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APPLIED AERODYNAMICS

GRADUATE BRANCH

TERMINAL LEARNING OBJECTIVE


ACTION: ACTION Train Army Aviators in functional knowledge of rotary wing aerodynamics. CONDITION: CONDITION While performing as an instructor pilot (IP). STANDARD: STANDARD In accordance with (IAW) FM 1203.

SAFETY REQUIREMENT None REQUIREMENT: RISK ASSESSMENT LEVEL Low LEVEL: ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS None CONSIDERATIONS: EVALUATION: EVALUATION 90 minute Criterion Test of 63 questions in 4 scoreable units.

ENABLING LEARNING OBJECTIVE #1


ACTION: Associate Newtons Laws of Motion with helicopter flight. CONDITION: In a training environment. STANDARD: In accordance with FM 1-203.

TERMS
MFORCE - any influence that can change the velocity of an object. MENERGY - the capacity that something possesses to do work on something else. MWORK - force X distance. Expressed in foot pounds. Done by a force when the object it acts upon is displaced by the force applied. MPOWER - work/time or the rate of doing work. Expressed in horsepower.

Newtons Laws of Motion


MLaw of inertia MLaw of acceleration MLaw of action and reaction MApplication to helicopters

LAW OF INERTIA
M A body at rest will remain at rest M A body in motion will remain in motion at the same speed and in the same direction M Until acted upon by an outside force. M Inertia - The resistance that a body offers to change.

LAW OF ACCELERATION
MThe force required to produce a change in the motion of a body is directly proportional to its mass and the rate of change in its velocity.

LAW OF ACCELERATION
MA change in velocity with respect to time
 

Increase or decrease in velocity Change in direction of flight

MDirectly proportional to force and inversely proportional to mass MExpressed as: A =F/M

LAW OF ACTION AND REACTION

MFor every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction.

Questions?
Go home ball!

ENABLING LEARNING OBJECTIVE #2


ACTION: Identify the use of scalars and vectors. CONDITION: In a training environment. STANDARD: In accordance with FM 1-203.

Scalars and Vectors


MScalars Quantities that can be described Scalars: by size alone.


Area, volume, time, mass, etc.

MVectors Graphic representations of a Vectors: quantity that must be described using magnitude and direction.


Velocity, weight, thrust, lift, drag, etc.

SOLVING VECTOR PROBLEMS

VECTOR ADDITION (POLYGON)


A

PARALLELOGRAM

TRIANGULATION

Vectors in the classroom

Questions?

ENABLING LEARNING OBJECTIVE #3


ACTION: Apply Bernoullis principle of airflow to rotary wing flight. CONDITION: In a training environment. STANDARD: In accordance with FM 1-203.

BERNOULLIS PRINCIPLE OF AIRFLOW

STATIC PRESSURE (p)


Pressure exerted by a column of air pushing upon a surface Static Pressure

Standard sea level pressure = 29.92 in/mercury or 2116.216 lbs/sq ft or 1013.2 mb

DYNAMIC PRESSURE (q)


Pressure created by moving air molecules q=1/2V * V2

(v)q

TOTAL PRESSURE (H)


The sum of static plus dynamic pressure H=p+q

BERNOULLIS PRINCIPLE
MWithin any confined system, total energy (pressure) remains constant. MTotal pressure equals static pressure plus dynamic pressure. MAir velocity must increase if the same volume is to pass through a constriction. MWhen air velocity (dynamic pressure) increases, static pressure must decrease for total pressure to remain constant. MConversely, a decrease in velocity results in an increase in static pressure.

VENTURI EFFECT
p=5 (v)q=5 p=5

(v)q=7 p=3

(v)q=5

H=10

H=10

H=10

TOTAL PRESSURE (H) - REMAINS CONSTANT

VENTURI EFFECT

VENTURI EFFECT

AIRFLOW AROUND AN AIRFOIL


Boundary Layer

Stagnation Point

AIRFLOW AROUND AN AIRFOIL

AIRFLOW AROUND AN AIRFOIL


MThe pressure differential above and below the airfoil accounts for approx.75% of the aerodynamic forces produced by the airfoil. MRemaining 25% results from Newtons third law of motion action/reaction.

Questions?

