


CAUSE: because of the fact that, on account of the fact that, owing to the fact that, in view of the fact that Example: Because of the fact that, On account of the fact that, Owing to the fact that, In view of the fact that the price of all needs is increasing, many family live in poverty.

Prepositional phrase + the fact that subordinating conjunction functions


CONTRAST: despite the fact that, in spite of the fact that, not with standing the fact that, regardless of the fact that Example: Despite the fact that, In spite of the fact that, Not with standing the fact that, Regardless of the fact that he lacks of experiences, he is chosen to be employee of the month.

Split Conjunction
Split conjunction (separated conjunction) consists of two parts separated by adjectives, complements, or pronouns. The first part is a complement while the second part is the conjunction. They are: Sothat Suchthat Such (a/an) that As/sothat -er Morethan Lessthan

Split subordinating conjunction functions


RESULT: sothat, suchthat, such (a/an) that Examples: Lady Di was so beautiful that everyone liked her. That food is such delicious that I cannot stop eating. The movie has such an intriguing story that we assume it will receive an award. POSITIVE DEGREE: as/soas She is as beautiful as her mother. I am so proud as your teachers are.

Split subordinating conjunction functions


COMPARATIVE DEGREE: -er, morethan, lessthan Examples: His condition now is better than yesterday. They are smarter than their classmates. She is more diligent than her brother. This watch costs more expensive than your watch. Having a toothache is less painful than having a heartache.

Correlative Conjunctions
Correlative Conjunctions are not single words. They work in pairs. There are five pairs of correlative conjunctions:
both.and neither.nor

not only.but also

either.or

Correlative conjunction functions


- Examples of both...and (kedua-duanya): Both Dono and Indro are comedians. Both my father and my mother go to work. Both the teacher and the students were in classroom. - Examples of either...or (positive alternatives): Either students or the teacher answers the question. Either the parent or the children were infected with disease. Either we will do homework, or we will watch the movie instead.

Correlative conjunction functions


- Examples of neither...nor (atau, negatif): She speaks neither French nor Spanish. Neither he does his task nor does he attends the class. Neither we stole the money nor did we took the jewelry. - Examples of not only...but also (bukan hanyatapi juga): We have to eat not only meat but also vegetables. Not only you helped me, but also you paid the bill.

CORRELATIVE CONJUNCTIONS
Correlative conjunctions always appear in pairs and are used to link equivalent sentence elements. The most common correlative conjunctions are: - both...and (kedua-duanya): Both Dono and Indro are comedians. - either...or (atau, positif): I study either math or biology. - neither...nor (atau, negatif): She speaks neither French nor Spanish. - not only...but also (bukan hanyatapi juga): We have to eat not only meat but also vegetables. - asso (sebab akibat): As you work harder, so you will be the winner . - whether...or (apakahatau): We want to know whether you can sing or not.

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