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Post Graduate Diploma in Business Management Human Resources Management Session 3 Leadership Development 8th / 13th March 2011

Learning Plan
1. Share Objective 2. Managing vs Leading 3. What is Leadership 4. Group Exercise 5. Leadership Styles(LS) 6. People Development Levels (PDL) 7. Matching of LS with PDL 8. Group Exercise 4 mini case studies 9. Feedback
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OBJECTIVE
To develop a framework for us to get our team members to perform at their full potential to achieve our desired goals, by sharing our experiences and relating it to concepts that we will develop during the session based on our existing knowledge and understanding.
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Management vs Leadership
Managers & Leaders are they different? Abraham Zalesnik, Harvard Business Review Mar Apr 1992 What Leaders Really Do? John P Kotter, Harvard Business Review May Jun 1990.

Management is planning, organizing, staffing, directing, integrating, and controlling of resources. Resources available are time, money, material, and people; each of these can be planned, organized, staffed, directed, integrated, and controlled. Only people, can be led. Leadership is a special application of management. Leadership is a unique control behaviour that is directed to the management of human resources 4 for keeping them constantly energized to achieve

Why Leadership?
History of mankind acknowledges the importance of Leadership Large successes and failures are attributed to Leadership

What do leaders really do and how do they do it?

What is Leadership?

Its not a position Its a process An influencing process

The focus had shifted from studying individual traits to studying the actual behaviour in leadership situations in a group and how people use task or relationship leadership style in work situations.

leadership study has shifted from studying the leader as a person to studying his/her behaviour in a group.
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Group Exercise (Time 5 min)


Name one or two persons who influenced your life the most and how did they influence you?
Each group leader will make a 2 minute presentation. Group members can assist the leader.
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Leadership has hardly been defined. It has, largely, been characterized, at best. We probably know what it does, than what it is.

After more than 10,000 studies and surveys the concept is still very elusive.

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Is there one best way to lead?


Probably the fact methods suggests not; that there are so many models and being suggested and identified itself that.

The whole issue of managing and leadership is based on the key equation: Behaviour = f ( Leader, Follower, Situation)
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Leadership Style

Way you supervise or work with someone How you behave when you are trying to influence behavior of others
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Task Behaviour
More of one way communication Role of follower is tightly defined Output by follower is dictated by Supervisor Supervisor mandates what & how the job is to be done Decision making by supervisor

Structure, Control, Supervision

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Relationship Behaviour
Lots of two way communication Provides support & encouragement Facilitates interaction Encourages follower involvement Builds a personal relationship with followers

Praise, Listen, Facilitate

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LEADERSHIP STYLES

S3

S2

S4

S1
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Directing (S1)
H T L R

High Task - Low Relationship Identifies Problem Defines Goals & Roles Controls Decision Making Gives Specific Instructions Engages In Mostly One Way Communication Closely Supervises Work
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Influencing/ Coaching (S2)


High Task - High Relationship Identifies Problems & Defines Goals / Roles Explains Decisions & Solicits Ideas Increases two Way Communication Involves Team Members

HT HR

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Collaborating/ Supporting (S3)


Low Task - High Relationship Involves followers in problem identification & role/goal setting Joint decision making Supports on request Little supervision

LT HR

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Delegating (S4)
Low Task - Low Relationship Collaborative Problem Identification Asks Follower to Set Goals / Roles Decision Making By Follower Periodically Reviews With Follower

LT LR

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Leadership Styles

RELATIONSHIP BEHAVIOR

(Praise, Listen, Facilitate)

S3 (Collaborating)
Facilitating & Supporting efforts towards Task Accomplishment. Sharing responsibility for Decision making

S2 (Influencing)
Directing & closely supervising Task Accomplishment Explaining Decisions, Soliciting Suggestions and Supporting Progress

S4 (Delegating)
Turning over responsibility for Problem Solving and Decision Making to Team Member/ Staff

S1 (Directing)
Providing specific Instructions Closely supervising Task Accomplishment

TASK BEHAVIOR (Structure, Control, Supervise)


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Team Member Maturity Level


D 1 D 4
Enthusiastic Beginner Contributors

Motivation
High Willing

Low

High

Some Skill Low Motivation


Disillusioned Learner

High Skill Variable Motivation


Reluctant Contributors Low
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D2 D3

Skill

Low Skill High Motivation

High Skill High Motivation

People Maturity Level


Development Level = f (Competence, Commitment) Competence = f (K, S, Exp,) Commitment = f (Confidence, Motivation)

