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AERODYNAMCS N

ARCRAFTS
PREPARED 8Y: ANU] KUMAR
2K10JAEJ013
NEERA] 8UDHRA]A
2K10JAEJ039
HAT S AERODYNAMCSZ
Aerodynamics is the study of how air flows around
objects.
AerodynamIc
TERMS
OAngIo of Allack
AngIo olvoon Choid Lino & RoIalivo Wind
ORoIalivo Wind
Tho diioclion of lho aiislioan in
ioIalion lo lho aiifoiI
Lift
Is the force that acts in an upward direction to
support the aircraft in the air. It counteracts the
effects of weight. Lift must be greater than or
equaI to weight if fIight is to be sustained. Lift acts
perpendicuIar to reIative wind
Weight
The force of gravity acting downward on
the aircraft and everything in the aircraft, such
as fueI and cargo.
Aerodynam|c Terms
WEIGHT
LIFT
AerodynamIc Terms
iag
IaiaIIoI & Opposilo lo RoIalivo Wind
Thiusl
Forward force propelling airplane through air
Drag
O Typos of iag
O Inducod: Causod ly lho Iioduclion of
Lifl
O Iaiasilo: AII iag Nol Causod ly Lifl
WEIGHT
LIFT
DRAG
TAF
ARFLO
Drag
Aircraft Components:
*An aircraft is an airframe
structure on which engines
are mounted and is
controlled in the air.
Aircraft Components:
1- Fuselage
2-Wings
3-Engines
4-Tail Unit
5-Landing Gear
6-Nose (Radome)
inds of aircraft:
Aircraft fall into two categories: Lighter than
air(aerostats), and heavier-than-air (aerodynes).
Lighter than air-aerostats:
Aerostatsusebuoyancyto float in the air in
much the same way that ships float on the
water. They are characterized by one or
more large gasbags , filled with a relatively
low density gas such asheliumhydrogen
orhot airwhich is lighter than the
surrounding air.
A hot air balloon in flight
Heavier than air-aerodynes:
HeavIerthanaIr aIrcraIt must IInd some way to
push aIr or gas downwards, so that a reactIon
occurs (by Newton's Iaws oI motIon) to push the
aIrcraIt upwardsThere are two ways to produce
dynamIc up thrustaerodynamic liftand
5owered lift In the Iorm oI engIne thrust
Forces of FIight
Four forces of fIight
Lift upward
Drag - down &
backwards
Weight downward
Thrust forward
ost aircrafts that fIy through the sky
have wings to keep them aIoft. As the
wing cut swiftIy through the air, they
deveIop a strong upward force caIIed
Iift. This force supports the weight of
the aircraft, hoIding it up in the air.
Wings generate more Iift when
moving quickIy through the air
A wing is an aerofoiI, which means it has a
speciaI shape that enabIes it to fIy. The
topside is curved and the underside is
aImost fIat so making the topside Ionger
than the underside. As the wing cuts through
the air, it defIects the air. Due to the wings
shape, the air fIowing above the wing moves
faster then the air fIow beIow. Because air
pressure drops more as air moves faster, the
air beIow the wing has a greater pressure,
pushing up the wing.
An aircraft aIso needs a taiI in order to fIy. The verticaI
fin and horizontaI taiI pIane keep it stabIe.to controI the
air craft height and course, the piIot operates the
foIIowing: aiIerons on the wings, and a rudder and
eIevators on the taiI
ewton's Laws of Motion and ernoulli's Princi5le
are used to ex5lain lift.
ewton's Second Law: force causes a change
in velocity which in turn generates another
force.
ewton's Third Law: net flow of air is turned
down resulting in an 'equal and o55osite'
u5ward force.
ewton's Th|rd Law states that for every act|on
there |s an equa| and oppos|te react|on.
ernoulli's Princi5le states that, as air s5eeds u5,
its 5ressure goes down
ernou|||'s Pr|nc|p|e: s|ower mov|ng
a|r be|ow the w|ng creates greater
pressure and pushes up.
ernou|||'s Pr|nc|p|e: A|r mov|ng over the w|ng
moves faster than the a|r be|ow. Faster-mov|ng
a|r above exerts |ess pressure on the w|ng than
the s|ower-mov|ng a|r be|ow. The resu|t |s an
upward push on the w|ng--||ft!
ernou|||'s Pr|nc|p|e: pressure
var|at|on around the w|ng resu|ts |n
a net aerodynam|c push|ng up.
A w|ng creates ||ft due to a comb|nat|on
of ernou|||'s Pr|nc|p|e & ewton's
Th|rd Law
REFERENCES
O WIKIILIA
O WWW.CRC.NSA.COV
O Thcnry nf WIng 5cctInns (Dnvcr Bnnks nn
PhysIcs)
ly I.H. Alloll and A.L. von oonhoff