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1. Fiedler¶s Contingency Theory


2. Normative Decision Model /Leader Participation
Model
3. Situational Leadership Theory
4. Substitute Leadership
5. Path Goal Theory

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1.Leadership styles- Two major styles of leadership:


I. Task- oriented
II. Relationship oriented

2. Situational Variables ±It have three factors:


I. Leader-member relations,
II. Task structure and
III. Position power

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— S  CCY  Y

£ mpirical research supports this theory


£ Includes the impact of situations on leaders
£ This theory is predictive and therefore provides useful
information about the type of leadership that is most likely to
be successful in a specific context
£ Does not require people to be successful in all situations
(perfection is not required)
£ Data from this theory could be useful to organizations in
developing leadership profiles

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£ Fails to fully explain why people with certain leadership styles


are more effective in situations than others.

£ Questions regarding the LPC scale have been made because it


does not correlate well with other standard leadership
measures.

£ LPC instructions are not clear ± leaders are unsure how to


choose a least preferred coworker.

£ Also fails to explain what to do when there is a mismatch


between the leader and the situation in the workplace.

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According to Vroom & Yetton the five decision making styles


may be described as follows:
1) A : The manager makes the decision or solve the problem
alone, using only the information available to him or her at
the time.
2) A: The manager asks for information from subordinates but
make the decision alone.
3) C: The manager share the problem with the relevant
subordinates individually, getting their ideas & suggestions,
without bringing them together as a group. Then the manager
makes the decision alone.

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j) C: The manager and subordinates meet as a group to discuss
the problem, but the manager makes the decision. The
decision may or may not reflect the influence of
subordinates.
5) : The manager & subordinates meet as a group to discuss
the problem, and the group makes the decision. The manager
accepts & implements any solution which has the support of
the entire group.
Assumptions:
i) Decisions acceptance increases commitment & effectiveness
of action.
ii) Participation increases decision acceptance.
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ersey & Blanchard¶s situational theory is based on


interaction among:
I. The amount of direction (task behavior) a leader gives.
II. The amount of socio-emotional support (relationship
emphasis) a leader provides.
III. The maturity level that followers exhibit on a specific task or
function.
£ The level of maturity is defined by three criteria:
i. Degree of achievement motivation.
ii. Willingness to take responsibility.
iii. Level of education & or experience.
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&B characterized leadership style in terms of the amount of
task behaviour& relationship behaviour that the leader
provides to their followers.
elling style: This is a high task, low relationship style and is
effective when followers are at a very low level of maturity
(M4).
Selling style: This is a high task, high relationship style and is
effective when followers are on the low side of maturity (M3).
—articipating style: This is a low- task, high relationship style
and is effective when followers are on the high side of
maturity(M2).
Delegating style: This is low- task, low relationship style and is
effective when followers are at a very high level of
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maturity.(M1)
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£ According to substitute leadership model, many different


variables can produce

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£ The theory has not been properly tested and refined through
scientific analysis.

£ The theory is based on the assumption that the leader is able to


judge the actual maturity level of subordinates.This may not
always be possible.

£ The theory also assumes that as the maturity level of


subordinates changes, the leader has adequate styles flexibility
to move from high task to relationship behaviour.
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£ Path Goal theory is about how leaders motivate


subordinates to accomplish designated goals
£ The stated goal of leadership is to enhance employee
performance and employee satisfaction by focusing
on employee motivation
£ mphasizes the relationship between the leader¶s
style and characteristics of the subordinates and the
work setting
£ The leader must use a style that best meets the
subordinates motivational needs

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—  Cons
£ Jelps understand how £ This is a very complex
leader behavior effects theory that incorporates
subordinates satisfaction many aspects of leadership
and work performance £ Fails to explain adequately
£ Deals directly with the relationship between
motivation ± one of the only leader behavior and
theories to address this subordinate motivation
£ Provides a very practical £ Treats leadership as a one
model ± make a clear path way street, places a majority
and follow it of the responsibility on the
leader

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