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DATA COLLECTION

TYPES OF DATA
 

PRIMARY SECONDARY

PRIMARY DATA


Primary data are generally information gathered or generated by the researcher for the purpose of the project immediately at hand. Data originated by the researcher for the specific purpose of addressing the research problem.

ADVANTAGES OF PRIMARY DATA


   

FIRST-HAND ACCOUNT RELIABLE LOGICAL STARTING POINT PERSONALISED APPROACH

DISAVANTAGES OF PRIMARY DATA


  

EXPENSIVE BIASED DIFFICULT TO FORM A SAMPLE REPRESENTATIVE NON-COOPERATION

Secondary data
  

Data collected for some purpose other than the problem at hand Data previously collected by someone else Possibly for some other purpose


e.g., data in books, journals, newspapers, magazines, etc.

Advantages of secondary data


   

Easily accessible Relatively inexpensive Quickly obtained Helps identify the problem, better define the problem, develop an approach to the problem

disadvantages of secondary data




Their usefulness to the current problem may be limited in several important ways, including relevance, accuracy, current, dependable

A comparison of primary and secondary data


Primary data Collection purpose Collection process Collection cost Collection time secondary data

For the problem at For other problem hand Very involved high long Rapid and easy Relatively low short

Primary data

Qualitative data

Quantitative data

descriptive

casual

Experimental data Survey data Observational & other data

Qualitative Vs quantitative research


Qualitative research Objective To gain qualitative understanding of the underlying reasons and motivations Small number of nonrepresentative cases Unstructured Nonstatistical Develop an initial understanding Quantitative research To quantify the data and generalize the results from the sample to the population of interest Large number of representative cases Structured Statistical Recommend a final course of action

Sample Data collection Data analysis Outcome

Primary data collection methods (qualitative)


Qualitative research procedures

Direct (nondisguised)

direct (disguised)

Focus groups

Projective techniques Depth interviews

Association techniques

Completion techniques

Construction techniques

Expressive techniques

RATIONALE FOR USING QUALITATIVE METHODS


 

 

Ideal explanatory tool Increase the value of subsequent quantitative research Obtain visceral feedback instead of just number crunching data Group dynamic enhance results Customers are people, not just charts.

Direct approach -in which the purpose of the project are disclosed to the respondent or are obvious, given the nature of the interview. Indirect approach -in which the purpose of the project are disguised from the respondents.

Focus Group
An interview conducted by a trained moderator among a small group of respondents in an unstructured and natural manner  The people who are interested in your discussion topic are identified and subsequently called for seminar/meeting EXAMPLE  Increase in the taxes on a particular group say transporters  Ban of tobacco in a state  New government policy against the small scale industry


Characteristics of focus groups


 

   

Group size: 8 to 12 Group composition: homogeneous, respondents prescreened Physical setting: relaxed, informal atmosphere Time duration: 1 to 3 hrs Recording: use of audiocassettes and videotapes Moderator: observational, interpersonal, and communication skills of the moderator.

Advantages of focus groups


      

Synergism: group of people will give wider range of info. Snowballing: here one person comments triggers a chain reaction from other respondents Stimulation: as the time period is short respondents are eager to put their views Security: are participants feelings are similar, they feel comfortable in putting their views Spontaneity: no specific questions therefore the responses are spontaneous and accurate ideas of their views Serendipity: ideas are more likely to arise out of the blue in a group than in an individual interview speed

Disadvantages of focus groups




 

 

Misuse: focus groups can be misused and abused by considering the results as conclusive rather than exploratory Misjudge: biases Moderation: focus groups are difficult to moderate. Moderators with all desirable skills are rare. the quality of the results depends heavily on the skills of the moderator. Messy: as unstructured so coding, analysis, and interpretation becomes difficult. Misrepresentation: focus groups are not representative of the general population. So decision making can be under ?

Depth interviews


An unstructured, direct personal interview in which a single respondent is probed by a highly skilled interviewer to uncover underlying motivations, beliefs, attitudes, and feelings on a topic.

ADVANTAGES OF DEPTH INTERVIEWS


 

 

Independent responses Attitudes and emotions can be explored in detail Possible to determine motivation Mutual interaction between the interviewer and interviewee.