ENABLING LEARNING OBJECTIVE #4


ACTION: Identify properties of airfoils using proper terminology. CONDITION: In a training environment. STANDARD: In accordance with FM 1-203.

Airfoils

A surfaced body designed to produce a lift or thrust force when subjected to air flow.

AIRFOIL TERMINOLOGY
Leading edge Trailing edge Chord line Chord Camber Mean camber line Center of pressure Aerodynamic Center

TYPES OF AIRFOILS

Symmetrical airfoils
M Equal camber on each side of chord M Each half a mirror image of the other M Mean camber line and chord line are coincident M Zero lift produced at zero angle of attack M Relatively constant center of pressure

CENTER OF PRESSURE

Nonsymmetrical airfoils
M Greater curvature above the chordline than below M Produces useful lift even at negative angles of attack M Produces more lift at a given angle of attack than symmetrical airfoil M Better stall characteristics M Good lift-drag ratio M Limited to low relative wind velocity - <300 kts M Excessive center of pressure travel - 20% of chordline

Questions?

ENABLING LEARNING OBJECTIVE #5


ACTION: Associate rotor blade angles with the production of lift. CONDITION: In a training environment. STANDARD: In accordance with FM 1-203.

ROTOR BLADE ANGLES

ANGLE OF INCIDENCE (PITCH ANGLE)


MAngle between chordline and plane of rotation or tip-path plane MMechanical angle MChanged by collective and cyclic feathering

ANGLE OF ATTACK
MAngle between chordline and the resultant relative wind MAerodynamic angle MCan change with no change in the angle of incidence

Angle of attack and airflow effects

Questions?

ENABLING LEARNING OBJECTIVE #6


ACTION: Associate various rotor blade actions and their significance to rotary wing flight. CONDITION: In a training environment. STANDARD: In accordance with FM 1-203.

ROTOR BLADE ACTIONS


The four rotor blade movements involved in rotor systems are:
ROTATION FEATHERING FLAPPING HUNTING (FULLY ARTICULATED SYSTEM ONLY)

ROTATION
MCircular movement of rotor blades MProduces rotational relative wind MMaximum speed is at the blade tip, and decreases uniformly to zero at the hub

FEATHERING

COLLECTIVE FEATHERING
MChanges the angle of incidence equally, and in the same direction, on all of the rotor blades simultaneously. MChanges the angle of attack, which:
 

Changes coefficient of lift (CL) Changes overall lift of the rotor system

CYCLIC FEATHERING
MChanges the angle of incidence differentially across the rotor system. MChanges the angle of attack differentially across the rotor system. MPrimary means of compensating for dissymmetry of lift in cruise flight. MChanges attitude of rotor disk, but not the amount of lift the rotor system produces.

FLAPPING
MThe up and down movement of the rotor blades about a flapping hinge. MNo flapping is occurring when the tip-path plane is perpendicular to the mast. MBlades flap in response to changes in lift caused by changes in wind velocity or cyclic feathering. MHelps prevent dissymmetry of lift. MAllows for directional control of rotor system through cyclic inputs.

HUNTING (LEAD AND LAG)


MOccurs in an articulated rotor system as blades lead ahead, and lag behind, their normal position in the rotor system. MCaused by drag forces and the Coriolis force.

DRAG FORCES
MIn directional flight, the pitch angle and angle of attack are constantly changing. MChanges in angle of attack cause changes in blade drag. MHunting prevents undue bending stresses on the blade at the blade root.

CORIOLIS FORCE
MGoverned by the law of conservation of angular momentum.


A body will continue to have the same rotational momentum unless acted upon by an outside force.

MThe rotational (angular) momentum is determined by:





the distance of the CG from center of rotation rotational speed.

MIf CG moves in, rotational speed increases. MIf CG moves out, rotational speed decreases.

Sequence when blade flaps up


MBlade CG moves inboard - smaller radius of travel MBlade tends to speed up IAW the law of conservation of angular momentum MVertical hinge pin allows blade to lead a few degrees to absorb stresses that would be imposed on the blade.

Sequence when blades flap down


MBlade CG moves outboard - increased radius of travel MBlade tends to slow down IAW the law of conservation of angular momentum MVertical hinge pin allows blade to lag a few degrees to absorb stresses that would be imposed on the blade.

Questions?

