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GRAMMAR STUDY-2

PREPARED BY KARTIKA NOEZ

3/23/2012

COMMON MULTIPLE WORD PREPOSITION


According to Ahead of Along with As a consequence of As a result of Aside from Away from Because of By means of contrary to Due to For the benefit of For the purpose of In addition to In case of In comparison with In connection with In contrast to/with In favor of In spite of Instead of Next to On account of On behalf of Prior to Regardless of Together with With reference to With regard to With respect to With the exception of

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COMMON ADJECTIVE + PREPOSITION COMBINATIONS


Associated with Aware of Based on Capable of Committed to Composed of Confined to Confused at/about Conscious of Dedicated to Different from Equal to Fond of (un) impressed by Inferior to Interested in (un)known for (dis) pleased with Puzzled at/by Qualified for (un)related to (dis)satisfied Similar to Superior to Surprised by/at

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MAIN AND SUBORDINATE CLAUSE MARKERS


All English sentences contain at least one main clause that contains a Subject and a Verb and can stand alone as a sentence. Unlike main clause, subordinate cannot stand alone as a sentence. There are three types of subordinate clauses in English: NOUN CLAUSES, ADJECTIVE CLAUSES, AND ADVERB CLAUSES A NOUN CLAUSE functions as SUBJECT, OBJECT, or COMPLEMENT in a sentence. I like what you said (Noun clause direct object) AN ADJECTIVE CLAUSE functions as an adjective in a sentence. I like the book that you gave me (Adj. clause describing book) AN ADVERB CLAUSE functions as an adverb in a sentence. Jack will call you as soon as he gets home (Adv. Cl telling when Jack will call)

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CLAUSE MARKERS (CM)


Main clauses can be connected with main clause markers called coordinating conjunctions (and, but,or,so,for, and yet). A comma is usually placed just before these conjunctions such clauses form a compound sentence. Karina has a new coat, and Carolyne has a new boots.
Main Clause CM Main Clause

Main clauses can be connected with clause markers such as however, nevertheless, in addition, as a result, on the other hand, furthermore, and moreover. When these markers are used, they are usually preceded by a semicolon (;) or a period (.) Carolyn has new boots; in addition, she has new gloves
Main Clause 3/23/2012 CM Main Clause 5

CLAUSE MARKERS (CM) Contd


The following clause markers are used in the sentence called complex sentences The clause markers for NOUN CLAUSE are that, how, how many, how much, what, when, where, why, who, whom, whose, and which. The clause markers for ADJECTIVE CLAUSE are who, whom, whose, which, that, and, sometimes, when, where, and why. There are many clause markers for adverb clauses. Some of these include after, as long as, because, as, if, unless, although, while, when, and since

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PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES AND SUBORDINATE CLAUSES


Prepositional Phrases and Subordinate Clauses function similarly, A prepositional phrase contains a preposition followed by a noun structure object. Despite his problems, John was able to finish The book on the table is mine A subordinate clause contains a subordinate clause marker followed by a clause (including a subject and a verb) Although John had some problems, he was able to finish The book that is on the table is mine
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APPOSITIVES
An appositive is a noun structure which comes just after or just before another noun structure. The appositive renames or has the same meaning as the noun structure it accompanies. Appositives are often set off by commas. Appositives come from adjective clauses. Carol, who is my colleague, studies psycholinguistics. Carol, my colleague, studies psycholinguistics.

3/23/2012