DISADVANTAGES OF DEPTH INTERVIEWS


   

Difficult and expensive Lack of structure in questionnaire Quality depends on interviewer skills Cost and length

Projective Techniques


An unstructured and indirect form of questioning encourages the respondents to project their underlying motivations, beliefs, attitudes, or feelings regarding the issues of concern.


1. Association technique- here the respondent is presented with a stimulus and asked to respond with the first thing that comes to the mind.  Word-association test : the respondent is presented with a list of words, one at a time. After each word they are asked to give the first word that comes to mind. e.g. fresh, pure, bubbles etc.  Cloud pictures  Auditory project techniques

2. Completion technique- requires the respondent to


complete an incomplete stimulus situation, image or
situation and asked to complete it however he or she chooses


Sentence-completion test- respondents are presented with a number of incomplete sentences and asked to complete them. e.g. a person who shops at marks and spencer is. maggi is mostly liked by when I think of shopping in a department store , i.. Story completion test- e.g. horlicks add in which yuvraj asked the viewers, how to get rid of her mom scolding. Cadbury add of amitabh bacchan.

3. construction technique- the respondent is required to construct a response in the form of a story, dialogue, or description.


Picture response technique: the respondent is shown a picture and asked to tell a story describing it. Cartoon tests: cartoon characters are shown in a specific situation related to the problem. The respondents are asked to indicate the dialogue that one cartoon character might make in response to the comments of another character.

4. expressive techniques- the respondent is presented with a verbal or visual situation and asked to relate the feelings and attitudes of other people to the situation.


Role playing: respondents are asked to assume the behaviour of other people. The researcher assumes that the respondents will project their own feelings into the role. Third-person technique: the respondent is presented with a verbal or visual situation and asked to relate the beliefs and attitudes of a third person to the situation. This third person may be a friend, neighbour, collegue etc.

Advantages of projective techniques




Elicit responses that subjects would be unwilling or unable to give it if they know the purpose of the study. At times direct questioning can be misunderstand, or misinterpret or mislead the researcher. Are also helpful when underlying motivations, beliefs, and attitudes are operating att a subconcious level.

disadvantages of projective techniques




Require personal interviews with highly trained interviewers. Skilled interviewers are required to analyze the responses. So they tend to be expensive. Serious risk of interpretation bias. with the exception of word association, all techniques have open ended questions, making analysis and interpretation difficult and subjective

Focus groups, depth interviews, and projective techniques


Focus groups Degree of structure Probing of individual respondents Moderator bias Interpretation bias Uncovering subconscious information Relatively high Low depth interviews Relatively medium High projective techniques Relatively low Medium

Relatively medium Relatively low Low

Relatively high Relatively medium Medium to high

Low to high Relatively high High

No Involve unusual behaviour/question ing Obtaining sensitive information Overall usefulness Low

To a limited extent

Yes

Medium

High

Highly useful

Useful

Somewhat useful

1. Surveys (quantitative)
Survey is a process for gathering information, without detailed verification, on the activity being examined. A structured questionnaire given to a sample of a population and designed to elicit specific info from respondents.The main purposes are to: Understand the activity under review Identify significant areas wanting special emphasis Obtain information for use in performing the audit Fact- Finding study

Characteristic of Survey
   

 

It is always a field study It seeks responses directly from respondents It can cover a very large population A survey may involve Extensive study or intensive study It covers a definite geographical area Every member of population has equal chance of being selected Conducted in a natural setting

Purpose of Survey
   

Provide information Causal relationship between variables Comparisons of demographic groups Dealing with cause and effect relationship

Survey methods
Survey methods

Telephone interviewing

personal interviewing

mail interviewing

electronic interviewing

Traditional

Computer assisted

mail

Mail panel

In -home

Mall intercept

Computer Assisted e.g. kiosks

E-mail

internet

Mail panel - a large and nationally representative sample of households who have agreed to periodically participate in mail questionnaires, product tests, and telephone surveys.

Personal interview
One to One interview is been taken  In- depth information being collected  Interview can be audio or video recorded EXAMPLE  Interview of politicians for the forecast of the election polls  Interview of Industry personal for the new change in the government laws for imports  Knowing the famous TV channel among teenagers  Which is most used products ex: perfumes, shoes, cosmetics and why?