ENABLING LEARNING OBJECTIVE #7


ACTION: Identify factors affecting lift and drag on a rotor blade (The Lift and Drag Equations). CONDITION: In a training environment. STANDARD: In accordance with FM 1-203.

LIFT
MThe component of the total aerodynamic force of an airfoil that is perpendicular to the resultant relative wind. M L = C S 1/2V V2
L

THE LIFT EQUATION


L = CL S 1/2V 1/2V
2 V

L = CL S 1/2V


2 V
L

MCoefficient of lift - C

A dimensionless number determined by wind tunnel tests. Factors determining coefficient of lift:
Shape or design of the airfoil Angle of attack

L = CL S 1/2V
MSurface area - S
 

2 V

Airfoil surface Measured in square feet

L = CL S 1/2V V2
MAir density - V


Measured in slugs per cubic foot


Standard day - 1 cu. ft. of air = .00237690 slugs To determine the mass of an object in slugs divide the weight by the gravitational constant 32.2 ft/sec.

Factors affecting air density:


Pressure: density increases as pressure increases; density decreases with altitude Temperature: density decreases as temperature increases Humidity: density decreases as water vapor increases Optimal Hi pressure Low temperature Low humidity

L = CL S 1/2V


2 V

MVelocity (Relative wind - fps) - V


Lift increases with the square of velocity -V2 If the relative wind speed is doubled, lift will be four times greater


Lift/Drag Ratio
MAny airfoil operates at maximum efficiency at only one angle of attack. MDetermined by dividing CL by CD MThe largest quotient is L/DMAX

Lift/Drag Ratio

Compute lift and drag on an airfoil segment


M1 sq ft section of blade M50% span MBlade tip speed - 800 fps M6 angle of attack

L = CL X S X 1/2V X

2 V 2 400

L = .5 X 1 X .002377 / 2 X

L = .5 X (1 X .001189 X 160000) L = .5 X 190.24 L = 95.12 POUNDS OF LIFT

THE DRAG EQUATION


D = CD S 1/2V 1/2V
2 V

D = CD X S X 1/2V X

2 V 2 400

D = .04 X 1 X .002377 / 2 X

D = .04 X (1 X .001189 X 160000) D = .04 X 190.24 D = 7.6 POUNDS OF DRAG

L/D RATIO = LIFT / DRAG = 95.12 / 7.6 = 12.5 POUNDS OF LIFT PER POUND OF DRAG

Resultant Lift
MSummation of all the lift produced by all the segments of all the rotor blades. MActs perpendicular to the tip-path plane. MTo maneuver the aircraft - tilt the tip path plane in the desired direction.

Questions?

ENABLING LEARNING OBJECTIVE #8


ACTION: Identify the types of drag acting upon an airfoil and an aircraft. CONDITION: In a training environment. STANDARD: In accordance with FM 1-203.

DRAG
Resistance to an objects passage through the air.

INDUCED DRAG
POWER REQUIRED

MResults from the production of lift. MParallel to and in the same direction as the DRAG/ relative wind. POWER MIncreases with increased angles of attack. MDecreases with increased airspeed.

INDUCED
VELOCITY/AIRSPEED

PROFILE DRAG
MParasitic drag of the rotor system. MAt a constant RPM, DRAG/ profile drag is POWER relatively constant. MIncreases slightly with airspeed. MIncreases as the number of rotor blades increases.
POWER REQUIRED

PROFILE

VELOCITY/AIRSPEED

PARASITE DRAG
MResistance of fuselage and other nonlifting surfaces to the flow of air. DRAG/ MCauses: POWER


POWER REQUIRED

PARASITE

Form or shape of the helicopter Skin friction

MIncreases rapidly with airspeed.

VELOCITY/AIRSPEED

TOTAL DRAG
M Summation of all the drag forces acting on the helicopter. M Total drag is highest at a DRAG/ hover, POWER M Decreases to a minimum value at a particular airspeed, then M Starts increasing with airspeed.
POWER REQUIRED

TOTAL

PARASITE

PROFILE

INDUCED
VELOCITY/AIRSPEED

TOTAL DRAG CURVE


MPoint of lowest total drag:


POWER REQUIRED

PARASITE TOTAL PROFILE

Minimum rate of descent for autorotation DRAG/ Max endurance POWER airspeed Max rate of climb airspeed Best maneuvering airspeed

INDUCED
VELOCITY/AIRSPEED

TOTAL DRAG CURVE


MLine drawn from origin tangent to the total drag curve gives:
  

Max glide distance in autorotation Max range airspeed Referred to as the Point of Tangency
POWER REQUIRED

PARASITE TOTAL PROFILE


POINT OF TANGENCY

DRAG/ POWER

INDUCED
VELOCITY/AIRSPEED

Questions?

