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Hydrogen as an alternative source of energy

By, SANDESH K S

What is Hydrogen ?

Necessity of using Hydrogen


It can be produced from variety of energy sources. It satisfies all energy needs from transportation to electric power generation. It is the least polluting source of energy. High energy conversion efficiency by use of H2 in Fuel Cells(UPTO 90%) in place of I.C. (30-35%) engines

Hydrogen Production
Steam reforming
Electrolysis Photo electrolysis Biomass gasification

Electrolysis

Power supply from any of renewable sources

Electrolysis of Water

Voltage of 1.23 volts is sufficient for the electrolysis of water.

The production of hydrogen at the wind farm

The production of hydrogen at the point of use

Hydrogen Storage

Hydrogen Storage Compressed gas storage Liquid storage Line pack system Underground storage Storage as metal hydrides

Hydrogen transportation.

Hydrogen transportation.
Liquid Hydrogen Transportation Metal hydride transportation

Utilizations of Hydrogen gas


Hydrogen as a fuel in Fuel cells.
A fuel cell is a device, which can be continuously fed with a fuel so that the electrical power output is obtained
2H2 + O2 2H2O+ energy

Basic Fell Cell Operation

2H2 + O2 2H2O+ Energy

PEM Fuel Cell:

Anode reaction: H2 2H+ + 2eCathode reaction: O2 + 2e- + 2H+ H2O Overall reaction: H2 + 1/2 O2 H2O

FUEL CELL APPLICATIONS


Transportation using fuel Cell Electric Vehicles

Basic Components of a fuel cell Vehicle

Hydrogen vehicles

FUEL CELL APPLICATIONS


Distributed power generation

Figure: A

Figure: B

Advantages of Fuel Cells


Fuel cells are efficient Fuel cells are clean and

environmentally safe
Fuel cells are quiet

Obstacles
Fuel cells must obtain mass-market acceptance to

succeed
At present a large portion of the investment in fuel

cells has come from auto manufacturers.


Changes in government policy could also derail fuel cell and hydrogen technology development Platinum is a key component to fuel cells

Advantages of Hydrogen
Hydrogen resources are abundant in the Nation and the world. Hydrogen is a domestic fuel. Hydrogen is a clean fuel. Hydrogen is a flexible fuel.

Disadvantages of Hydrogen
Leakage of H gas will have detrimental impacts on the stratosphere. n explosion cannot occur in a tank or any contained A location that contains only hydrogen Storage is really tough because hydrogen is such a low density gas Distribution and infrastructure needs to be refurbished to cope with hydrogen, which can effect metals by making them brittle Use in fuel cells requires catalysts, which usually require a component metal.

Hydrogen Safety

Hydrogen Safety Colourless and odourless Low ignition energy High flame temperature Invisible flame in daylight conditions Leak may self-ignite Wide range of Lower Explosive Limit to Upper Explosive Limit

Hydrogen and our energy future


Reducing the cost of hydrogen Reducing fuel cell cost and improving

durability.
Improving hydrogen storage technology

Conclusion