You are on page 1of 38

Chapter 2

Individual Behaviour,
Personality & Values

Copyright © 2016 McGraw-Hill Education (Australia) Pty Ltd


McShane, Olekalns, Newman, Travaglione, Organisational Behaviour, 5e 1-1
MARS model of Individual
Behaviour and Performance

Four factors (MARS)


critically influence an individual’s
voluntary behaviour and
performance, which enable
employees to contribute to
organisational goals.

Continued

Copyright © 2016 McGraw-Hill Education (Australia) Pty Ltd


McShane, Olekalns, Newman, Travaglione, Organisational Behaviour, 5e 1-2
FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE HUMAN
BEHAVIOUR

M+A+R+S=
Behaviour/Results/Performance

Copyright © 2016 McGraw-Hill Education (Australia) Pty Ltd


McShane, Olekalns, Newman, Travaglione, Organisational Behaviour, 5e 1-3
MARS model of individual behaviour
and performance (cont.)

Copyright © 2016 McGraw-Hill Education (Australia) Pty Ltd


McShane, Olekalns, Newman, Travaglione, Organisational Behaviour, 5e 1-4
Employee motivation
• Internal forces within a person that
affect voluntary behaviour:
– direction: where to steer effort?
– intensity: amount of effort
– persistence: continuing effort
S
M

A BAR

Copyright © 2016 McGraw-Hill Education (Australia) Pty Ltd


McShane, Olekalns, Newman, Travaglione, Organisational Behaviour, 5e 1-5
Employee ability
• Natural aptitudes (talents) and learned
capabilities (physical and mental skills
and knowledge)required to successfully
complete a task
• Competencies: personal characteristics
that lead to superior performance
S
M

A BAR

Copyright © 2016 McGraw-Hill Education (Australia) Pty Ltd


McShane, Olekalns, Newman, Travaglione, Organisational Behaviour, 5e 1-6
Role perceptions
• How clearly people understand their job
duties:
– understanding specific duties and consequences
– understanding relative importance of tasks and
performance
– understanding preferred
behaviours to accomplish tasks
S
• Leads to accurate and M
efficient work; motivation; A BAR
and coordination R

Copyright © 2016 McGraw-Hill Education (Australia) Pty Ltd


McShane, Olekalns, Newman, Travaglione, Organisational Behaviour, 5e 1-7
Situational factors
• Conditions beyond the employee’s
immediate control that constrain or
facilitate behaviour and performance:
– time
– budget
– work facilities (tools, machines) S
M
– situation (e.g. hazards)
A BAR

Copyright © 2016 McGraw-Hill Education (Australia) Pty Ltd


McShane, Olekalns, Newman, Travaglione, Organisational Behaviour, 5e 1-8
TYPES OF INDIVIDUAL BEHAVIOUR

Copyright © 2016 McGraw-Hill Education (Australia) Pty Ltd


McShane, Olekalns, Newman, Travaglione, Organisational Behaviour, 5e 1-9
Types of individual behaviour

Copyright © 2016 McGraw-Hill Education (Australia) Pty Ltd


McShane, Olekalns, Newman, Travaglione, Organisational Behaviour, 5e 1-10
Task performance
• Goal-directed behaviours under the
individual’s control that support
organisational objectives:
• proficiency
• adaptability
• productivity

Copyright © 2016 McGraw-Hill Education (Australia) Pty Ltd


McShane, Olekalns, Newman, Travaglione, Organisational Behaviour, 5e 1-11
Organisational citizenship
behaviours (OCBs)
Various forms of cooperation and helpfulness
to others that support the organisation’s social
and psychological context:
• individual
• organisational
Required or discretionary behaviours:
• impact on organisational effectiveness
• can lead to work and family conflict
• lower career success

Copyright © 2016 McGraw-Hill Education (Australia) Pty Ltd


McShane, Olekalns, Newman, Travaglione, Organisational Behaviour, 5e 1-12
Counterproductive work
behaviours
• Dysfunctional activities
• Voluntary behaviours that have the
potential to directly or indirectly harm
the organisation, e.g. harassing co-
workers:
• create conflict
• affect work quality
• undermine organisational effectiveness

Copyright © 2016 McGraw-Hill Education (Australia) Pty Ltd


McShane, Olekalns, Newman, Travaglione, Organisational Behaviour, 5e 1-13
Joining and staying with the
organisation
• Hiring and retaining talent
• Employee retention is essential for all
the other performance-related
behaviours to occur
• High turnover = high cost = loss of
intellectual capital

Copyright © 2016 McGraw-Hill Education (Australia) Pty Ltd


McShane, Olekalns, Newman, Travaglione, Organisational Behaviour, 5e 1-14
Maintaining work attendance
• Work attendance is related to job
satisfaction and motivation.
• Absenteeism is related to dissatisfaction,
organisational policy, norms and the
person’s values and personality.
• Presenteeism is related to organisational
norms, attending scheduled work when
one’s capacity to perform is significantly
diminished by illness and other factors.

