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6-Jan-12

PASSIVE STANDBY UNINTERRUPTABLE POWER SUPPLY (UPS) GROUP#2


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PRESENTED TO

DR. DR. FARHAT SALEEMI(DEAN) FACULTY OF ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY & MANAGEMENT SCIENCES

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PRESENTED BY
RABIA SIKANDAR AQSA ATTIQUE FAIZA WAHEED ASNA ANEES 431 432 454 458

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PROJECT ADVISOR

Ms. Nausheen Ashraf

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TOPICS UNDER DISCUSSION


 Introduction of UPS  Types of UPS  Proposed Topology of UPS  Main Circuitry of UPS 1. Control Unit 2. Battery 3. Inverter 4.Step down Transformer  Maintenance and Testing of UPS  Problems during implementation  Software Section  Hardware section
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ABSTRACT
 An uninterruptable power supply for providing backup power in the event of the disruption in the utility supplied power. power.  Due to new developments made in harmonic distortion UPS will be designed with the new topology to have low harmonics. This proposed topology will harmonics. reduce the cost of UPS. UPS.

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BACKGROUND
 Recent advancements in power electronic switching devices have enabled high-frequency switching highoperation. operation.  In a typical application, a rectifier and a highhighfrequency PWM inverter control both the voltage and frequency applied to the load and, thereby, achieve variablevariable-speed operation over a wide operating range. range.

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WHAT IS UPS?
 Uninterruptible power supply continuous power supply (CPS). (CPS). (UPS) also called

 A device which maintains a continuous supply of electric power to connecting equipments by supplying power from separate source when utility power is not available. available.

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TYPES OF UPS
 The varied types of UPS and their attributes often cause confusion in the data center industry. For industry. example, it is widely believed that there are only two types of UPS systems, namely standby UPS and online UPS. UPS. 1. Standby or passive standby UPS 2. Line Interactive UPS 3. Standby-Ferro UPS Standby4. Double Conversion On-Line UPS On5. Delta Conversion On-Line UPS On6-Jan-12 11

PROPOSED TOPOLOGY
 Our project was to implement a Pure Sine Wave Passive Standby UPS whose basic components are control system, battery charger combination and inverter. inverter.  We have implemented all sensing circuits, relay circuits, inverter circuit, battery type and switching of UPS from utility line power to inverter charger combination. combination.

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PASSIVE STANDBY UPS


 Passive Standby (or Off-Line) technology is now the Offmost commonly used technology for protecting PCs. In PCs. normal mode the PC is connected directly to the mains power supply, without any power conversion. conversion.

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GOALS OF UPS
 Basic purpose of UPS is to provide backup power at the event of power disruption. disruption.  Generation of Pure Sine Wave. Wave.  It also defines length of duration of time in which UPS can serve sensitive loads like Telecom equipments, PCs or other sensitive devices where power disruption can cause fatal harms. harms.  It will also show status of systems e.g. battery status, any fault etc using LCD or different colored LEDS. LEDS.

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OBJECTIVE OF UPS
 Designing a system for saving data if sudden voltage drop occurs  Automatically turn OFF the UPS when line power from WAPDA is restored. restored.  Generation of Pure Sine Wave using PWM. PWM.  Provide backup power for specific duration of time. time.  Warning alert sound is given if battery is finished. finished.  The alarm should ring 30 sec before the battery ends. ends.  Consumption of 1KW for every 3 minutes. minutes.  Display status of system. system.  Display status of battery system. system.  Visually display applied power. power.  Different LEDs show different functionalities of system. system.

DESIGN SPECIFICATION OF UPS


            Input voltage: 230V Pure Sine Wave Single Phase AC. voltage: 230V AC. Output voltage: 230V Pure Sine Wave Single Phase AC. voltage: 230V AC. StandStand-by power rating: 150 V A. rating: Maximum transfer time: 4 ms. time: ms. Normal usage time 5hrs/day. hrs/day. Maximum THD in load voltage: 3% voltage: Charging current 3amp. amp. Pure Sine Wave output. output. Controller CPU: PIC 18F 452. CPU: 18F 452. Passive Standby Offline UPS. UPS. Output frequency: 50 Hz. frequency: Hz. 1 year warranty

DISPLAY CRITERIA
 LEDS of three different colors are use to display the status of system. system. RED LEDs: LEDs: 1. A red LED will acknowledge the voltage coming from the Mains. Mains. 2.Another Red LED is also provided which will show the OVER LOAD condition of system. system. 3.Another Red LED is used which will turn ON when battery storage is full. full.

DISPLAY CRITERIA
 YELLOW LEDs: LEDs: 1. A Yellow LED will show when the UPS is turned ON during the power disruption. disruption. 2. Another yellow LED is used when remaining battery status is 75% 75%.  GREEN LEDs: LEDs: 1. A Green LED will show any fault in the system. system. 2. Green LED will turn ON when 50% battery is remaining. 50% remaining. 3. Another green LED will turn ON when remaining battery is 25%. 25%

MECHANISM OF UPS

MODES OF OPERATION

 There are two modes of operation in UPS. UPS. These are as follows. follows. 1. Normal Mode. Mode. 2. Battery Mode. Mode.

