Planet
!un
Kepler¶s Second Law
p Kepler determined that a planet moves
faster when near the Sun, and slower
when far from the Sun.
Planet
G = mg
Geight of the Moon
p Newton reasoned that the centripetal
force on the moon was also supplied by
the Earth¶s gravitational force.
?
Fc = mg
Geight of the Moon
p Newton¶s calculations showed that the
centripetal force needed for the Moon¶s
motion was about 1/3600th of Mg,
however, where M is the mass of the
Moon.
Geight of the Moon
p Newton knew, though, that the Moon
was about º
from the
center of the Earth than the apple.
p And 602 = 3600
Universal Gravitation
p From this, Newton reasoned that the
strength of the gravitational force is
, in fact, the magnitude of the
force is
a
between the
objects.
Universal Gravitation
p Newton concluded that the gravitational
force is:
p £
to the
of
objects.
p
a
to the
of
the
between the objects.
Law of Universal Gravitation
p In symbols, `
a
a
is:
p Fgrav = G Mm
r2
mAmB
Fg G 2
d
Time for an Example
Ge already know:
Fg = mg
&
Now we also know:
mAmB
Fg G 2
d
Time for an Example
Fg = mAg
Time for an Example
mAmB
Fg G 2
d
Time for an Example
And we get:
mAmB
m Ag G 2
d
Time for an Example
mAmB
m Ag G 2
d
Time for an Example
mB
g G 2
d
Time for an Example
m earth
g G 2
d
&
mearth = 5.98 x 1024 kg
Time for an Example
d = 6.38 x 10 6 m
Time for an Example
Plug in:
-11 2
G = 6.67 x 10 N m2
kg
Time for an Example
You get:
´
g 6.67 ù 10 11 m 2 ´5.98 ù10
24
kg
´6.38 ù10
2 2
kg 6
m
Time for an Example
g 9.80 m
s 2
Do Now
p Calculate the gravitational force of
attraction between the Earth and the
Moon, given that the mass of the Earth
is 6.0x1024 kg, the mass of the Moon is
7.4x1022kg, and the average Earth-
Moon distance is 3.8x108 meters.
Solution:
Gma m-
F
( a - )
| 2
6.67 x10 11 ù 24 22
2
(6.0 x10 k )(7.4 x10 k )
k
8 2
(3.8 x10 |)
F 2.1x10 ` 20
Experimental Evidence
p The Law of Universal Gravitation
allowed extremely accurate predictions
of planetary orbits.
p Cavendish measured gravitational
forces between human-scale objects
before 1800. His experiments were
later simplified and improved by von
Jolly. (Read pg 177-178 in text book)
Action at a Distance
p In Newton¶s time, there was much
discussion about HÔG gravity worked -
how does the Sun, for instance, reach
across empty space, with no actual
contact at all, to exert a force on the
Earth?
p This spooky notion was called ³action at
a distance.´
The Gravitational Field
p During the 19th century, the notion of
the ³ ´ entered physics (via Michael
Faraday).
p Ôbjects with mass create an
a
that is felt by other massive
objects - this is a a
.
The Gravitational Field
p So, since the Sun is very massive, it
creates an intense gravitational field
around it, and the
. No more ³action at a
distance.´
Gravitational Field Strength
p To measure the strength of the
gravitational field at any point, measure
the gravitational force, F, exerted on
any ³test mass´, m.
p a
!
p Unit of gravitational field strength is the
`
"`!#
p Note: This is equivalent to |
Gravitational Field Strength
p Near the surface of the Earth, g = F/m =
9.8 N/kg = 9.8 m/s2.
p In general, $!%, where M is the
mass of the object creating the field, r is
the distance from the object¶s center,
and G = 6.67 x10-11 Nm2/kg2.
Gravitational Force
p If g is the strength of the gravitational
field at some point, then the
gravitational force on an object of mass
m at that point is a &
p If g is the gravitational field strength at
some point (in N/kg), then the free fall
acceleration at that point is also g (in
m/s2).
Gravitational Field Inside a
Planet
p If you are located a distance r from the
center of a planet:
p all of the planet¶s mass inside a sphere of
radius r pulls you
of the
planet.
p All of the planet¶s mass outside a sphere of
radius r exerts
net gravitational force on
you.
Gravitational Field Inside a
Planet
p The blue-shaded part
of the planet pulls you
toward point C.
p The grey-shaded part
of the planet does
not pull you at all.
Gravitational Field Inside a
Planet
p Half way to the center of the planet, g
has one-half of its surface value.
p At the center of the planet, g = 0 N/kg.
Black Holes
p Ghen a very massive star gets old and
runs out of fusionable material,
gravitational forces may cause it to
collapse to a mathematical point - a
singularity. All normal matter is crushed
out of existence. This is a black hole.
Black Hole Gravitational Force
Black Hole Gravitational Force
p The black hole¶s gravity is the same as
the original star¶s at distances greater
than the star¶s original radius.
p Black hole¶s don¶t magically ³suck
things in.´
p The black hole¶s gravity is intense
because you can get really, really close
to it!
Earth¶s Tides
p There are 2 high tides and 2 low tides
per day.
p The tides follow the Moon.
Ghy R Tides?
p Tides are caused by the stretching of a
planet.
p Stretching is caused by a difference in forces
on the two sides of an object.
p Since gravitational force depends on
distance, there is more gravitational force on
the side of Earth closest to the Moon and less
gravitational force on the side of Earth farther
from the Moon.
Ghy R Tides?
p Remember that
Ghy the - ?
p The Sun¶s gravitational pull on Earth is
much larger than the Moon¶s
gravitational pull on Earth. So why do
the tides follow the Moon and not the
Sun?
Ghy the - ?
p Since the Sun is much farther from
Earth than the Moon, the difference in
distance across Earth is much less
significant for the Sun than the Moon,
therefore the difference in gravitational
force on the two sides of Earth is less
for the Sun than for the Moon (even
though the Sun¶s force on Earth is
more).
Ghy the - ?
p The Sun does have a small effect on
Earth¶s tides, but the major effect is due
to the Moon.
The End