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Optimized Clustering Algorithm for

WBAN to WBAN Communication

Adil Mushtaq
17F-MS-SE-09

Department of Software Engineering


Outline
 Problem Statement
 Aims and Objectives
 Literature Review
 Methodology of Research
 Utilization of Research
 References

Optimized Clustering Algorithm for WBAN


to WBAN Communication
Problem Statement
 There are several challenges and issues that must be incorporated while designing routing
protocols for inter WBAN communications. These challenges include random network topology,
transmission range, energy optimization, heterogeneous devices, resource limitation,
temperature rise or overheating, security and privacy of data. These challenges if inter WBAN
communication leads to development of routing protocols a very difficult and challenging task.
 As the biosensor nodes are placed or implanted in human body to transmit physiological signals
to coordinators or gateways for continuous monitoring operation. When this data transmission is
carried out by these sensor nodes their temperature increases and get over heated due to
radiation absorption and power consumption. This overheating of nodes results in damage of heat
sensitive organs and tissues of human body.
 Energy consumption of each node ultimately affects the life time of overall network. In case of
WBAN the replacement of batteries of implanted sensors is impossible in cases like battle field
and even replacement for wearable sensors is very sorely and irritating for patients or wearer.
 Routing protocol based on temperature awareness does not consider energy consumption metric
that is very important for network life time. Secondly protocols based on clustering approach
mainly focus on energy consumption and interleave temperature and other important parameters.
So there is a need to develop some new or improve these routing protocols that consider these
issues of WBAN to WBAN communication.

Optimized Clustering Algorithm for WBAN


to WBAN Communication
Aims & Objectives
 To cover challenges of energy optimization and temperature rise reduction in WBAN to WBAN
communication.
 Efficient routing of data among WBANs to ensure data delivery on time and reduction of delay.
 To optimize Inter WBAN communication so that fruitful consequences can be achieved in the
fields like safety in environments like battle field, Hajj, or other crowded events.
 To Revolutionize and augmenting health care systems that not only provides wellness
functionalities but also provides detection of diseases in time and on time reaction to any unstable
situations.
 To achieve constant monitoring so that risk of deadly diseases can be minimized and to take
corrective actions on time.
 To increase lifetime of network while minimizing energy consumption and temperature of nodes.

Optimized Clustering Algorithm for WBAN


to WBAN Communication
Literature Review
 Routing Protocols Based on Temperature Rise Reduction
 TARA [1], is a thermal aware protocol in which all the packets are withdrawn from routes having
high temperature nodes and rerouted to the low temperature zone.
 LTR and ALTR [2]. In these algorithms primary focus is given to avoiding loops by maintaining a
list of mostly and recently visited sensor nodes.
 HPR [3] and TSHR [4]. Both of these protocols works in two phases: In first phase, all nodes
share their shortest routes and temperature information. In second phase, based on information of
first phase routing is performed considering that hotspot nodes are not involved.
 M-ATTEMP [5], is a thermal aware protocol in which features like energy consumption and data
rate of nodes is also incorporated.
 ETPA [6], calculates cost of transmission to route packets. Every node broadcasts its energy and
temperature level to its neighbors. Nodes use this information to estimate the cost for each
transmission.
 TMQoS [7] , is a multi-constrained QoS protocol that considers temperature rise along with some
metrics like link reliability and hop to hop delay. It implements hotspot avoidance techniques so
that nodes with high temperature can be avoided while selection of routes.

Optimized Clustering Algorithm for WBAN


to WBAN Communication
Literature Review
 Routing Protocols based on Clustering Approach
 Any Body [8], tends to reduce the number of direct communication links to the sink. Reliability and
energy consumption is not considered in this approach.
 Hybrid Indirect Transmission (HIT) [9] provide high energy efficiency, low network delay and high
life time of network.
 DSCB [10], uses dual sink approach using clustering mechanism in which node that sends data is
selected using cost function. This cost is calculated on the basis of three parameters transmission
power, energy of node and distance of node form that sink.
 CBBAP [11], is cluster based routing algorithm for WBAN that focus on energy efficiency, network
life time and network throughput. This protocol include categorization of various homogenous
sensor nodes into different clusters while coordinator or gateway is placed in center of human
body.
 SEA-BAN [12], is another energy efficient cluster based routing protocol that disseminate energy
to all nodes in even manner so that network life time become optimized. Along with clustering this
protocol also uses one or multi hop transmission mechanism that use energy information of node
and spatial information to validate adaptive routing.