ENABLING LEARNING OBJECTIVE #9


ACTION: Identify the forces associated with blade coning. CONDITION: In a training environment. STANDARD: In accordance with FM 1-203.

CONING
As a helicopter develops lift during takeoff and flight, the blade tips rise above the straight-out position and assume a coned position.

PRIMARY FORCES INVOLVED IN CONING


MCentrifugal force MLift MResultant

Centrifugal force
MThe apparent force which tends to make rotating bodies move away from the center of rotation. MAdds rigidity to rotor blades causing them to assume straight-out position.

Lift
MAs collective is increased and lift develops, the blades respond by rising above the straight-out position.

Resultant
MCombined effect of centrifugal force and lift. MAngle between straight-out position and the blade path is the coning angle. MSome coning is normal; excessive coning causes problems.

CONING ANGLE

Causes of excessive coning


MLow RPM - loss of centrifugal force MHigh gross weight - requires more lift MHigh G maneuvers - requires more lift MTurbulence - updrafts increase angle of attack, which increases coefficient of lift, resulting in increased lift

Effects of excessive coning


MDecreased rotor area MDecrease in useful lift MStress on blades and blade roots

Questions?

ENABLING LEARNING OBJECTIVE #10


ACTION: Identify the factors affecting the balance of forces on a helicopter. CONDITION: In a training environment. STANDARD: In accordance with FM 1-203.

BALANCE OF FORCES

BALANCE OF FORCES
MAny time that the forces are in balance, no acceleration will take place. MWhen the forces are not in balance, the helicopter will accelerate in the direction of the stronger force.

UNACCELERATED FLIGHT
MDuring unaccelerated flight, all opposing forces are equal in magnitude and in opposite directions

ACCELERATED FLIGHT
MAny time opposing forces are not equal in magnitude, an acceleration will take place. MAcceleration will take place in the direction of the stronger force until the forces are again in balance. MAcceleration can be in any direction.

Hovering flight
MAll opposing forces are equal in magnitude, and in opposite directions.
8000 lbs

8000 lbs

Accelerated flight
MAny time opposing forces are not in balance, acceleration will take place. MTransitioning to or from forward flight MInitiating climbs or descents MChanging direction (turns)

DP

R (DP &W) W

Straight and Level Unaccelerated Flight

Questions?

ENABLING LEARNING OBJECTIVE #11


ACTION: Identify the forces acting on the helicopter as it transitions from start-up, to hover, to high speed forward flight. CONDITION: In a training environment. STANDARD: In accordance with FM 1-203.

RELATIVE WIND
MAir in motion with respect to an object in it; the direction or velocity of air in motion with respect to a body, usually the air outside the region affected by the body, i.e. the free stream. MThe relative wind may arise from the motion of the body, from the motion of the air, or from both the motion of the body and the air. MAs a body passes through the air, it affects the air near it. MThis results in a flow of air that may not be parallel to the free stream.

Rotational relative wind


M Created by rotation of the blades. M Strikes leading edge at 90 degrees. M Constantly changing in direction during rotation. M Maximum at the blade tip, M Uniformly decreases to zero at the hub. M Blade tip speed = rotor radius X RPM / 9.55

Effects of induced flow


MRotor system induces a downward flow of air through blades MCreates a downward component of relative wind MComponent must be vectorally added to rotational relative wind MThis becomes the Resultant Relative Wind

Effects of induced flow


M At flat pitch, air leaves the blade in the same direction it approached the leading edge. M No lift is produced.

Effects of induced flow


M Increasing collective pitch creates an angle of incidence. M Air strikes leading edge below chordline. M Air over top has greater distance to travel. M Air leaves trailing edge with downward deflection. M Passage of blades continues to accelerate air.

