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Input Offset Voltage:

It is the voltage that must be applied between the two input terminals of the op-amp to null the output. We denote the input offset voltage by

Vio

This voltage Vio can be positive or negative; therefore its absolute value is listed on the data sheet. For a 741C the maximum value of Vio is 6 mV dc. The smaller the value of matched.

Vio, the better the input terminals are Vio = 150 V maximum.

Input Offset Current:

The algebraic difference between the currents into the inverting and non-inverting terminals is referred to as input offset current, denoted by Iio. In the equation form,

Iio=IB1-IB2
Where IB1 is the current into the non-inverting input and IB2 is the current into the inverting input. The input offset current for the 741C is 200nA maximum. As the matching between the two input terminals is improved, the difference between IB1 and IB2 becomes smaller; that is, the Iio value decreases further.

For instance, the precision op-amp 714C has a maximum value of Iio equal to 6 nA, a dramatic improvement over older technology.

Input Bias Current:

Input Bias Current IB is the average of the currents that flow into the inverting and non-inverting terminals of the op-amp.

In equation form,
IB=(IB1+IB2)/2 IB =500 nA maximum for the 741C, whereas Ib for the precision 714C is +or 7 nA. IB1 and IB2 are actually the base currents of the first differential amplifier stage.

Differential Input Resistance: Differential Input Resistance, Ri, (often referred to as input resistance) is the equivalent resistance that can be measured at either the inverting or non-inverting input terminal with the other terminal connected to ground. For the 741C the input resistance is a relatively high 2 M. However, for FET input op-amps, this value is amazingly large. For example, Ri=1000 G for the A771 FET input op-amp.

Input Capacitance:
Input Capacitance Ci is the equivalent capacitance that can be measured at either the inverting or non-inverting terminal with the other terminal connected to ground.

A typical value of Ci is 1.4 pF for the 741C.

This parameter is not listed on all op-amp data sheets.

The offset voltage adjustment range is the range through which the input offset voltage can be adjusted by varying the 10 K potentiometer, connected in between pins 1 and 5. For the 741C the offset voltage adjustment range is +-15 mV. Very few op-amps have the offset voltage null capability. Examples are 301, 748, and 777. This means that for most op-amps we have to design an offset voltage compensating network in order to reduce the output offset voltage to zero.

Input Voltage Range: When the same voltage is applied to both input terminals , the voltage is called a common mode voltage Vcm, and the op-amp is said to be operating in the common mode configuration.

For the 741C, the range of the input common-mode voltage is +-13 V maximum.
This means that the common mode voltage applied to both the terminals can be as high as +13V or as low as -13V without disturbing proper functioning of the op-amp. In other words, the input voltage range is the range of commonmode voltages over which the offset specifications apply. Obviously, the common-mode configuration is used only for test purposes to determine the degree of matching between the inverting and noninverting terminals.

Common-Mode Rejection Ratio (CMRR): It is defined as the ratio of the differential voltage gain Ad to common-mode voltage gain Acm; i.e., CMRR = Ad / Acm

The differential voltage gain Ad is the same as the large-signal voltage gain A, which is specified on the data sheets. However, the common mode voltage gain can be determined by making use of the equation: Acm = Vocm / Vcm Where Vocm = output common-mode voltage Vcm = input common-mode voltage Acm = common-mode voltage gain

Generally the Acm is very small and Ad is very large ; therefore the CMRR is very large. Being a large value, CMRR is most often expressed in decibels (dB). For 741C, CMRR is 90 dB typically. The higher the value of CMRR, the better is the matching between two input terminals and the smaller is the output commonmode voltage. For the 714C precision op-amp, CMRR = 120 dB. This means that 714C has a better ability to reject common mode voltages, such as electrical noise, than the 741C and is preferred in noise environments.

Supply Voltage Rejection Ratio (SVRR):

The change in an op-amps input offset voltage, Vio, caused by variations in supply voltages is called the Supply Voltage Rejection Ratio (SVRR).
Equivalent terms for SVRR:

i) Power Supply Rejection Ratio (PSRR)

ii) Power Supply Sensitivity. SVRR is expressed either in microvolts per volt or in decibels. SVRR = Vio/ V Where V = change in supply voltages Vio= corresponding change in input offset voltage.

For 741C, SVRR = 150 V/V.

For 714C, SVRR = 20(V/ Vio) = 104 dB Or equivalently, SVRR = 6.31 V/V.

