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Cellular PrecipitationEutectoid Transformations

Kelompok 10 Patrick Dapot T.S. (0806331872) Rendi Fajar B. (0806331903) Rudiyansah (0806331973) Dept. of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering Faculty of Engineering-University of Indonesia

Cellular Precipitation

Definition Cellular Precipitation/discontinous precipitation : Grain boundary precipitation were resulted in different mode of transformation. Cellular precipitation is also known as discontinous precipitation because the composition of the matrix changes discontinously as the cell front passes.

Cellular Precipitation

Features of Transformation Essentially feature is that the boundary moves with the growing tips of the precipitates.

Cellular Precipitation

Reaction of cellular precipitation

where, is the supersaturated matrix, is the same phase but with lower thermodynamics excess of solute, and is the equilibrium precipitates.

Cellular Precipitation
Example of cellular precipitation in a Mg- 9 atomic % Al alloy.

The phase in this case is the equilibrium precipitate Mg17Al12. It can be seen that the Mg17Al12 forms a lamellae embedded in a Mg-rich matrix. The grain boundary between grains I and II was originally straight along AA but has been displaced, and the cell matrix and grain I are the same grain.

Cellular Precipitation

It is apparent that the mean interlamellar spacing is higher at higher ageing temperature. As with eutectic solidification this is because less free energy is available for the formation of / interfaces when the total driving force for transformation is reduced.

Cellular Precipitation

The growth the precipitation requires the partittioning of solute to the tips of the precipitates in contact with the advancing grain boundary. This can occur in one of two ways : either by diffusion through the lattice ahead of the advancing cell front (would require solute concentration gradients ahead of the cell front while) , or by diffusion in the moving boundary (the matrix composition should remain unchanged right up to the cell front).

Cellular Precipitation
Matrix composition (a) and Al concentration in the matrix along a line between the (Mg17Al12) lamellae(b).

Eutectoid Transformation
The Pearlite Reaction in Fe-C alloys When Austenite containing about 0.8% C is cooled below the A1 temperature it becomes simultaneously supersaturated with respect to ferrite and cementite and a eutectoid transformation result, i.e.

The manner in which this reaction occurs is very similar to a eutectic transformation where the original phase is a liquid instead of a solid.

Reaksi Pearlite dalam paduan Fe-C


Reaksi pearlite akan terjadi pada paduan Fe-C ketika austenite mengandung 0.8%wt C dan pada kondisi temperatur 727 C. Reaksi pearlite adalah suatu reaksi eutectoid, dimana kita bisa menuliskan reaksinya sebagai berikut : + Fe3C Dengan : austenite ferrite Fe3C cementite + Fe3C pearlite

Phase Diagram of Fe3C

Eutectoid Transformation

Resultant microstructure comprises lamellae, or sheets, of cementite embedded in ferrite.

Eutectoid Transformation

Pearlite bernukleasi pada batas butir dan tumbuh secara kasar hingga mengelilingi butir dari austenite. Pada kondisi small undercooling jumlah pearlite yang bernukleasi relatif kecil, dan akan tumbuh dengan bentuk hemisphere atau sphere. Pada larger undercooling, kecepatan nukleasi jauh lebih tinggi dan akan menciptakan kondisi site saturation, yaitu semua batas butir secara cepat diselimuti oleh pearlite yang tumbuh secara bersamaan dan akan membentuk layer pearlite . Pada slow cooling, pearlite akan berukuran kecil/halus. Pada very slow cooling, pearlite akan berukuran besar/kasar.

Eutectoid Transformation

Pearlite nodule nucleate on grain boundaries and grow with roughly constant radial velocity into the surrounding austenite grains. At small undercooling below A1 the number of pearlite nodule that nucleate is relatively small, and the nodules can grow as hemisphere or sphere without interfacing with each other. At larger undercooling the nucleation rate is much higher and site saturation occurs, that is all boundaries become quickly covered with nodules which grow together forming layers or pearlite outlining the prior austenite grain boundaries.

Eutectoid Transformation

Pearlite nodule nucleate

Eutectoid Transformation

Nucleation of pearlite 1. The nucleation of either cementite or ferrite on austenite grain boundary. Which phase nucleates first will depend on the grain-boundary structure and composition. Suppose that it is cementite. The cementite will try to minimize the activation energy barrier to nucleation by forming an orientation relationship to one of the austenite grains, 1.

Eutectoid Transformation

Pearlite growth : is analogous to the growth of a lamellar eutectic with austenite replacing the liquid. Carbon diffuse interstitially through the austenite to the tips of the advancing cementite lamellae. Equation should applied :

where S* is the minimum possible interlamellar spacing The growth rate of pearlite colonies should be constant an given by a relationship of the type,

Where k is a thermodynamic term which is roughly constant

Eutectoid Transformation

Nucleation and growth of pearlite

Eutectoid Transformation

Pearlite growth rate vs. temperature

Eutectoid Transformation

Pearlite in Off-Eutectoid Fe-C Alloys when Austenite contain more or less carbon than the eutectoic composition is isothermally transformed below the A1 temperature the formation of pearlite is usually preceded by the precipitation of proeutectoid ferrite or cementite. However, if the undercooling is large enough and the departure from the eutectoid composition is not too great it is possible for austenite of non-eutectoid composition to transform directly to pearlite. The region in which this is possible corresponds approximately to the condition that the austenite is simultaneously saturated with respect to both cementite and ferrite.

Eutectoid Transformation

Continued, i.e hatched region. Thus a 0.6% C alloy, for example can be transformed to ~100% pearlite provide the temperature is low enough to bring the austenite into hatched region.

Eutectoid Transformation

Cont

Eutectoid Transformation

Similar consideration apply to transformations during continous cooling-larger grain sizes and faster cooling rates favour low volume fractions of ferrite. ( compare figure at below)

Reference

Porter, D.A, Easterling, K.E. Phase Transformations in Metals and Alloys, 2nd edition.1992.Chapman & Hall. T.J. Press. Great Britain.