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NORMAL MODE

BATTERY MODE

ADVANTAGES OF UPS

 Simple design  Low cost  Small size  Pure Sine Wave generation

APPLICATIONS OF UPS
 This topology is the result of a compromise between an acceptable level of protection against disturbances and cost. cost.  This UPS topology is used only for low power ratings (< 2 KVA). It cannot be used for KVA). frequency conversion. conversion.

CONTROL UNIT

 A Control Unit, in general, is a central part of any machinery that controls its operation, provided that a piece of machinery is complex and organized enough to contain any such unit. unit.

OPERATING PRINCPLE
 The basic operation of a control unit is given by: by: MAINS AVAILABLE: AVAILABLE: Load supplied by inverter via charger without direct connection to mains. Battery is charging. mains. charging. MAINS DOWN: DOWN: Load supplied by inverter from battery power. Battery power. discharging. discharging. MAJOR OVERLOAD: OVERLOAD: Load supplied by mains power via static switch. Inverter off switch. & automatic restart when overload ceases. Transfer without ceases. disturbance to load. load. MAINTENANCE: MAINTENANCE: Load supplied by mains power via maintenance by-pass. by-pass.

ROLE OF CONTROL UNIT


 It senses the voltage drop across the utility line that is line power is available or not. not.  The relay circuit turns ON when utility power is available for the battery charging of UPS. UPS.  It also turns a relay circuit ON when utility power is not available in order to activate inverter battery combination

ROLE OF CONTROL UNIT


 Hence main component of control unit in UPS are: are: 1. A sensing circuit. circuit. 2. A relay for inverter. inverter. 3. A relay for battery charging

CONTROL UNIT OPERATION


 As we know working of control unit in UPS is completed in two complete loops: loops: 1. It closes the switch when line power is available and that AC line in directly provided to the load. load. 2. It also closes the switch when line power is not available and UPS will turn on its DC-AC inverter from DCthe voltage stored by battery and hence load can be served. served.

TRANSFER TIME

 The time taken by the circuit while switching from one relay to another. another.

MAIN SENSING OF UPS


 The main working of sensing circuit in UPS is to tell the micro controller whether utility power is available or not.  Efficiency of the circuit is depends on the fact that how fast sensing circuit detects the voltage drop and activate the controller to switch ON the inverter battery combination. combination.

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MAIN SENSING
 Main sensing controlled by control unit are as follows: 1. Inverter Sensing. 2. Battery Sensing. 3. Voltage Sensing. 4. Current Sensing. 5. Temperature Sensing

FAN AND BUZZER CIRCUIT OF UPS


 The transistors used in fan and buzzer circuit of a UPS are as follows: 1. TCNL100 for the fan. 2. BC 1815 for the buzzer.

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CONTROL VOLTAGES
 Control voltage = 1 The relay switches the load to main supply.  Control voltage = 0 The relay switches the load to inverter.

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MAIN SWITCHING
 Mainly two relay circuits are used: used: 1. Inverter To Main Relay Switch. Switch. 2. Inverter To Battery Charger Relay Switch. Switch.

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INVERTER TO MAIN RELAY SWITCH

 The working of this relay is actually to switch the load to main supply when it is available and to switch it to inverter when the main supply is absent.

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INVERTER TO BATTERY CHARGER RELAY SWITCH

 When the main supply is available the circuit switches to the battery charger circuit. This helps the battery to charge with the help of main supply.

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CONTROL UNIT
 A 220V step down transformer steps down the voltage to 12V.  A full bridge rectifier is also connected which will convert AC level into constant DC.  A 5V voltage will be provided to VDD PIC of microcontroller PIC18F452.  A current transformer is also connected which will maintain a constant current level in the circuit.
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BATTERY CHARGER
 A battery charger is a device used to put energy into a secondary cell or (rechargeable) battery by forcing an electric current through it. The charge current depends upon it. the technology and capacity of the battery being charged. charged.

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MODES OF OPERATION
 A charger has two modes of operation. These are as follows: 1. Float Mode 2. Boost Mode

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FLOAT MODE

 It is also known as Constant Voltage Mode.  In this mode, the battery is kept at 13.2V.

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BOOST MODE
 It is also known as Constant Current Mode.  In this, the charger output voltage is gradually at 14.4.V .

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LEAD ACID BATTERY

 Despite having the second lowest energy-toenergy-toweight ratio and a correspondingly low energy-toenergy-to-volume ratio, their ability to supply high surge currents means that the cells maintain a relatively large power-to-weight power-toratio.

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BATTERY USED IN PROPOSED TOPOLOGY

 A 12V LEAD ACID BATTERY is being used 12V for providing backup power to the UPS in case of power disruption. disruption.

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DESIGN SPECIFICATION
 The design specifications as follows: 1. Input voltage 2. Power factor 3. Output voltage 4. Battery types 5. Output current (load) 6. Output current (battery) for the charger circuit are 170v to 265v AC 0.99 48v lead acid battery 14 to 18 amp to the load 5 amp constant current

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CHARGER CIRCUIT
 This charger will charge any 12V lead acid battery.  It is fully automatic and will charge at a rate up to about 5A until the battery voltage reaches a preset point at which it will switch to a very low current float charge.