Momentum theory (F = MA)

Momentum theory Change in Pressure

Momentum theory
Development of wing tip vortices
M Attempt to equalize pressure between top and bottom of an airfoil. M Circular airflow develops at the root and tip of each blade. M Root vortex is small; tip vortex is quite large. M Vortices reduce the efficiency of the rotor system by about 6 %.

The pressure differential between the bottom and the top of the rotor disk creates the lifting force.

EFFECTS OF AIRSPEED
AIRFLOW IN FORWARD FLIGHT

The advancing blade


M Airspeed is added to rotational relative wind. M Greatest value is at the 3 oclock position. M Increases velocity along the span of the advancing blade by a velocity equal to the airspeed.

The retreating blade


M Airspeed is subtracted from rotational velocity. M Minimum value occurs with blade in 9 oclock position. M Decreases velocity across span of retreating blade. M Produces 3 no-lift areas.

Effects of airspeed
MBlades over nose and tail are minimally affected by airspeed. MEntire advancing blade produces lift. MRetreating blade:
Reverse Flow Region Negative Stall Region Negative Lift Region Positive Lift Region Positive Stall Region

Questions?

ENABLING LEARNING OBJECTIVE #12


ACTION: Identify dissymmetry of lift. CONDITION: In a training environment. STANDARD: In accordance with FM 1-203.

DISSYMMETRY OF LIFT
MDifference in lift produced between the advancing half of the rotor and the retreating half. MCaused by differential velocity of airflow across the advancing and retreating halves of the rotor disk in directional flight. MAircraft would be uncontrollable if not for blade flapping and cyclic feathering.

BLADE FLAPPING

MAX UP FLAP DISPLACEMENT

MIN WIND VEL MAX PITCH ANGLE MAX ANGLE OF ATTACK MAX DOWN FLAP VEL

MAX WIND VEL MIN PITCH ANGLE MIN ANGLE OF ATTACK MAX UP FLAP VEL

MAX DOWN FLAPDISPLACEMENT

CYCLIC FEATHERING

CYCLIC FEATHERING

MAX DOWN FLAP DISPLACEMENT

MIN WIND VEL MAX PITCH ANGLE MAX ANGLE OF ATTACK MAX UP FLAP VEL

MAX WIND VEL MIN PITCH ANGLE MIN ANGLE OF ATTACK MAX DOWN FLAP VEL

MAX UP FLAPDISPLACEMENT

DISSYMMETRY OF LIFT
MAs rotor is tilted forward thrust is developed. MWith airspeed blades flap to maintain symmetry. MDue to phase lag greatest up flap would occur at the nose. MResulting in rotor disk tilting more aft causing blowback nose pitches up. MTo compensate apply more forward cyclic. MCombination of blade flapping and cyclic feathering maintains symmetry of lift.

Correcting for dissymmetry of lift


MBlade flapping - occurs automatically without pilot input. MCyclic feathering - forward cyclic applied by pilot to prevent blowback. MHelicopter design    

Forward tilt of rotor Synchronized elevator/Stabilators Longitudinal cyclic trim (CH-47) Stability augmentation systems (SAS)

Questions?
Go home ball!

ENABLING LEARNING OBJECTIVE #13


ACTION: Identify the factors associated with main rotor torque on the fuselage of the helicopter. CONDITION: In a training environment. STANDARD: In accordance with FM 1-203.

TORQUE REACTION
MMain rotor turns counterclockwise. - 1 MFuselages reaction to the turning of the main rotor. - 2 MNewtons third law. MDegree of yaw is proportional to amount of power applied. MCorrected for by tail rotor thrust. - 3

Translating Tendency
MAircraft tends to move in the direction of tail rotor thrust (right). MCaused by effort to cancel a turning moment about the mast with a thrust force and moment from the tail rotor. MCorrections: Tilt main rotor to left by
   

Cyclic rigging Left cyclic input by pilot Tilting main rotor mast to the left Programmed mechanical inputs

Effects on hovering attitude

Effects on hovering attitude (Articulated Systems)


M Tip path plane is tilted to the left. M Provides left thrust force from main rotor. M Centrifugal force acting on the offset hinging aligns the hub with the tip path plane. M Tilts fuselage to the left left side low hovering attitude.

Questions?