This means that the lower the value of SVRR in microvolts/volts, the better the po-amp performance. ======================================================= ======== Large-Signal Voltage Gain:

Since the op-amp amplifies difference voltage between two inputs terminals, the large-signal voltage gain is ratio of output voltage to differential input voltage.
i.e., A = Vo/Vid. Because output signal amplitude is much larger than the input signal, the voltage gain is commonly referred to as largesignal voltage gain. Under the test conditions, RL 2 K and Vo = +-10V (20 V peak to peak), the large signal voltage gain of the 741C is 200000 typically.

Output Voltage Swing:

The output voltage swing indicates the values of positive and negative saturation voltages of the op-amp.
The output voltage never exceeds these limits for given supply voltages +VCC and VEE. The output voltage swing, Vomax, of the 741C is betwwen 13 V to +13 V for RL 2 K, that is, giving a 26-V peak to peak undistorted sine wave for ac input signals. Output Resistance: Output Resistance, Ro, is the equivalent resistance that can be measured between the output terminal of the op-amp and the ground (or common point). It is 75 for the 741C op-amp.

Output Short-Circuit Current:

It the maximum amount current that the op-amp can withstand in case the output terminal would be accidentally be shorted with ground terminal.
This current Isc is always grater than IB or Iio.

The short-circuit current Isc = 25 mA for the 741C op-amp. This means that the built-in short circuit protection is guaranteed to withstand 25 mA of current in protecting the op-amp.
Supply Current: Supply Current Is, is the current drawn by op-amp from the power supply. For 741C op-amp, the supply current Is = 2.8 mA.

Power Cosnumption Pc:

It is the amount of quiescent power (vin = 0 V) that must be consumed by the op-amp in order to operate properly. The amount of power consumed by the 741C is 85 mW.

Transient Response :

The response of any practically useful network to a given input is composed of two parts:
1) The transient response and 2) The steady-state response. The transient response is that portion of the complete response before the output attains some fixed value.

Once reached, this fixed value remains at that level and is, therefore, referred to as a steady-state response.
The steady-state response is time-invariant whereas the transient response is time-variant. The rise time and the percent of overshoot are the characteristics of the transient response.

The time required by the output to go from 10% to 90% of its final value is called the rise time. Conversely, overshoot is the maximum amount by which the output deviates from the steady-state value.

Overshoot is generally expressed as a percentage.

The transient response test circuit for the 741C as well as the response of this test circuit for Vin = 20 mV dc is included in the data sheets.

The rise time is 0.3 micro seconds and overshoot is 5% for the 741C op-amp.
The transient response is one of the most important considerations in selecting an op-amp in ac applications.

In fact, the rise time is inversely proportional to the unity gain bandwidth of the op-amp.
This means that smaller the value of rise time, the higher is the bandwidth.

Slew Rate (SR):

It is defined as the maximum rate of change of output voltage per unit of time and is expressed in volts per microseconds.
In equation form,

SR =dVo/dt|maximum

V/s

Slew rate indicates how rapidly the output of an op-amp changes in response to changes in the input frequency. The slew rate changes with the change in voltage gain and is specified at unity (+1). The slew rate of an op-amp is fixed; therefore, if the slope requirements of the output signal are greater than the slew rate, then distortion occurs. Thus slew rate is one of the important factors in selecting the op-amp for ac applications, particularly at relatively high frequencies.

One of the drawbacks of 741C is its low slew rate (0.5 V/s), which limits its use in relatively high-frequency applications, especially in oscillators, comparators and filters. The newer op-amps ----- LF351, A771, and MC34001---- which are direct replacements for 741, have a slew rate of 13 V/ s. In high-speed op-amps especially, the slew rate is significantly improved. For instance, the LM318 has a slew rate of 70V/ s.

Gain-Bandwidth Product: The gain-bandwidth product (GB) is the bandwidth of the opamp when the voltage gain is 1. For 741C, it is approximately 1 MHz. Equivalent terms for gain-bandwidth product are closed-loop bandwidth, unity gain bandwidth and small-signal bandwidth. The newer op-amps LF351 and MC34001 have a gainbandwidth product of 4 MHz.

Channel separation:

This parameter is specified in the data sheets of dual and quad (four) op-amps such as the AF772 and AF774, respectively.
It is the measure of the amount of electrical coupling between opamps that are integrated on the same chip. Because of the closeness of op-amps in dual and quad packages, when the signal is applied to the input of only one op-amp, some signal will appear at the output of other op-amps. The amplitude of these output signals is approximately the same and can be calculated using channel separation and a given input signal. Channel separation is also called amplifier-to-amplifier coupling. The 774/348 is a true quad and has a channe; separation of -120 dB.

This means that if a signal is applied to one of the op-amps, the signals at the outputs of the undriven op-amps will at least be 120 dB
(equivalent to a raatio of

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