Telephone interview
Quickest way of collecting data  Telephonic interview can be recorded for evidence  Some time not reliable  Government restrictions EXAMPLE  Asking customers of HUTCH are they happy with the billing pattern of their company  Grievances if any after the use of any washing machine, Grinder, television


ADVANTAGES OF TELEPHONIC INTERVIEW


     

SPEED DATA COLLECTION HIGH QUALITY DATA COLLECTION THROUGH IMPROVED TECHNIQUES INCREASED CO-OPERATION ABILITY TO INTERVIEW RESPONDENTS IN HIGH-CRIME AREAS FACILITATATION OF COLLECTION OF SOCIALLY UNDESIRABLE RESPONSES MAKING CALL BACK EASIER

DISADVANTAGES OF TELEPHONIC INTERVIEWS


 

 

INABILITY TO ASSESS RESPONDENTS LENGTH OF INETRVIEW IS LESS AND IT IS EASY FOR A RELUCTANT RESPONDENT TO HANG UP DOUBT ON QUALITY OF DATA IF SENSITIVE INFORMATION IS INVOLVED. TENDENCY OF PEOPLE TO GIVE SHORTER REPLIES RESULTS IN INACCURATE INFORMATION. INCREASED NON-RESPONSE RATES DUE TO SCREENING DEVICE

Self administered (mail or internet) survey


In this type of collection of data mails are send across users of a free mail service who are not registered to a particular group EXAMPLE  Polls on who will the next CM of Tamil nadu  Which is favorite breakfast Top ramen noodles or Maggie noodles


ADVANTAGES OF SELF ADMINSTARTED INTERVIEWS


 

ELIMINATES INTERVIEWER BIAS HONEST REPLIES METHODS LIKE MULTI-MEDIA TOUCH SCREEN COMPUTERS
LESS EXPENSIVE

ADVANTAGES OF MAIL SURVEY


  

COST-EFFECTIVE BETTER CONTROL RESPONDENTS REPLY AT THEIR CONVENIENCE

DISADVANTAGE


NON-RESPONSE RATE

2. Observation methods


The recording of behavioural patterns of people, objects, and events in a systematic manner to obtain information about the phenomenon of interest.


Structured and unstructured observation:  Structured observation - technique where the researcher clearly defines the behaviours to be observed and the methods by which they will be measured. Most appropriate for conclusive research  Unstructured observation - involves a researcher monitoring all relevant phenomena without specifying the details in advance. Most appropriate for exploratory research

Disguised and undisguised observation:




Disguised observation- here the respondents are unaware that they are being observed. This allows respondents to behave naturally, since people tend to behave naturally when they know that they are being observed. by one way mirror, hidden cameras Undisguised observation- the respondents are aware that they are under observation. they may be aware of the presence of the observer Natural observation- observing behaviour as it takes place in the environment. E.g. observing behaviour of respondent in a retail store while purchasing. Contrived observation- the behaviour is observed in an artificial environment. E.g. test kitchen set up in a shopping mall.

Natural and contrived observation:




Personal observation: in which a human observer records the phenomenon being observed as it occurs. e.g. observer counting the number of people entering the shopperss stop, i.e. observe traffic flow in a retail outlet Mechanical observation: mechanical devices rather than human observers record the phenomenon being observed. E.g. audimeter is attached to a television set to continiously record what channel the set is tuned to. People meters are also set to which not only tells which channel is being watched but also who is watching it. On-site cameras used by retailers to assess package designs, counter space, floor displays, and traffic flow patterns. Turnstiles which record number of people entering or leaving a building, office etc. Traffic counters placed across streets to determine the number of vehicles passing certain location.

Audit: the researcher collects data by examining physical records or performing inventory analysis. In audits data is collected personally by the researcher and the data is based upon the counts, usually of physical objects Content analysis: the objective, systematic, and quantitative description of the manifest content of a communication. E.g. the frequency of appearance of blacks, women , and members of other minority groups in mass media. Go through the news or newspapers etc. Examining the portrayal of women in U.S. magazine advertising has changed, positively or negatively, over the 10 year period from 1998 to 2008.we will collect sample of magazines.

Trace analysis: an approach in which data collection is based upon physical traces, or evidence, or past behaviour.