ENABLING LEARNING OBJECTIVE #14


ACTION: Identify the changes to the airflow as the helicopter transitions from a hover to normal cruise flight (Translational Lift). CONDITION: In a training environment. STANDARD: In accordance with FM 1-203.

TRANSLATIONAL LIFT
Increased efficiency of the rotor system with airspeed.

More horizontal relative wind means:


MReduction in induced flow velocity MIncreased angle of attack with no increase in blade pitch MIncrease in lift and a decrease in induced drag MLess induced drag results in a more vertical lift vector METL: Occurs at 16-24 knots. Aircraft has outrun downwash, and induced drag is decreasing rapidly

EFFECTIVE TRANSLATIONAL LIFT

Questions?

ENABLING LEARNING OBJECTIVE #15


ACTION: Identify the factors contributing to the transverse flow effect. CONDITION: In a training environment. STANDARD: In accordance with FM 1-203.

TRANSVERSE FLOW EFFECT


Condition of increased induced drag in the aft portion of the rotor disk because the air has a greater downwash angle.

CAUSES OF TRANSVERSE FLOW


MForward tilt of the rotor disk and coning cause the blade over the nose to be more parallel to the horizon. MForward cyclic movement changes pitch angle of blade at the 3 oclock and 9 oclock positions. No change over nose and tail. MAir moves downward as it passes over the rotor system. Aft portion has increased vertical velocity.

CAUSES OF TRANSVERSE FLOW


MAir moving through the aft portion of the rotor disk - greater induced flow velocity & a more vertical flow than forward portion. MBlade over nose - greater angle of attack and produces more lift. Flaps up - due to phase lag - max upflap displacement is at 9 oclock. MBlade over tail - flaps down - max downflap displacement is at 3 oclock.

Causes of transverse flow

Effects of transverse flow


MLoss of lift in aft portion. MAdditional induced drag causes a noticeable vibration (10-20 kts). MRight roll results from phase lag. MOccurs at all speed ranges greatest differential prior to and after ETL

Questions?

ENABLING LEARNING OBJECTIVE #16


ACTION: Identify the development of autorotational forces on the rotor system. CONDITION: In a training environment. STANDARD: In accordance with FM 1-203.

AUTOROTATIONS
MPurpose MRequirements MTypes MForces involved MMaintenance of RPM

PURPOSE
MControlled descent in the event of engine failure. MConverting potential energy of helicopter based on weight and altitude to kinetic energy of rotor system at a controlled rate.

REQUIREMENTS
MRotor system - disengaged from engine sprag clutch (free-wheeling unit). MCollective lowered - reduce angle of attack - prevent loss of RPM.

Types of autorotations
MMinimum rate of descent: descent:


MMaximum glide distance: distance:




 

Values determined by flight testing Published in -10 Values are close to airspeed for minimum drag

 

Increased rate of descent Values determined by flight tests Published in -10 Close to max range airspeed

Blade Regions in Autorotation


MStall (drag) region: region:


The area inboard of the 25% radius Operates above the critical angle of attack (stall angle) TAF is inclined to the rear of axis of rotation Contributes little vertical lift; some rotational drag

Blade Regions in Autorotation


MDriving (autorotative) region: region:


Approximately 25 to 70% radius Operates at high angles of attack TAF is tilted slightly forward Provides horizontal thrust which increases RPM

Blade Regions in Autorotation


MDriven (propeller) region: region:
 

Outboard of 70% radius Lower angle of attack than driving region Higher relative wind speed Provides most lift per square foot to support weight of helicopter. Slightly aft TAF provides horizontal drag; decreases RPM

TAF D STALL REGION

Maintenance of RPM
MRotational drag and thrust of regions will stabilize at some RPM. MRPM where this occurs depends on the collective pitch setting. MBalance of forces will be maintained if angle of attack is maintained or if pilot does not change collective pitch setting. MExcessive RPM can be reduced by increasing collective pitch. MLow RPM can be increased with aft cyclic - results in airspeed loss. MRPM increases in a turn - rate of descent will also increase.

FORCE VECTORS IN AUTOROTATION

FORCE VECTORS IN AUTOROTATION

FORCE VECTORS IN AUTOROTATION

FORCE VECTORS IN AUTOROTATION

Questions?

ENABLING LEARNING OBJECTIVE #17


ACTION: Identify the factors contributing to ground effect. CONDITION: In a training environment. STANDARD: In accordance with FM 1-203.

