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How to Figure Out What
the Job Actually Entails

Dale J. Dwyer, Ph.D.


First Things First

‡   are the building blocks of jobs.


‡ | are the building blocks of the organization.

‡ To understand the requirements to    


   , we need to understand what the job
entails.

‡ We do this by looking at    . But where


does this information come from in the first place?

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Job Analysis

‡ A    is a     to collect data


about work activities; equipment; context; and the
knowledge, skills and abilities (KSAs) required of the job.

‡ It examines a job¶s mental and physical requirements; the


KSAs necessary for job success; the environment where
work is carried out; and the job¶s primary and secondary
functions.

‡ It is a legal safeguard for many HR practices.

‡ Job analyses are usually done through interviews and


questionnaires.

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What Jobs Should Be Analyzed?

‡ Jobs whose content has changed.


‡ Jobs where adverse impact in hiring has occurred.
‡ Entry-level jobs.
‡ Jobs in which incumbents have poor performance or high
turnover.

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What¶s Wrong with this Job Description?

O        

      ‡ Excellent phone etiquette.


O O
‡ Excellent verbal
‡ Professionally administer all communication skills.
incoming calls. ‡ Punctual.
‡ Ensure phone calls are ‡ Able to work with minimum
redirected accordingly. supervision.
‡ Greet guests in a ‡ Should be customer service-
professional, friendly and driven.
hospitable manner. ‡ Knowledge of MS Office
‡ Open and close visitor area (Word, Excel, Outlook,
(locking doors, closing Access).
blinds, turning off lights). ‡ Able to multi-task.
‡ Type memos, ‡ Professional appearance.
correspondence, reports
‡ High school diploma or GED.
and other documents.
‡ Minimum one year
‡ Perform a variety of clerical
experience.
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Job Components

      

· What does an incumbent actually do?


· What are the duties, responsibilities and performance
expectations?
· What KSAs are needed for success?
· What are the conditions--location, physical and social
needs, supervision needs, etc.-- under which the job is
performed?

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Job Analysis Process

1. Decide on the   to be analyzed.


2. Decide on the   who will provide job data.
3. Decide on the  !  to gather job data.

4. Meet with selected employees (manager and


incumbents) to explain process and method.
5. Collect data.
6. Prepare final job analysis data form.
7. Send to manager and incumbents for feedback.
8. Revise if needed. Create the job description and send
to manager for approval.

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_OO"

Job Analysis Interviews and


Questionnaires

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Job Analysis Interview

· Most frequently used · Used to identify critical job


method. tasks.
· Interviews with · Task statements are
incumbents and written to describe what
supervisors. the worker does, to what
or whom, to produce what
· Assumes a thorough outcome, using what tools,
familiarity with the job equipment, processes, etc.
.
· Best when conducted
using a structured
format.

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Limitations to Job Analysis Interviews

· Heavily dependent on interviewing ability.

· Takes time and may not be cost-efficient if there are a


number of jobs to analyze.

· Incumbent may distort information to reflect a more


complex job. It is important to verify information with
other incumbents and supervisors.

· Should not be relied upon as the only source of


information.

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Job Analysis Questionnaire

‡ Task inventories are ‡ Can help combat some of the


usually the most shortcomings of the interview
widely used. method.

‡ Contains ‡ Can be bought or designed.


demographic data,
listing of job tasks and ‡ Usually specific to one job or
rating scales, as well job family.
as working conditions,
equipment used, etc.
HOWEVER --
‡ Still time-consuming and
costly.
‡ Literacy issues.

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How to Interpret a Job Analysis

‡ First, look at the job analysis information (key activities)


about ³WHAT´ is accomplished and ³HOW´ it is
accomplished:
>  
>  
>   
> #  

‡ Extract the major points from each aspect and decide


how to word the dimensions and use the weighting to
scale the importance of each.

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Once the Job Analysis is Done

Job analysis data can be used to:


‡ Create job descriptions.
‡ Contribute to the content in recruitment advertising.
‡ Determine appropriate selection tests.
‡ Assess training needs.
‡ Conduct wage and salary evaluation.
‡ Determine performance criteria and standards.
‡ Provide legal documentation for protection against
discrimination lawsuits.

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