E.g. the position of radio dials in cars brought in for service was used to estimate share of listening audience of various radio stations. Advertisers can used the estimates which radio station to advertise on. The age and condition of cars in a parking lot were used to assess the affluence of customers

Other methods: mystery shopping

ERROR IN SURVEY RESEARCH


 

RANDOM SAMPLING ERROR SYSTEMATIC ERROR

ERRORS

TYPES OF ERROR IN SURVEY RESEARCH


RANDOM SAMPLING SYSTEMATIC ERROR

ADMINISTRATIVE ERROR

RESPONDENT ERROR

RESPONSE BIAS NON RESPONSE ERROR

SAMPLE SELECTION ERROR


DELIBERATE FALSIFICATION SAMPLE FRAM ERROR POPULATION SPECIFICATION ERROR DATA PROCESSING ERROR INTERVIEWER BIAS INTERVIEWER ERROR ACQUIESCENCE BIAS UNCONSCIOUS MISREPRESENTATION

EXTREMITY BIAS

SOCIAL DESIRABILITY BIAS

RANDOM SAMPLING ERROR




 

Random sampling error is the error caused by a particular sample not being representative of the population of the interest due to random variation Error cannot be avoided Brought to Acceptable limit by increasing sample size

SYSTEMATIC ERROR


  

Error that occur due to nature of the research design and the precision of execution are known as systematic error. Wrong technique Wrongly calibrated instruments Many sources of systematic error some are
 

Administrative errors Respondent error

Administrative errors
Sample design error Occured by Carelessness, confusion, negligence, omission etc.  Types of Administrative error

    

Sample Selection error Sample frame error Population Specification error Data processing error Interviewer error

Sample Selection error


    

Execution of a sampling procedure resulting in an unrepresentative sample Occur by Non adherence to appropriate sampling procedures Use of Incomplete and improper sampling procedure Example
 

Mall intercept interviewers Political leader

Sample frame error




 

Sampling frame is defined as list of population elements or members from which units to be sampled are selected Error occur when List of members does not correspond exactly with the target population Example


Target population all supermarkets in Hyderabad Sample frame does not list all the supermarkets

Population specification error


 

Incorrect definition of the population Example




Small electronic owner looking sample from only small car owners

Data Processing error


    

Occurred by Incorrect data entry Incorrect computer programming Avoided by Careful verification of each step

Interviewer error
        

Occur due to Interaction of the interviewer with the respondent Reasons Differ in the character and abilities Unable to record answer correctly Way of understanding of the interviewer Not trained Interviewer Cheating by filling forms Cross checking  Verified by calling some of the respondents

Respondent error


  

A survey requires co-operation in giving answers that contain correct information Respondent error classified into Non response error Response bias

Non-Response error
      

Inclusion of the sample that failed to response is non-response error Occur due to Person not available during preliminary call & Subsequent call Caller Id & Answering machine Busy with other work Concealing privacy and sensitive issue Respondent not involved in the survey Example: Airlines bad experience

Response Bias


A survey error that results from the inclination of people to answer a question falsely, either through deliberate misrepresentation is called Response Bias Response Bias has two basic form 1)Deliberate Falsification 2)Unconscious Misrepresentation

Deliberate Falsification
 


Knowingly giving wrong answers when respondent are not certain about the facts Reasons for Deliberate Falsification
Appear intelligent  Conceal information  Time pressure  Courtesy bias EXAMPLE:  How many time he visited a supermarket, cinema hall.  Conceal true information towards efficiency of their units. He is afraid from the supervisor

Unconscious Misrepresentation


It is a situation where respondent gives wrong or estimated information dues to forgetfulness and ignorance even though he has no intension of doing it. Example
   

Misunderstand question Prior inexperience Prestige issue Unexpected question

Different type of biases




Acquiescence Bias  Respondent inclination to be same/opposite to the interviewer so answers are Yes or No Extremity Bias  Respondent either use extreme or neutral answers Interviewer Bias  Interviewer facial expression, age, gender, tone, etc Social Desirability Bias  Answers to be socially desirable or acceptable to create favorable image.  Example
 

Education information overstated Salary overstated

INTERVIEW
WHAT IS AN INTERVIEW?  AN INTERVIEW IS A PURPOSEFUL DISCUSSION BETWEEN TWO PEOPLE OR MORE.  HELPS IN GATHERING VALID AND RELIABLE DATA.  BY WAY OF FORMULATING QUESTIONS IN QUESTIONNAIRE.  KEEPING IN MIND REASERCHERS QUESTION AND OBJECTIVES.

