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Group Dynamics and

Teamwork

MEENAKSHI AHUJA
Group
• A group is defined as two or more individuals
interacting, interdependent, who come
together to achieve particular objectives.

• It is a social unit consisting of two or more


interdependent, interactive people striving for
common goals.
• Interaction
• 2 or more than 2 people
• Interdependence
• Satisfaction
Security
2 Status

What
Makes
Self-
Esteem People Affiliation

Join
Groups?
Goal
Power
Achievement
Group Dynamics
• “The social process by which people interact
face-to-face in small groups is called as Group
Dynamics”.
• It means study of forces operating within a
group. (Role playing, Leadership,
Membership)
• Group Dynamics refers to the complex forces
that determine group formation, its size &
structure, etc.
• Egs. Stone throwing in water
Features of Group Dynamics
• Perception
• Motivation
• Group goals
• Interdependency
• Interaction
Types of Groups
• Primary & Secondary Groups
(Family, friends) (Occupational association)
• Membership & Reference Groups
(Clubs) (Union)
• In-Groups & Out-Groups
(Members of team) (Hawker for Dr.)
• Formal & Informal Groups
(Principal & Teachers) (Friends)
• Temporary & Permanent Groups
(Meetings, Committees) (Trade Unions)
• Nominal & Non-Performing Groups
3 Defining and Classifying Groups

8–11
Advts. of Formal group
• Create new ideas
• Co-ordinate interdepartmental efforts
• Solve complex problems
• Train new comers
• Enhance self esteem
• Provide mechanism for solving personal &
interpersonal problems
Advts. Of Informal group
• Filling in gaps in managers abilities, if manager
is weak in planning, subordinate may help him
informally
• Better co-ordination
• Better relations
• Proper communication, No gaps like org.
because no hierarchy
Theories of group formation
Propinquity
Theory

Theories of
Group
Formation

Exchange Balance
Theory Theory
Propinquity Theory
• Acc. to this theory, individuals affiliate
with each other because of geographical
closeness.

Egs. Employees working in the same dept.


are more likely to form a group when
compared to other dept.
Balance Theory
• Acc. to this theory, people are attracted to one
another because of their similar attitude
towards some common objectives & goals.
Egs. A B

C
Common values & attitude
Work
Culture
Education
Lifestyle
• If there is imbalance then relationship will
dissolve.
Exchange Theory
• This theory works on the ‘Reward-Cost’
outcomes interaction. Acc. to this theory, a
minimum positive level (Rewards > Cost).
Rewards will satisfy needs, cost will incur
fatigue. Cost may be measured in terms of
embarrassment, irritation
Team
• A team may be defined as a small no. of
employees with complementary
competencies in terms of abilities, skills &
knowledge & are committed to common
performance goals & working relationships for
which they hold themselves mutually
accountable.
• Teams are co-operative groups that maintain
regular contact & engaged in co-ordinated
action.
Formation of Groups
(Teams)

Performing
Adjourning
Norming

Storming Return to
Independence
Forming
Dependence/
interdependence

Independence
• Forming: Members share personal information
& accept one another.
• Storming: Members compete for status &
argue about appropriate directions for the
group.
• Norming: The group begins moving together in
a competitive fashion & co-operative feelings
are increases.
• Performing: The group matures & learns to
handle complex challenges.
• Adjourning: In case of teams which are
formed for temporary time, adjourning is the
last step. This stage requires termination of
work
Stages of Team Formation
Stages of Group Development (cont’d)
Stages of Group Development

8–26
Importance of team building
• Improved employee motivation
• Satisfaction of social needs
• Commitment of team goals
• Improved organisational communication