GROUND EFFECT
The increased efficiency of the rotor system due to interference of the airflow while in proximity to the ground.

Causes of ground effect


MReduction of the induced flow velocity.


Less induced drag produces a more vertical lift vector on each blade element. Reduced angle of incidence means less power is required to sustain a hover. Reduced induced flow velocity with a reduced pitch angle maintains the same angle of attack. Outboard portion of blade is more efficient. Overall system turbulence of vortex swirls is reduced.

MReduction of rotor tip vortices.


 

Results of ground effect


MResultant relative wind becomes more horizontal. MLift vector becomes more vertical. MEffective drag is reduced. MAngle of attack is the same - in or out of ground effect.

IGE HOVER

OGE HOVER

Ground effect altitudes


MThe maximum altitude above the ground is approximately one rotor diameter for any appreciable increase in efficiency. MEfficiency increases with lower altitudes; greatest efficiency is lowest altitude. MMore effective over hard, flat surfaces than rough or soft terrain.

Questions?
Go home ball!

ENABLING LEARNING OBJECTIVE #18


ACTION: Identify the factors associated with settling with power (Vortex Ring State). CONDITION: In a training environment. STANDARD: In accordance with FM 1-203.

SETTLING WITH POWER


A condition of powered flight in which the helicopter settles in its own downwash and collective inputs are ineffective in arresting the rate of descent due to unsteady airflow about the rotor system.

Induced velocity at a hover


MThe magnitude of induced flow velocity is greatest at the blade tips and decreases toward the hub.

Prior to vortex ring state


MAs the helicopter begins to settle, an upward velocity is superimposed on the induced flow velocity. MSince upflow is uniform across the rotor, effects will first be felt at the hub.

VORTEX RING STATE


MIf aircraft continues to descend with insufficient airspeed, it will enter the vortex ring state. MPositive thrust on outer portion of the rotor, and an area of negative thrust at the center. MExtremely high rates of descent can develop.

CONDITIONS FOR SETTLING WITH POWER


MVertical or near-vertical rate of descent (300 fpm or greater). Dependent on:
  

Gross weight Rotor RPM Density altitude

MLow forward airspeed - loss of translational lift. MRotor system must be using some or all of the available engine power. MInsufficient power to stop sink rate.

Conducive flight situations

CONDUCIVE FLIGHT SITUATIONS


MAttempting to hover OGE at or above the hover ceiling of the aircraft. MAttempting to hover OGE within the hovering ceiling of the aircraft without maintaining precise altitude control. MSteep power approaches in which the airspeed is permitted to drop nearly to zero. MDownwind approaches. MExecuting a quick stop downwind.

SYMPTOMS OF SETTLING WITH POWER


MHigh rate of descent (300 - 500 fpm) MHigh power consumption MLoss of collective pitch effectiveness MVibrations

CORRECTIVE ACTION
MEstablish directional flight MLower collective pitch MIncrease RPM (if it decayed) MApply right pedal

Questions?

ENABLING LEARNING OBJECTIVE #19


ACTION: Identify the factors associated with dynamic rollover. CONDITION: In a training environment. STANDARD: In accordance with FM 1-203.

DYNAMIC ROLLOVER
A condition in which: Mthe rate of roll exceeds the lateral control capability of the aircraft with one wheel or skid in contact with the surface Ma rolling moment is developed Msome critical rollover angle is exceeded

Conditions and Reasons


MConditions:


Pivot point, roll rate, exceed the critical angle. Environmental - slope, rough or soft surface, crosswind Aircraft - high CG, narrow landing gear semirigid rotor with limited flapping Pilot - failure to control roll rate, abrupt movement, etc.

MReasons:


Avoiding dynamic rollover


MMaintain an uninterrupted visual reference to monitor roll rates. MSmooth control inputs. MCoordinate collective and cyclic inputs.

Questions?

ENABLING LEARNING OBJECTIVE #20


ACTION: Identify the factors associated with mast bumping. CONDITION: In a training environment. STANDARD: In accordance with FM 1-203.

MAST BUMPING
In the semi-rigid rotor system.