CHARACTERIZATION OF INTERVIEW
CONSISTS OF FOUR ENTITIES  RESEARCHER  INTERVIEWER  INTERVIEWEE  INTERVIEW ENVIRONMENT

TYPES OF INTERVIEW
      

STRUCTURED SEMI-STRUCTURED UNSTRUCTURED STANDARDIZED NON-STANDARDIZED RESPONDENT INFORMANT

INTERVIEW METHOD
   

NON-DIRECTIVE DIRECTIVE FOCUSED IN-DEPTH

COMMON METHODS IN INTERVIEW


   

PERSONAL INTERVIEW TELEPHONIC INTERVIEW SELF-ADMINISTERED INTERVIEW MAIL SURVEY

Personal interview
  

   

One to One interview is been taken In- depth information being collected Interview can be audio or video recorded EXAMPLE Interview of politicians for the forecast of the election polls Interview of Industry personal for the new change in the government laws for imports Knowing the famous TV channel among teenagers Which is most used products ex: perfumes, shoes, cosmetics and why?

Telephone interview
Quickest way of collecting data  Telephonic interview can be recorded for evidence  Some time not reliable  Government restrictions EXAMPLE  Asking customers of HUTCH are they happy with the billing pattern of their company  Grievances if any after the use of any washing machine, Grinder, television


CLASSIFICATION OF PERSONAL INTERVIEW


  

DOOR TO DOOR INTERVIEW EXECUTIVE INTERVIEW MALL INTERCEPT SURVEY

DOOR TO DOOR INTERVIEW




   

ASSUME TO BE THE BEST INTERVIEW AT HOME FACE TO FACE INTERACTION ADVANTAGE OF INSTANT FEEDBACK EXPLANATION OF COMPLEX TASK EASY HANDLING OF COMPLEX PRODUCT CONCEPT

EXECUTIVE INTERVIEW


  

SPECIFIC TO WORK PLACE RESPONDENTS INTERVIEWING BUSINESS PEOPLE RELATED TO INDUSTRIAL PRODUCT SIMILAR TO DOOR TO DOOR

SELF ADMINISTERED INTERVIEW


  

 

ABSENSE OF INTERVIEWER FILLING OF THE QUESTIONNAIRE PLACES LIKE:SHOPPING MALL,MARKETS,AIRPORTS,RAILWAY STATIONS QUANTITY OF INFORMATION GENERATION IS LIMITED USE OF KIOSKS ADOPTED NOWADAYS

MAIL SURVEY
SURVEY TO QUALIFIED RESPONDENTS BY WAY OF MAILING THEM THE QUESTIONNAIRE TYPES: AD-HOC:NO PRIOR CONTACT BEFORE MAILING MAIL PANEL:SET OF QUESTIONNAIRE SENT FROM TIME TO TIME TO RESPONDENTS


ADVANTAGES OF DOOR-TODOOR INTERVIEW


     

INSTANT FEEDBACK IMPROVED QUALITY CLARITY COMFORT AND RELAXED ENVIRONMENT REPRESENTATIVE POPULATION REDUCED NON-RESPONSE ERROR

DISADVANTAGES OF DOORTO-DOOR INTERVIEW


     

LOW POTENTIAL RESPONDENTS UNSAFE AREAS DISTANCE DEARTH OF QUALITY INTERVIEW UNEXPECTED HINDERANCE ACCESSIBILITY

ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF EXECUTIVE INTERVIEW




SIMILAR TO DOOR-TO-DOOR INTERVIEW LONG WAITING TIME

QUESTIONNAIRE
IT

IS THE LIST OF QUESTIONS

IT

IS THE HEART OF ANY SURVEY USED FOR DESCRIPTIVE AND EXPLANARATORY STUDIES

IT

TYPES OF QUESTIONNAIRS
QUESTIONNAIRS

STRUCTURED

UNSTRUCTURED

PICTORIAL

CLOSED FORM

OPEN END

QUESTION CONTENTS
What is the utility of data collected?  How effective a question in producing the required data?  Can the respondent answer the question accurately?  What is the chance the respondents being influenced by external forces?