Copyright © 2016 McGraw-Hill Education (Australia) Pty Ltd


McShane, Olekalns, Newman, Travaglione, Organisational Behaviour, 5e 1-15
PERSONALITY

Copyright © 2016 McGraw-Hill Education (Australia) Pty Ltd


McShane, Olekalns, Newman, Travaglione, Organisational Behaviour, 5e 1-16
Personality

• Predictor of most forms of behaviour


• Relatively enduring pattern of
thoughts, emotions and behaviours
that characterise a person, along
with the psychological processes
behind those characteristics

Copyright © 2016 McGraw-Hill Education (Australia) Pty Ltd


McShane, Olekalns, Newman, Travaglione, Organisational Behaviour, 5e 1-17
Personality in organisations
• External traits: observable behaviours
• Internal states: thoughts, emotions
inferred from behaviours:
• some variability, adjust personality to suit
the situation
• personality traits: broad concepts that
label and understand behaviours

Copyright © 2016 McGraw-Hill Education (Australia) Pty Ltd


McShane, Olekalns, Newman, Travaglione, Organisational Behaviour, 5e 1-18
Personality: nature versus nurture
• Personality = hereditary + life experiences
• Nature refers to our genetic or hereditary
origins
• Nurture: our socialisation, life experiences
and other forms of interaction with the
environment
• Over time we form a clearer and more rigid
self-concept as we get older: ‘Who we are’

Copyright © 2016 McGraw-Hill Education (Australia) Pty Ltd


McShane, Olekalns, Newman, Travaglione, Organisational Behaviour, 5e 1-19
Goldberg’s Five Factor Model-
(CANOE/OCEAN)

Copyright © 2016 McGraw-Hill Education (Australia) Pty Ltd


McShane, Olekalns, Newman, Travaglione, Organisational Behaviour, 5e 1-20
FFM personality dimensions
• The five dimensions are associated
with types of behaviour.
• They are good at predicting workplace
behaviours and outcomes:
– performance
– motivation
– organisational citizenship

Copyright © 2016 McGraw-Hill Education (Australia) Pty Ltd


McShane, Olekalns, Newman, Travaglione, Organisational Behaviour, 5e 1-21
Jungian personality theory
which now known as MBTI

• Widely applied in work settings and


career counselling, coaching:
• improves self-awareness
• poor predictor of job performance

Copyright © 2016 McGraw-Hill Education (Australia) Pty Ltd


McShane, Olekalns, Newman, Travaglione, Organisational Behaviour, 5e 1-22
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator
(MBTI)
• Sensing versus intuition:
– collecting information via senses versus through
intuition, inspiration or subjective sources
• Thinking versus feeling:
– processing and evaluating information
– using rational logic versus personal values
• Extroversion versus introversion:
– similar to five-factor dimension
• Judging versus perceiving:
– orienting self to the outer world
– order and structure or flexibility and spontaneity

Copyright © 2016 McGraw-Hill Education (Australia) Pty Ltd


McShane, Olekalns, Newman, Travaglione, Organisational Behaviour, 5e 1-23
Organisational use
• MBTI widely used for team building and
career development
• Five-factor model—used to assess job
applicants
• Facebook, blogs and public sources
widely used

Copyright © 2016 McGraw-Hill Education (Australia) Pty Ltd


McShane, Olekalns, Newman, Travaglione, Organisational Behaviour, 5e 1-24
VALUES IN THE WORKPLACE

Copyright © 2016 McGraw-Hill Education (Australia) Pty Ltd


McShane, Olekalns, Newman, Travaglione, Organisational Behaviour, 5e 1-25
Values in the workplace
• Stable, evaluative beliefs that guide our
preferences in a variety of situations
• Define right or wrong (what we ‘ought to do’)
• Value system: hierarchy of values
• Stable and long-lasting, exist in:
– individuals’ ‘personal values’
– teams’, departments’ ‘shared values’
– corporate culture’s ‘organisational values’
• A moral compass that directs motivation,
decisions, actions Continued

