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Introduction, THEORY 421

COURSE OUT LINE Veterinary Gynaecology and obstetrics vog-421 cr. Hrs.2+0 1. Introduction, 2. Development of female genitalia and description of pelvis in domestic animals (recapitulation). 3 .Growth, puberty, sexual maturity in relation to reproduction. 4. Role of hormones in various phases of reproduction in females. 5. Symptoms of estrus and oestrous cycle in domestic animals and factors affecting oestrous cycle. 6. Palpation of genital organs for changes during oestrous cycle . 7 . Synchronization of oestrous cycle; ovulation. 8. Transportation of sperms; fertilization and attachment; development of fetus, 9 . Fetal membranes of placenta. Types and functions of placenta, 10 . Gestation, duration and stages of gestation in domestic animals. 11 . Superfoetation and superfecundation. 12 . Superovulation and embryo transfer. 13 . Abnormalities of fertilization and fetal development.

14. Pregnancy diagnosis, pregnancy examination physical, biological, chemical, hormonal, ultrasonic and radiographic methods. 15. Differential diagnosis of pregnancy. 16. Disease and accidents during gestation, prolonged gestation; 17.Premature birth, early embryonic mortality 18.Abortions in domestic animals, causes and treatment. 19. Intrauterine death of foetus; mummification; maceration, pyometra. 20. Fertility, infertility and sterility; functional infertility, anoestrus, ovarian 21.Hypoplasia, cystic ovary, adrenalvirlism. 22.Fertilisation, failure and repeat breeding. 23.Infectious infertility. Specific and non specific infections affecting genital organs. 24.Sexual health control and herd reproductive health programme. 25.Antepartum fetal membrane, twins and multiple birth, ectopic pregnancy. 26.Parturition in domestic animals, causes and stages of parturition.

27.Expulsion and retention of after birth. 28. Parturition hygiene, care and management of new born and dam. 29.Udder health care. 30. Post partum diseases and complications cervicovaginal prolapse, uterine prolapse. 31.Postpartum complications, vaginitis, cervicitis, metritis, pyometra, postpartum paraplegia, milk fever. 32.Clinical uses of hormones and prostaglandins. 33. Intrauterine presentation of fetus, eutocia, dystocia. 34. Types of dystocia, general handling of dystocia. 35. Diagnosis and treatment of dystocia cases. 36. Obstetrical operations. Mutation and forced extractions. 37.Fetotomy and caesarian section.

Introduction
Reproduction is the process by which animals produce offspring for the purpose of continuing the species.

The process of reproduction begins with copulation, which is the mating of a male and female of the species. Sperm cells from the male are deposited in the female reproductive tract and try to unite with an egg cell. When fertilization (a sperm cell and egg cell unite) occurs, an embryo begins to develop.

The embryo attaches to the wall of the uterus where it is protected, receives nourishment, and develops. When the new offspring reaches the end of the gestation period, it is delivered from the female reproductive tract in a process called parturition.

To completely understand the process of reproduction, a basic knowledge of the reproductive tract structures and functions is required.

1. Introduction,
Main Text Book: Reproduction in Farm Animals, E.S.E. Hafez, 6th edition 1993 Reproduction in Cattle, A.R. Peters and P.J.H. Ball, 2nd edition 1994 Current Therapy in Theriogenology, Morrow, 1986 Controlled Breeding in Farm Animals, Gordon, I. (Pergamon Press) Reproduction in Domestic Animals. Cole, H.H. & Cupps, P.T. (Academic Press) Veterinary Obstetrics and Genital Diseases. Roberts, S.J. 3rd Ed. (Distributed by Edwards Bros. Michigan) Current Therapy in Theriogenology. Morrow, D.A. 2nd Edit. (W.B. Saunders) . Animal Reproduction Principles and Practices. Sorensen, Jr. A.M. (McGrawHill)

Reproduction is the process by which animals produce offspring. The ability to reproduce is one of the basic characteristics of a living thing; in order for a species to continue they must be able to produce viable offspring. Veterinary Gynaecology :- is the study of female reproductive system of animals especially diagnosis and treatment of disorders affecting female reproductive system including the physiology and pathology of female reproductive systems . Veterinary Obstetrics :- is the study of events leading to advanced pregnancy and parturition. Andrology:- study of male reproductive system of animals especially diagnosis and treatment of disorders affecting male reproductive system including the physiology and pathology of male reproductive systems

Theriogenology is the branch of veterinary medicine concerned with reproduction, including the physiology and pathology of male and female reproductive systems and the clinical practice of veterinary obstetrics, gynaecology, and Andrology. Theriogenology is derived from the Greek (therio = beast, gen = birth, ology = study of). It is the term used to describe the specialty of veterinary reproduction.

Historical Development of Reproductive Physiology


Aristotle - 384 to 322 BC
First recorded idea on how the reproductive system functions described in Generation of Animals Thought fetus arose from menstrual blood because during pregnancy menstruation stopped Also thought semen initiated development when seminal fluid was deposited in the female during copulation. Semen came from all parts of the body and testes were only to keep the transporting ducts from getting chinked or plugged with seminal fluid.