Mast bumping
MCauses - excessive flapping
  

Low G conditions Engine failure Tail rotor failure Damage to mast Main rotor separation

MEffects
 

MCorrective action - recover main rotor thrust by smoothly applying aft cyclic

Questions?
Go home ball!

ENABLING LEARNING OBJECTIVE #21


ACTION: Identify the factors associated with retreating blade stall. CONDITION: In a training environment. STANDARD: In accordance with FM 1-203.

RETREATING BLADE STALL

Why retreating blade stall occurs


MRetreating blade operates at high angles of attack. MWhen blade can no longer compensate for dissymmetry of lift through cyclic feathering, it will flap down. MThe downflap velocity increases the angle of attack, exceeding the stall angle at the blade tip. MStall spreads inboard as flapping continues.

Hovering lift pattern

Normal cruise lift pattern

Lift pattern at critical speeds

Contributing factors
MHigh airspeeds MHigh gross weight MHigh density altitude MHigh G maneuvers MTurbulence (updrafts) MLow rotor RPM

Symptoms
MAbnormal vibrations increasing in intensity as stall progresses (2:1 or 4:1). MPitch-up of the nose. MTendency to roll to the stalled side (left). MControl feedback. MReduction of effective cyclic control. MLoss of control.

Corrective actions
MLower collective
  

Reduce angle of attack Reduce speed of the aircraft Increase RPM (if decayed)

MAdjust control for normal flight MMinimize maneuvering MDescend to lower altitude if flight at a higher airspeed is desired

Questions?

ENABLING LEARNING OBJECTIVE #22


ACTION: Identify the factors associated with advancing blade compressibility. CONDITION: In a training environment. STANDARD: In accordance with FM 1-203.

ADVANCING BLADE COMPRESSIBILITY

Advancing Blade Compressibility


MDominating factor in high-speed airflow is the speed of sound.


The speed of sound is the rate at which small pressure disturbances are propagated through the air. Propagation speed depends solely on temperature.

Speed of sound vs temperature


Fo Co Speed of sound, ft/sec. 1162 1140 1117 1095 1087 1039 1027 1003 994 Speed of sound, Knots. 689 676 662 649 644 615 608 595 589

100 80 Standard 59 40 32 -10 -20 -40 -50

38 27 Standard 15 4 0 -12 -29 -40 -45

Advancing Blade Compressibility


MBecause air velocity is changed as it passes over an airfoil, the airfoil does not have to travel at the speed of sound to experience the effects of compressible flow. MThe velocity of air can change by up to 25% at high angles of attack. MCompressible flow will occur when there is a transonic or supersonic flow of air across the airfoil.

Effects
MCoefficient of drag increases; loss of lift is experienced. MVibrations get more severe as region spreads inboard. MHigh power is required to maintain RPM. MNose pitches down. Loss of lift at 3 oclock position - phase lag causes blade to flap down over nose. MStructural failure of the blade - due to tremendous pitching moments.

Contributing factors
MHigh airspeeds MHigh gross weight MLow air density (high DA) MHigh G maneuvers MTurbulence MHigh rotor RPM MLow temperatures

Corrective actions
MAny action that will decrease the angle of attack or airspeed will help:


  

Decrease blade pitch by lowering collective, if possible. Decrease rotor RPM. Decrease severity of maneuvers. Decrease airspeed.

SUBSONIC (NORMAL) FLOW


MACH NUMBERS BELOW 0.75

TRANSONIC FLOW
MACH NUMBERS FROM 0.75 TO 1.20
MAir can transition from subsonic to supersonic with few problems - if change is gradual and w/o large changes in direction. M AIR CAN ONLY TRANSITION FROM SUPERSONIC TO SUBSONIC BY PASSING THROUGH A SHOCK WAVE. MNormal shock wave is oriented 90 to the flow. MShock wave is a dense wall of air. MAs air passes through shock wave - velocity decreases, static pressure increases & heat is created. MAerodynamic center moves from 25% to 50 % chord creates a nose pitch down moment on airfoil.

TRANSONIC FLOW

SUPERSONIC FLOW
MACH NUMBERS FROM 1.20 TO 5.00

MAt velocities slightly above M1.0, bow wave forms at leading edge of airfoil. MVelocity of air behind shock wave may be supersonic or subsonic. MTremendous drag is associated with the bow wave.

Questions?

HAVE A NICE DAY!