Copyright © 2016 McGraw-Hill Education (Australia) Pty Ltd


McShane, Olekalns, Newman, Travaglione, Organisational Behaviour, 5e 1-26
Values in the workplace (cont.)
Values Personality
• ‘Ought to do’ • ‘Tend to do’
• Influenced by • Innate
socialisation

Copyright © 2016 McGraw-Hill Education (Australia) Pty Ltd


McShane, Olekalns, Newman, Travaglione, Organisational Behaviour, 5e 1-27
Schwartz’s values circumplex

Continued

Copyright © 2016 McGraw-Hill Education (Australia) Pty Ltd


McShane, Olekalns, Newman, Travaglione, Organisational Behaviour, 5e 1-28
Schwartz’s values circumplex (cont.)
• Openness to change:
motivation to pursue
innovative ways
• Conservation: motivation
to preserve the status
quo
• Self-enhancement:
motivated by self-interest
• Self-transcendence:
motivation to promote
welfare of others and
nature

Copyright © 2016 McGraw-Hill Education (Australia) Pty Ltd


McShane, Olekalns, Newman, Travaglione, Organisational Behaviour, 5e 1-29
ETHICAL VALUES AND BEHAVIOUR

Copyright © 2016 McGraw-Hill Education (Australia) Pty Ltd


McShane, Olekalns, Newman, Travaglione, Organisational Behaviour, 5e 1-30
Ethical values and behaviour
• Ethics refers to the study of moral
principles or values that determine
whether actions are right or wrong and
outcomes are good or bad.
• Honesty or ethics is the most important
characteristic that employees look for in
a leader.

Copyright © 2016 McGraw-Hill Education (Australia) Pty Ltd


McShane, Olekalns, Newman, Travaglione, Organisational Behaviour, 5e 1-31
Three ethical principles

Greatest good for the greatest number


Utilitarianism of people

Individual Fundamental entitlements


rights in society

Distributive People who are similar should receive


justice similar benefits

Copyright © 2016 McGraw-Hill Education (Australia) Pty Ltd


McShane, Olekalns, Newman, Travaglione, Organisational Behaviour, 5e 1-32
Cross-cultural values

Copyright © 2016 McGraw-Hill Education (Australia) Pty Ltd


McShane, Olekalns, Newman, Travaglione, Organisational Behaviour, 5e 1-33
Supporting ethical behaviour
• Ethical code of conduct
• Ethics training
• Ethics hotlines
• Ethical leadership and culture

Copyright © 2016 McGraw-Hill Education (Australia) Pty Ltd


McShane, Olekalns, Newman, Travaglione, Organisational Behaviour, 5e 1-34
Values across cultures
• Values and expectations differ across the
world.
• GLOBE study:
– relationship between culture and leader
effectiveness
– ‘culture clusters’

Continued

Copyright © 2016 McGraw-Hill Education (Australia) Pty Ltd


McShane, Olekalns, Newman, Travaglione, Organisational Behaviour, 5e 1-35
Five cross-cultural values in
selected countries

Copyright © 2016 McGraw-Hill Education (Australia) Pty Ltd


McShane, Olekalns, Newman, Travaglione, Organisational Behaviour, 5e 1-36
Summary
• Individual behaviour is influenced by
motivation, ability, role perceptions and
situational factors (MARS).
• There are five main types of workplace
behaviour: task performance, organisational
citizenship, counterproductive work
behaviours, joining and staying with the
organisation, and maintaining work
attendance.
• Personality, resilience, values and ethics
contribute to all of the above. Continued

Copyright © 2016 McGraw-Hill Education (Australia) Pty Ltd


McShane, Olekalns, Newman, Travaglione, Organisational Behaviour, 5e 1-37
Summary (cont.)

• Values are stable, evaluative beliefs that


guide our preferences in a variety of
situations.
• Ethical principles guide our behaviour.
• Five values are commonly studied across
cultures.

Copyright © 2016 McGraw-Hill Education (Australia) Pty Ltd


McShane, Olekalns, Newman, Travaglione, Organisational Behaviour, 5e 1-38