The Age of Gross Anatomy


Fallopius -1562--described oviduct Coiter - 1573(student of Fallopius)--discovered the corpus luteum Regnier de Graaf 1672-Describe the antral follicle on the ovary that we often now call the Graafian follicle. He killed rabbits at 30 minute intervals after copulation and found wound like scars on ovary corresponds to the number of embryos in the uterus but thought whole follicle was the egg. van Lewwenhoek 1677--developed a simple microscope.a medical student suggested semen might contain living cells. He saw small particles that moved and he called these animalcules . found animalcules in semen from males of many species.

What is the role of spermatozoa?


Spallanzani (1780)--Sperm were the fertilizing agent in semen . Successful artificial insemination of a dog . Dumas (1825)--Proves sperm the fertilizing agent

Fertilization

Gametogenesis

Male 8-10 months

Lactation

280 Days

-Anestrous

40-60 Days

21 Days Spermatogenesis

& Sex Determination

Sex Determination:
Chromosomal Sex
Chromosomal Sex Gonadal Sex

Gonadal Sex
Hormonal Sex Phenotypic Sex Brain and/or Behavioral Sex

Phenotypic Sex

SEXUAL DIFFERENTIATION AND DETERMINATION A. Genetic differentiation 1. An individual s sex is genetically determined by the presence of a Y chromosome 2. Genetic differentiation takes place at fertilization when a sperm delivers either an X (female) or Y (male) chromosome to the oocytes. 3. Sex determination gene of the Y chromosome causing the undifferentiated gonad develop into the testis is Sry gene 4. Sry gene of the Y chromosome responsible for the expression of substance called testis determining factor (TDF) secreted by the sex cords. 6. TDF controls the pathway towards either male or female development.

B. Gonadal differentiation 1. Development of primordial germ cells in the yolk sac. 2. Migration of primordial germ cells from the yolk sac into the genital ridge Genital ridge gives rise to indifferentiated gonad 3. Genital ridge with stimulation of sex cords give rise to renal system 4. Development of the urinary system - pronephros (primitive kidney) - mesonephros (closely associated with the undifferentiated gonad) - metanephros (becomes the functional kidney)

5. Development reproductive tract

a. mesonephric duct (Wolffian Duct;male reproductive tract; b paramesonepheric duct (Mullerian Duct; female reproductive tract; 6. Male In the presence of Y chromosome and Sry gene: Presence of TDF Development of indifferentiated gonad to testes and Sertoli cells Secretion of anti-mullarian hormone (AMH) by sertoli cells Degeneration of Mullerian duct and development of Wolffian duct differentiation of interstitial Leydig cells Secretion of testosterone and development of male reproductive duct system 7. Female In the absence of Sry Gene: No TDF development of ovaries no Sertoli cells absence of AMH degeneration of Wolffian duct and development of Mullarian duct development of female reproductive tract

C. Hypothalamic differentiation (brain differentiation, Pre-knowledge: Hypothalamic GnRH surge center is necessary for initiation of the estrous cycle and follicular ovulation in the female A. Male Defeminization (Masculinization) of the brain in the male: 1. Testosterone from the fetal testis reaches the brain 2. testosterone is converted to estradiol by aromatase enzyme in the hypothalamus 3. regression of the hypothalamic GnRH surge center by estradiol 4. defeminization of the hypothalamus (no surge center) B. Female If synthesis of estradiol in the hypothalamus responsible for defeminization of the surge center, why doesn t the female (with a lot circulating estradiol) become defeminized ? Estradiol in female binds with a liver protein called alpha-fetoprotein the new complex cannot cross the blood brain barrier where the surge center is located therefore, estradiol cannot affect the GnRH surge center

Vagina
Cervix

Anterior Vagina

Posterior Vagina (Vestibule)

Fornix

VulvaVaginal Sphincter (Hymen) Stratified Squamous Epithelium

Columnar Epithelium

Urethra

Mucosa

Submucosa

Submucosa

Pattern of Cyclicity

HYPOTHALAMUS The hypothalamus is located at the base of the brain, dorsal to the sphenoid bone, ventral to the thalamus, anterior to the mamillary bodies and posterior to the optic chiasm. It has a weight of about 1/300 of the brain. The pituitary or hypophysis is situated below the hypothalamus within a depression of the sphenoid bone called the sella turcica. The pituitary weighs only about 0.5 g in humans.

Posterior pituitary Neurohypophysis is innervated from the supraoptic nuclei (SON) and paraventricular nuclei (PVN) through the H.H.N.T.. Some of these neurons produce Ot while others produce ADH (also known as vasopressin). Both, Ot and ADH, are produced in the body of the neurons located in the hypothalamus. The hormones are stored in Herring bodies together with neurophysins, and transported through the axon. The releasing stimulus is an action potential which results as a consequence of an input received from somewhere in the body and processed in the hypothalamus. Several types of receptors can send the releasing signal.

Aristotle - 384 to 322 BC First recorded idea on how the reproductive system functions described in Generation of Animals Thought fetus arose from menstrual blood because during pregnancy menstruation stopped Also thought semen initiated development when seminal fluid was deposited in the female during copulation. Semen came from all parts of the body and testes were only to keep the transporting ducts from getting chinked or plugged with seminal fluid.