You are on page 1of 97

Energy, Force, and Motion

identifying energy transformations;


Identifying and analyzing the transfer of heat energy by conduction,
convection, and radiation
interpreting a phase diagram; describing and calculating velocity and
acceleration;
comparing Newton’s three laws; calculating mechanical advantage;
understanding
the work of simple machines

Waves, Electricity, and Magnetism


investigating light and sound phenomena and comparing light to sound;
Doppler effect; describing the causes of static electricity; constructing and
analyzing
series and parallel circuits; describing the relationship between voltage, current
and
resistance and relating electricity and magnetism and common applications
SPEED

Describes how fast


an object
is moving.
distance
Average Speed =time
Velocity
The speed of an object
in a certain direction.
Velocity d
V= t
speed of an object
in a certain
direction.
V = velocity (meters/second)
d = distance (meters)
t = time (seconds)
Velocity
speed of an
object in a
certain direction.
0

3 seconds 1

2
Speed=?
Velocity=?
Total time=
4 seconds 20 meters

12 meters
16 meters
5
Numerator

Denominator 12
Acceleration
Acceleration is how quickly
velocity changes over time.
X L eh ray shun
0

3 Speed 1

2
Meters/second
Acceleration
how quickly velocity
changes over time.

(V -
___________V )
A= final initial
time
Acceleration the change
in velocity over time.
change in velocity
Acceleration =
time
(v – v
________
2 1 )
Acceleration =
Time
V1 =beginningvelocity
V2= endingvelocity
The graph below relates speed and time
of four cars (1, 2, 3, and 4) traveling
along a straight highway.
Which two cars move with zero
acceleration?
1 and 4
2 and 3
1 and 2
3 and 4
Which of the following is certain
to change as a ball accelerates?

mass of the ball


inertia of the ball
velocity of the ball
force acting on the ball
What must happen to an object in
order to accelerate it?

A net force must be applied.


Some weight must be removed.
Its frictional coefficient must be
reduced.
It must contain momentum.
Which of these describes the
object with the largest
acceleration ?

An object with a small change in


velocity over a small change in time
An object with a small change in
velocity over a large change in time
An object with a large change in
velocity over a small change in time
An object with a large change in
velocity over a large change in time
Scalar
a measurement that does
NOT contain direction.
Egg sample: Speed

Vector
a measurement that contains
direction.
Egg sample: Velocity
Forces of Nature
Gravitational
Magnetic
Mass and Inertia

The universe
consists of matter
in motion
The greater the mass
the harder it is to move.
And . . .
the harder it is to stop
moving.
Lower mass objects are
easier to move . . .and
to stop moving.
NEWTON’s Laws
1st Law of Motion :
An object remains
at a
constant speed
straight path
in a
,until a net force
acts on it.
NEWTON’s 1st Law of Motion
is the law of
ih ner shah
An object will
remain at a
constant
speed
the force of a
moving body.
the mass times velocity of an object
p=m•v
Momentum = mass x velocity
(Kgrams) (meters/second)
Momentum = mass x velocity

Higher mass higher momentum


igher velocity higher momentum

p=m • v
includes velocity.
So, it has direction.
Momentum points in the
direction of motion.
Conservation of momentum
When objects collide, all of the
momentum goes somewhere.
Conservation of momentum
When objects collide, all of the
momentum goes somewhere.
Conservation of momentum
When objects collide, all of the
momentum goes somewhere.
Conservation of momentum
When objects collide, all of the
momentum goes somewhere.
NEWTON’s
2nd Law of Motion :
An object that
has a force
acting on it will
change its speed
(accelerate).
NEWTON’s
2nd Law of Motion :

f = m•a
force = mass • acceleration

f = net force (newtons)


m = mass (Kilograms)
a = acceleration
NEWTON’s
2nd Law of Motion : f= m •a
mass of the club
acceleration of the club

force of the
club
Net force is the total
amount of Force (minus
the forces that cancel
each otherForce of gravity
out).
Force of muscles

Net force
When the net force is Zero.
-> NO movement

When the net force is NOT Zero.