Optimized Clustering Algorithm for WBAN


to WBAN Communication
Methodology of Research
 In our research we will use the intelligent clustering approach to
optimize the routing of data packets between WBAN to WBAN in
which some metrics will be used for efficient cluster formation.
These metrics will be residual energy, distance of node from remote
base station, temperature level of node, direction and speed of
WBAN.

Optimized Clustering Algorithm for WBAN


to WBAN Communication
Methodology of Research

Optimized Clustering Algorithm for WBAN


to WBAN Communication
Methodology of Research
 Clustering will be performed through evolutionary
algorithm. The idea of evolutionary algorithms states that
from the given population of individuals the fittest one will
survive.

Optimized Clustering Algorithm for WBAN


to WBAN Communication
Methodology of Research

Work Flow of OCAWWC

Optimized Clustering Algorithm for WBAN


to WBAN Communication
Results and Discussion
 Energy consumption will be reduced
 Network Life time will be increased
 Efficient clusters will be formed to improve the communication between two WBANs and RBS
 Routing will be optimized ensuring that no hotspots are selected and energy depletion of nodes is
prevented.

Optimized Clustering Algorithm for WBAN


to WBAN Communication
References
 [1] Q. Tang, N. Tummala, S. K. Gupta, and L. Schwiebert, "Communication scheduling to
minimize thermal effects of implanted biosensor networks in homogeneous tissue," IEEE
Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, vol. 52, pp. 1285-1294, 2005.
 [2] A. Bag and M. Bassiouni, "Energy efficient thermal aware routing algorithms for embedded
biomedical sensor networks," 2006.
 [3] A. Bag and M. A. Bassiouni, "Hotspot preventing routing algorithm for delay-sensitive
applications of in vivo biomedical sensor networks," Information Fusion, vol. 9, pp. 389-398, 2008.
 [4] F. Ahourai, M. Tabandeh, M. Jahed, and S. Moradi, "A thermal-aware shortest hop routing
algorithm for in vivo biomedical sensor networks," in Information Technology: New Generations,
2009. ITNG'09. Sixth International Conference on, 2009, pp. 1612-1613.
 [5] N. Javaid, Z. Abbas, M. Fareed, Z. A. Khan, and N. Alrajeh, "M-ATTEMPT: A new energy-
efficient routing protocol for wireless body area sensor networks," Procedia Computer Science,
vol. 19, pp. 224-231, 2013
 [6] S. Movassaghi, M. Abolhasan, and J. Lipman, "Energy efficient thermal and power aware
(ETPA) routing in body area networks," in Personal Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications
(PIMRC), 2012 IEEE 23rd International Symposium on, 2012, pp. 1108-1113.
 [7] M. M. Monowar, M. Mehedi Hassan, F. Bajaber, M. A. Hamid, and A. Alamri, "Thermal-aware
multiconstrained intrabody QoS routing for wireless body area networks," International Journal of
Distributed Sensor Networks, vol. 10, p. 676312, 2014.

Optimized Clustering Algorithm for WBAN


to WBAN Communication
References
 [8] T. Watteyne, I. Augé-Blum, M. Dohler, and D. Barthel, "Anybody: a self-organization protocol
for body area networks," in Proceedings of the ICST 2nd international conference on Body area
networks, 2007, p. 6.
 [9] M. Moh, B. J. Culpepper, L. Dung, T.-S. Moh, T. Hamada, and C.-F. Su, "On data gathering
protocols for in-body biomedical sensor networks," in Global Telecommunications Conference,
2005. GLOBECOM'05. IEEE, 2005, pp. 6 pp.-2996
 [10] Z. Ullah, I. Ahmed, K. Razzaq, M. K. Naseer, and N. Ahmed, "DSCB: Dual sink approach
using clustering in body area network," Peer-to-Peer Networking and Applications, pp. 1-14, 2017.
 [11] T. A. Alghamdi, "Cluster based energy efficient routing protocol for wireless body area
networks," Trends in Applied Sciences Research, vol. 11, p. 12, 2016.
 [12] M. T. I. u. Huque, K. S. Munasinghe, M. Abolhasan, and A. Jamalipour, "SEA-BAN: Semi-
autonomous adaptive routing in wireless body area networks," in 2013, 7th International
Conference on Signal Processing and Communication Systems (ICSPCS), 2013, pp. 1-7.

Optimized Clustering Algorithm for WBAN


to WBAN Communication