You are on page 1of 13

BASIC MECHANICAL

ENGINEERING

Mernie Miao
Jestoni Moldon
Refrigeration and Air Conditioning unit

a. Effective temperature and relative humidity of air to be used for


comfortable cooling shall be 20º - 24º Celsius and 50% - 60% respectively
with 4.6 – 7.6 meters per minute air movement.
b. water from evaporators, condensers and other machinery shall be properly
collected into suitable water or drainage system.
c. ducts shall be constructed of non-combustible materials such as steel or any
approved materials. Only fire retardant lining shall be used on inside of ducts.
d. access doors shall be provided at automatic dumpers, fire dumpers,
thermostat and other apparatus requiring service and inspection in duct
systems.
e. Where ducts pass thru walls, floors or partitions, space around duct shall be
sealed with fire resistant materials equal to wall floor or partitions to prevent
passage of flame or smoke.
f. When ducts or their outlets or inlets pass through firewalls, they shall be
provided with automatic fire dampers that automatically close on both sides of
the firewall on which they pass.
g. Fire doors and fire dampers shall be arranged close and remain tightly closed,
upon operation of fusible link, located where readily affected by abnormal rise
of temperature in the duct.
h. Each refrigerating system shall be provided with legible metal sign
permanently attached and easily noticeable indicating the name of
manufacturer or installer ,total kind and total number o kilograms of
refrigerant contained in the systems and applied
plied field test pressure
i. In refrigerating plants of more than 45 kgs, refrigerants , masks and helmets
shall be used. These shall be kept in suitable cabinet outside the machine
j. Not more than 140 kgs of refrigerant in approved containers shall be stored in a
machine room
k. Where ammonia is used, the discharge may be into tank of water, which
shall be used for no other except ammonia absorption. At least 1 liter of
water shall be provided for every 120 gallons of ammonia
l. In a refrigerating system containing more than 9 kgs, stop valves shall be
installed in inlets and outlets of compressors , outlet of liquid receivers and
in liquid and suction branch headers.
m. Windows type air conditioners shall be provided with drainpipe or plastic
tubing for discharging condensate water into suitable
n. Window type air conditioners shall be provided with exhaust ducts. If the
exhaust is discharge into corridors, and shall be installed at not less than
2-10meters above the floor level
Water Pumping for Buildings/Structures

a. Installation of pumping equipment to supply buildings/structures directly


from existing water supply system shall not be allowed. An underground water
tank or cistern must be filled with gravity flow from water supply system from
where pumps can be installed.
b. To maintain water pressure in all floors of a building , the ff. system may
be used:
I. Overhead tank supply – may be installed above the roof supported by the
building/structure or on a separate tower.

(a) water tanks shall be provided with a vent and an overflow pipe leading
to a storm drain and shall be fully covered.
II. Pneumatic tank – an unfired pressure vessel, initially full of air, into which
water from main is pumped

(a) a suitable pressure switch shall stop the pump when pressure required
is attained.
(b) tanks shall be designed for twice the maximum total dynamic pressure
required
(c) an air volume control device shall be installed to maintain correct air
volume inside the tank
Pipings for fuel gas and steam

a. Piping shall as much as possible run parallel to building walls.


b. group piping shall be supported on racks on either vertical or horizontal
planes
c. piping on racks shall have sufficient space for pipe or chain wrenches so
that any single line can be altered without disturbing the rest.
d. piping 100mm in dia. and above shall be flanged. Smaller sized pipes may
be screwed.
e. piping subjected to varying temperatures shall be provided with expansion
joints.
f. Galvanized piping shall not be used for steam.
g. Piping carrying steam, hot water or hot liquids shall not be embedded in
concrete walls or floors and shall be properly insulated.
h. Piping carrying propane butane and other gas which are heavier than air,
shall be provided with automatic shut off device. The automatic shut-off
device is most effective if provided to each burner before flexible
connection.
MATERIAL PIPED PIPE COLOR PIPIE
IDENTIFICATION
Acetylene Orange Acetylene
Acid Yellow Acid
Air-high pressure Yellow H.P. air
Air-low pressure Green L.P. air
Ammonia Yellow Ammonia
Argon-low pressure Green L.P. argon
Blast-furnace glass Orange B.F. glass
Carbon dioxide Red Carbon dioxide
Gasoline Orange Gasoline
Grease Orange Grease
Helium-low pressure Green L.P. helium
Hydrogen Orange Hydrogen
Nitrogen-low Green L.P. hydrogen
pressure
Oxygen Orange Oxygen
Oil Orange Oil
Steam-high pressure Yellow H.P. steam
Steam-low pressure Yellow L.P. steam
Tar Orange Tar
Producer gas Orange Producer gas
Liquid petroleum gas Orange L.P. gas
Vacuum high Orange High vacuum
Water-boller feed Yellow Boller feed water
Water-cold Green Cold water
Water-distilled Green Distilled water
Water (Fire Service) Red Fire service water
Water-hot Yellow Hot water
Water-low pressure Green L.P. water
(excl. of fire service)
Water-high pressure Yellow H.P. water
(excl. of fire service)
Water-treated Green Treated water
Oil and water Green Oil and water
(for hydraulic
system)
Oil and water Orange Oil and water
(for hydraulic
system)