DESIGN OF QUESTIONNAIRS


THE DESIGN IS TREATED AS THE HEART OF THE SURVEY OPERATION QUESTUONNAIRS SHOULD BE RELIABLE AD VALID THE DESIG CA BE DONE IN THREE WAYS


CHOICEOF QUESTIONNAIR DESIGING THE INDIVIDUAL QUESTIONS COSTRUCTIO OF QUESTIONNAIRS

INFLUENCING FACTORS

      

The characteristics of the respondents The answers not being distorted The size of the sample The types of questions The number of questions Time and money Availability of interviewer

DESIGING OF INDIVIDUAL QUESTONS


  

Adopt the questions used in the other questionnaires Adapt questions used in other questionnaire Develop their own questions

CLOSED QUESTIONS

LIST

CATAGORY

RANKING

MULTIPLE QUESTION

CONSTRUCTION OF A QESTONNAIRE
       

Defining the research problem Target respondents Give a clear perception to the respondents Should be practicable ad realistic Should be simple and should have less jargons Should be concerned with a single idea Should follow the FUNNEL METHOD Necessary items should be incorporated

QUESTIONNAIRE SEQUENCE
Lead in question  Qualifying question  Warm up questions  Specific question  Demographic question


PRETESTING REVSION FINAL DRAFTING

PURPOSE OF THE QUESTIONNAIRE


THE COVERING LETTER : 1. Explains the of survey 2. Its the first part of questionnaire 3. Most of the people ignore it INTRODUCING THE QUESTIONNAIRE : At the start of the questionnaire one needs to explain the purpose of the survey PILOT TESTING : 1. Helps to obtain some assessment of the questions validity, reliability of the data collected. 2. Helps to ensure that the data collected enables to answer the questions

Administering The Questionnaire




After the questionnaire is designed ,pilot-tested and amended and samples is selected , it can be used to collect data. This final stage is called ADMINISTERING THE QUESTONNAIRE.

Advantages of Questionnaire
The major advantages are:  Low cost  Relative flexibility  Applicability to fairly large sample size  Questions are in consistent form and style and there is little scope for biasness  A respondent can look through the whole questionnaire before committing themselves  One can avoid the problem of defensive answering by the respondent

Disadvantages of Questionnaire
 

    

The respond rate is very low The method is not suitable for information on sensitive topics like sexual behavior, abnormal activity It cannot elicit replies from people who are illiterate It is inappropriate when the objective of the survey involves a good deal of explaining The answers cannot be checked and accepted as final Not suitable where spontaneous answers are needed The researcher cannot be sure whether the question is filled by the person who is supposed to do it

Secondary Data Sources


  

Overall Suitability Precise Suitability Costs and Benefits

CLASSIFICATION OF SECONDARY DATA

CLASSIFICATION BY SOURCE


INTERNAL:
available with in organization. departmental reports, production summaries, sales and marketing, financial and accounting reports.

EXTERNAL:
outside the company. books and periodicals, government sources, computer retrievable databases, media sources.

CLASSIFICATION BY CATEGORY
     

Books and Periodicals Government publications Non governmental associations Directories Industry experts Special collections

CLASSIFICATION BY MEDIUM
Hard


copy

Books, magazines, journals, special collection

Internet


Microsoft internet explorer, Netscape Navigator

CLASSIFICATION BY DATABASE


Collection of information in a detailed and standard format.


  

Online database : central data bank Offline database : diskettes, CD-ROMS Internet

Further classified as
 

Reference databases Source databases

SECONDARY DATA


ADVANTAGES:
  

Identify, clarify and redefine the research problem Alternate methods that can be used for primary research Generates information for better creativity Lack of availability Lack of relevance Inaccurate data

DISADAVANTAGES:
  

Syndicated Data


Data is produced by a market research firm Not client-specific Organized into a common format for a fee to its subscribers

Syndicated Data
Syndicated Data

Surveys Periodic Panel

Audits

Surveys


Commercial surveys undertaken by research organizations


Periodic Panel Survey Shared Surveys

Audits


In-depth analysis of the existing situation in a firm


Performance Stores Product Retail Pantry

Uses of Audits


   

Assessing brand shares and competitive activity Identifying inventory problems Developing sales potential and forecasting Determining total market size Monitoring promotional budget based on sales volume

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