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# Introduction to Fluid Mechanics

## Fox, Pritchard, & McDonald

Main Topics
The Boundary-Layer Concept Boundary-Layer Thicknesses Laminar Flat-Plate Boundary Layer: Exact Solution Momentum Integral Equation Use of the Momentum Equation for Flow with Zero Pressure Gradient Pressure Gradients in Boundary-Layer Flow Drag Lift
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## Boundary Layer Thicknesses

Disturbance Thickness, d
Displacement Thickness, d*

Momentum Thickness, q

## Laminar Flat-Plate Boundary Layer: Exact Solution

Governing Equations

## Laminar Flat-Plate Boundary Layer: Exact Solution

Boundary Conditions

## Laminar Flat-Plate Boundary Layer: Exact Solution

Equations are Coupled, Nonlinear, Partial Differential Equations Blasius Solution:
Transform to single, higher-order, nonlinear, ordinary differential equation

## Laminar Flat-Plate Boundary Layer: Exact Solution

Results of Numerical Analysis

## Momentum Integral Equation

Provides Approximate Alternative to Exact (Blasius) Solution

## Momentum Integral Equation

Equation is used to estimate the boundarylayer thickness as a function of x:
1. Obtain a first approximation to the freestream velocity distribution, U(x). The pressure in the boundary layer is related to the freestream velocity, U(x), using the Bernoulli equation 2. Assume a reasonable velocity-profile shape inside the boundary layer 3. Derive an expression for tw using the results obtained from item 2

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Use of the Momentum Equation for Flow with Zero Pressure Gradient
Simplify Momentum Integral Equation (Item 1)

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Use of the Momentum Equation for Flow with Zero Pressure Gradient
Laminar Flow
Example: Assume a Polynomial Velocity Profile (Item 2)

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Use of the Momentum Equation for Flow with Zero Pressure Gradient
Laminar Flow Results (Polynomial Velocity Profile)

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Use of the Momentum Equation for Flow with Zero Pressure Gradient
Turbulent Flow
Example: 1/7-Power Law Profile (Item 2)

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Use of the Momentum Equation for Flow with Zero Pressure Gradient
Turbulent Flow Results (1/7-Power Law Profile)

Drag
Drag Coefficient

with or

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Drag
Pure Friction Drag: Flat Plate Parallel to the Flow Pure Pressure Drag: Flat Plate Perpendicular to the Flow Friction and Pressure Drag: Flow over a Sphere and Cylinder Streamlining

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Drag
Flow over a Flat Plate Parallel to the Flow: Friction Drag

Boundary Layer can be 100% laminar, partly laminar and partly turbulent, or essentially 100% turbulent; hence several different drag coefficients are available
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Drag
Flow over a Flat Plate Parallel to the Flow: Friction Drag (Continued) Laminar BL:

## Turbulent BL: plus others for transitional flow

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Drag
Flow over a Flat Plate Perpendicular to the Flow: Pressure Drag

## Drag coefficients are usually obtained empirically

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Drag
Flow over a Flat Plate Perpendicular to the Flow: Pressure Drag (Continued)

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Drag
Flow over a Sphere and Cylinder: Friction and Pressure Drag

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Drag
Flow over a Sphere and Cylinder: Friction and Pressure Drag (Continued)

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Streamlining
Used to Reduce Wake and hence Pressure Drag

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Lift
Mostly applies to Airfoils

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Lift
Examples: NACA 23015; NACA 662-215

Lift
Induced Drag

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Lift
Induced Drag (Continued)
Reduction in Effective Angle of Attack:

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Lift
Induced Drag (Continued)