High Competence High Commitment

High Competence Some Competence Low Competence Variable Low Commitment High Commitment Commitment

D4 HIGH

D3 MODERATE

D2

D1 LOW

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Leadership Style match with People Development Level S3 (Collaborating) S2 (Influencing)


Experienced and Competent Needs Recognition Drop in Commitment- Initial Disillusionment, perhaps no encouragement \ Need direction and Support DISILLUSIONED LEARNERS D2

RELATIONSHIP BEHAVIOR

(Praise, Listen, Facilitate)

RELUCTANT CONTRIBUTORS D3

S4 (Delegating)
Peak performers; Competent and Committed; Dont need much praise and supervision

S1 (Directing)
Quick Decisions are required; Stakes are High; Job Holder has low experience for Job/ Task; New to Company/ Role ENTHUSIASTIC BEGINNERS D1

WILLING CONTRIBUTORS D4

TASK BEHAVIOR (Structure, Control, Supervise)


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Maturity of Team Members


Maturity is a function of Competence & Commitment Competence : Knowledge & Skills Commitment : Motivation & Confidence Maturity is specific to an individual Maturity is specific to a task Maturity of an individual even on the same task is not constant
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Matching of Style with Development Level


STYLES
DELEGATING

LEADERSHIP
LOW TASK
HIGH RELATIONSHIP

COLLABORATING

INFLUENCING

DIRECTING

LOW TASK
LOW RELATIONSHIP

HIGH TASK
HIGH RELATIONSHIP

HIGH TASK
LOW RELATIONSHIP

PEOPLE
HIGH COMPETENCE
HIGH COMMITMENT WILLING CONTRIBUTOR

DEVELOPMEN T
HIGH COMPETENCE
LOW COMMITMENT RELUCTANT CONTRIBUTOR

LEVEL

LOW COMPETENCE
LOW COMMITMENT DISILLUSSIONE D LEARNER

LOW COMPETENCE
HIGH COMMITMENT ENTHUSIASTIC 26 BEGINNER

Mini Case Studies Step 1


Identify the Development Level of the group. Are they, Low on Competence and High on Commitment? Low on Competence and Low on Commitment? High on Competence and Low on Commitment? High on Competence and High on Commitment?
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Mini Case Studies Step 2


After identifying the Development Level of the group, choose the most appropriate Leadership Style to match the needs of the group.

Group
Low on Competency & High on Commitment Low on Competency & Low on Commitment High on Competency & Low on Commitment High on Competency & High on Commitment

Leadership Style
High on Task & Low on Relationship High on Task & High on Relationship Low on Task & High on Relationship Low on Task & Low on Relationship Directing Influencing Collaboration Delegation
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Scenario 1 Your department has been performing poorly financially, and several key managers have left to take up positions in other companies. Because you are the most experienced manager, your company chairman has asked you to chair a committee to develop and implement a plan for cutting costs. Since most key managers are already gone, all your committee members are relatively new and lowranking employees. Youve asked committee members to contribute ideas, but they make vague suggestions and avoid making decisions.
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Scenario 2 Your group has consistently won awards for high quality and on time performance. Several of the best and most talented employees in the organization are in your group. Recently, you introduced some new procedures, and you have noticed that performance is slipping and absenteeism is creeping up. You are still doing okay, but you are no longer at the very top of the company rankings.

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Scenario 3 You have been given a group of brilliant, young science and liberal arts students the top graduates of leading universities from around the world. Its your job to create a new computer and video based science curriculum for high schools. Not only will students be able to read any topic they wish, they will also be able to see animated demonstrations and video displays simultaneously.
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Scenario 4 Your design entry to replace the town hall building is due in six months. The team you have been assigned to the job includes some of the best designers in the world, and they have always come through before. But its getting late, and theres nothing on paper yet. They talk about it themselves. They seem to be thinking about it, but they never seem to be drawing anything. You are nervous. This building could become a national landmark, and you want to win the competition very badly.
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1.Directing: 2. Influencing: Relationship

High on Task & Low on Relationship High on Task & High on

3. Collaboration: Low on Task & High on Relationship 4. Delegation: Low on Task & Low on

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Recap 1. Objective 2. Managing vs Leading 3. What is Leadership 4. Leadership Styles(LS) 5. People Development Levels (PDL) 6. Matching of LS with PDL Leadership is not the private reserve of a few charismatic men and women. It is a process ordinary managers use when they are bringing forth the best from themselves and others.
jayaranjan@yahoo.com
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