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COLOR TV FUNDAMENTALS

Prof. Prawin J. Bhagat


Assistant Professor, ETC Department,
JDCOEM, Nagpur
COMPATIBILITY
 Composite video signal should occupy the same
bandwidth as the corresponding monochrome signal.
 The location and spacing of picture and sound carrier
frequencies should remain the same.
 The colour signal should have the same luminance
(brightness) information as would a monochrome
signal, transmitting the same scene.
 The composite colour signal should contain colour
information together with the ancillary signals
needed to allow this to be decoded.
 The colour information should be carried in such a
way that it does not affect the picture reproduced on
the screen of a monochrome receiver.
 The system must employ the same deflection
frequencies and sync signals as used for
 monochrome transmission and reception.
NATURAL LIGHT
COLOR PERCEPTION
COLOR PERCEPTION
MIXING OF COLOURS:
 Mixing of colours can take place in two ways —
subtractive mixing and additive mixing.
 In subtractive mixing, pigments absorbs all
wavelengths but reflect their characteristic color
wavelengths.
 In additive mixing which forms the basis of colour
television, light from two or more colours obtained
either from independent sources or through filters can
create a combined sensation of a different colour.
LUMINANCE, HUE AND
SATURATION
 Luminance or Brightness: This is the
amount of light intensity as perceived by
the eye regardless of the colour.
 Hue or Tint: This is the predominant spe

 Saturation: This is the spectral purity of the


colour light. ctral colour of the received
light.
CHROMATICITY DIAGRAM:
COLOUR TELEVISION CAMERA

The Luminance Signal :


Y = 0.3 R + 0.59 G + 0.11 B
PRODUCTION OF COLOR
DIFFERENCE VOLTAGES
UNSUITABILITY OF (G-Y) SIGNAL
FOR TRANSMISSION
 if (R – Y) s the missing signal, its matrix would have to be based
on the expression: (𝑅 – 𝑌) = (−0.59/0.3) (𝐺 – 𝑌) − (0.11/0.3) (𝐵 – 𝑌)
The factor 0.59/0.3 (= 1.97) implies gain in the matrix and thus
would need an extra amplifier.
 Similarly if (B – Y) is not transmitted, the matrix formula would
be: (B – 𝑌) = (−0.59/0.11) (𝐺 – 𝑌) − (0.3/0.11) (R – 𝑌)
The factor 0.59/0.11 = 5.4 and 0.3/0.11 = 2.7, both imply gain and
two extra amplifiers would be necessary in the matrices. This
shows that it would be technically less convenient and
uneconomical to use (G – Y) as one of the colour difference signals
for transmission.
 In addition, since the proportion of G in Y is relatively large in
most cases, the amplitude of (G – Y) is small. The smaller
amplitude together with the need for gain in the matrix would
make S/N ratio problems more difficult then when (R – Y) and
(B – Y) are chosen for transmission.