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Main Topics

The Boundary-Layer Concept Boundary-Layer Thicknesses Laminar Flat-Plate Boundary Layer: Exact Solution Momentum Integral Equation Use of the Momentum Equation for Flow with Zero Pressure Gradient Pressure Gradients in Boundary-Layer Flow Drag Lift

Fox, Pritchard, & McDonald

Disturbance Thickness, d

Displacement Thickness, d*

Momentum Thickness, q

Governing Equations

Boundary Conditions

Equations are Coupled, Nonlinear, Partial Differential Equations Blasius Solution:

Transform to single, higher-order, nonlinear, ordinary differential equation

Results of Numerical Analysis

Provides Approximate Alternative to Exact (Blasius) Solution

Equation is used to estimate the boundarylayer thickness as a function of x:

1. Obtain a first approximation to the freestream velocity distribution, U(x). The pressure in the boundary layer is related to the freestream velocity, U(x), using the Bernoulli equation 2. Assume a reasonable velocity-profile shape inside the boundary layer 3. Derive an expression for tw using the results obtained from item 2

Use of the Momentum Equation for Flow with Zero Pressure Gradient

Simplify Momentum Integral Equation (Item 1)

Use of the Momentum Equation for Flow with Zero Pressure Gradient

Laminar Flow

Example: Assume a Polynomial Velocity Profile (Item 2)

Use of the Momentum Equation for Flow with Zero Pressure Gradient

Laminar Flow Results (Polynomial Velocity Profile)

Use of the Momentum Equation for Flow with Zero Pressure Gradient

Turbulent Flow

Example: 1/7-Power Law Profile (Item 2)

Use of the Momentum Equation for Flow with Zero Pressure Gradient

Turbulent Flow Results (1/7-Power Law Profile)

Drag

Drag Coefficient

with or

Drag

Pure Friction Drag: Flat Plate Parallel to the Flow Pure Pressure Drag: Flat Plate Perpendicular to the Flow Friction and Pressure Drag: Flow over a Sphere and Cylinder Streamlining

Drag

Flow over a Flat Plate Parallel to the Flow: Friction Drag

Boundary Layer can be 100% laminar, partly laminar and partly turbulent, or essentially 100% turbulent; hence several different drag coefficients are available

Fox, Pritchard, & McDonald

Drag

Flow over a Flat Plate Parallel to the Flow: Friction Drag (Continued) Laminar BL:

Fox, Pritchard, & McDonald

Drag

Flow over a Flat Plate Perpendicular to the Flow: Pressure Drag

Fox, Pritchard, & McDonald

Drag

Flow over a Flat Plate Perpendicular to the Flow: Pressure Drag (Continued)

Drag

Flow over a Sphere and Cylinder: Friction and Pressure Drag

Drag

Flow over a Sphere and Cylinder: Friction and Pressure Drag (Continued)

Streamlining

Used to Reduce Wake and hence Pressure Drag

Lift

Mostly applies to Airfoils

Lift

Examples: NACA 23015; NACA 662-215

Lift

Induced Drag

Lift

Induced Drag (Continued)

Reduction in Effective Angle of Attack:

Lift

Induced Drag (Continued)

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