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MAINTANENCE PRECAUTIONS

 One precaution in workshops that handle large lead-acid batteries is a leadsupply of ammonia solution to squirt on any spilled battery acid, to neutralize it.

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APPLICATION
 Lead-acid batteries were used to supply the Leadfilament (heater) voltage (usually between 2 and 12 volts with 2 V being most common) in early vacuum tube (valve) radio receivers.

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INVERTER

 DC-AC inverters are electronic devices DCused to produce MAINS VOLTAGE AC power from low voltage DC energy (from a battery).

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CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

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TYPES OF POWER INVERTERS


 Pure Sine Wave  Modified Sine Wave

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SINEWAVE INVERTERS
 These inverters use rather more complex circuitry than the modified sine wave type.  As a result pure sine wave inverters tend to be significantly more expensive.
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MECHANISM OF SINEWAVE INVERTER


 Converting the low voltage DC into high voltage DC, using a high frequency DCDCDC converter.

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MECHANISM OF SINEWAVE INVERTER


 It uses a high frequency PWM system to convert the high voltage DC into chopped AC, which is passed through an L-C low pass filter to produce the final clean 50Hz sine wave output.

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FUNCTIONS PERFORMED BY THE INVERTER


 Convert DC into AC.  Provide an output voltage free of harmonics.  Maintain stable voltage in spite of variations of the load.  Maintain stable frequency.
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FUNCTIONS PERFORMED BY THE INVERTER


 Keep voltage transients within limits compatible with the load system.  Ensures selectivity of the protections.  Provide a high degree of safety of operation.

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INVERTER FUNCTIONING

 DC to AC power inverters mainly aims to efficiently transform a 12V DC from a battery to a high voltage 230V AC power source operating at 50 KHz.

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PARTS OF INVERTER
 The main parts of inverter are as follows: 1. PWM 2. H-Bridge H3. Inverter Driver Circuit 4. Output filter
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H-BRIDGE CONFIGURATION
 An H-bridge is an electronic circuit Hwhich enables a voltage to be applied across a load in either direction.  These circuits are used to allow DC motors to run forwards and backwards

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BASIC CIRCUIT OF HHBRIDGE

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INVERTER DRIVER CIRCUIT


 It minimizes the turn-on and turn-off turnturntime of the switches.  It provides the adequate driver power to keep the power switch on.

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BASIC CIRCUIT

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PULSE WIDTH MODULATION


 PWM is extensively used as a means of powering AC devices with an available DC source or for advanced DC/AC conversion.

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PURPOSE of PWM
 To make inverter output voltage adjustable.  To make inverter output frequency adjustable.  To eliminate low order harmonics.

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INVERTER STRUCTURE

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CIRCUIT DESCRIPTION
 PWM signals are applied to the inverter transistors.  Inverter gate driver receive the logic level controlled signal generated by the PWM, and then conditions this signal to drive the gates of the power transistors of the inverter.
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CIRCUIT DESCRIPTION

 Then H-bridge will manipulate this signal Hand will produce the required AC signal which is further fed to the transformer to step it up.

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INVERTER OUTPUT FILTER


 Due to high frequency switching operation phenomena of over voltage at low terminal arises and output filter reduces the inverter output pulse rise time and it significantly reduces the over voltage and ringing at the load

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Output

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ADVANTAGES

 The lower order (second order) filter is desirable from the standpoint of the number of components, filter size, cost, and weight.

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ADVANTAGES
 The second-order filter is found to secondyield the necessary stop band attenuation characteristics and the maximum ripple values in the pass band.  The selected attenuation is 3 db at the cutoff frequency wc=2(pi)fc. wc=2(pi)fc.

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MAINTENANCE OF UPS
 After 1 years of successful uninterruptable power supply (UPS) operation, the UPS systems can be failed so maintenance should be provided for proper working.

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TESTING OF UPS

 Testing of UPS involves three steps: 1. Physical preventive maintenance (PM). 2. Protection settings and calibration. 3. Functional load testing (including battery discharge).
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PHYSICAL PREVENTICE MAINTENANCE (PM)


 This includes infrared scanning prior to shutting down the unit.  A poor power connection will generate a higher temperature condition than the surrounding temperature.

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PROTECTION SETTINGS AND CALIBRATION


 Check protection settings and calibrate the UPS unit.  By simulating an alarm condition, the technician can verify all alarms and protective settings are operational.

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FUNCTIONAL LOAD TESTING

 Break functional load testing down into six distinct operations, which are as follows: 1. Steady-state load test. Steady2. Harmonic analysis. 3. Filter integrity. 4. Transient response test. 5. Module fault test 6. Battery rundown.
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CONCUSION
 Effective UPS testing is a complex and potentially dangerous operation. Hiring a test engineering group with strong experience in UPS maintenance and testing is usually best.

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ANY QUESTIONS?

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THANK YOU

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