-> movement
tic Equilibrium Balanced forces
When all forces are balance
The net force is Zero.
There is NO movement.

3 Kg

? 2 Kg
50 N
10
0
N
50 N

50 N

N
00
1
05
NEWTON’s
3rd Law of Motion:

For every action there is


an equal and opposite reaction.
NEWTON’s
3rd Law of Motion:

For every action, there is


an equal and opposite reaction.
NEWTON’s
3rd Law of Motion:

For every action, there is


an equal and opposite reactio
Gravity Inertia Friction
Balanced or unbalanced?
Action

Reaction
Gravity
UN balanced BALL

Speed (m/s) Ground

Time (mSec)
nertia
Inertia PUTTER

UN balanced

Speed (m/s) BALL


Time (mSec)
Friction SKATE
UN balanced

Speed (m/s)
Time (Sec)
A car is traveling down a hill. Which
of the following will affect the amount
of energy the car has?

how long the car is


the time of day
how much the car weighs
the color of the car
Friction
the resistive force that occurs
when two surfaces travel past
each other.
causes physical deformation
generates heat
Friction
the resistive
force that
occurs when
two surfaces
contact each
other.
Oliver the dog doesn't want to
walk in the rain. He can make his
owner pull harder on the leash to
get him out the door by

sitting on the vinyl floor.


sitting on the tile floor.
sitting on the carpeted floor.
sitting on the wood floor.
Pauline needs to measure the sliding friction of a
brick. How should she go about doing this?
attach the brick to a string and then to a spring
scale and read the force needed to quickly lift the
brick off the ground
drag the brick by a string attached to a spring scale
so that it gradually speeds up
drag the brick by a string attached to a spring scale
along the surface of a table at a constant speed and
read the force
hang the brick from a string attached to a spring
scale and read the force
Sliding friction-the
drag force created when
the surface of one object
slides across the surface of
Sliding Friction Lab
another object. Object
Surface
force (Newstons)
terminal velocity gravity will
accelerate an object until air
resistance (friction) does not
allow it to go any faster.
In the absence of air resistance,
which of these objects will fall at
the fastest rate when dropped?

the ball with a mass of 75 kg


the ball with a mass of 25 kg
the ball with a mass of 10 kg
They all fall at the same rate.
Pressure is the amount of
force exerted over a certain
area.
Pressure = Force
Area
ressure = Force (newton
Area (m2)
1 Pascal = 1 Newton/meter2
Distance{

W = f • d
Force

Distance {
Gravitational force
Gravitational force
Gravitational force
o INCREASES with Mass
o DECREASES with Distance
All objects in the universe are
attracted to each other by the
force of
effort.
friction.
gravity.
inertia.
Four pairs of objects have the masses
shown below. If the objects in each pair
are the same distance apart, the
gravitational force between the objects
in which pair is greatest?
1 kilogram and 1 kilogram
1 kilogram and 2 kilograms
2 kilograms and 1 kilogram
2 kilograms and 2 kilograms
As an astronaut travels from Earth to a
space station orbiting Earth, what
happens to her mass and weight?

Her mass decreases, but her weight


remains the same.
Her mass increases as her weight
decreases.
Her mass remains the same, but her
weight decreases.
Her mass decreases and her weight
also decreases.
Which hill would you slide down
the fastest?
hill A
hill B
hill C
It would take the same time to
slide down all of the hills.
Projectile
Motion
Velocity (m/s)
forward downward

50 39.2
19.6
29.4
9.8
0
0

3 seconds 1

2
Projectile
Motion
Velocity (m/s)
forward downward

46
47
48
49
50 39.2
19.6
29.4
9.8
0
0

3 seconds 1

2
Simple Machines
and work
Lever
Inclined plane
Pulley
Wedge
Screw
Wheel and axle
Simple
Machines
• Pulley
• Wheel & Axle
• Lever
• Inclined plane
• Screw
• Wedge
• Gear
Simple Machines
Pulley Inclined plane

Wheel & Axle Screw

Lever Wedge

Gear
Which activity involves the use of
a simple machine?

riding on a seesaw
flying a kite
listening to a radio
skiing down a hill
Simple Machine

A mechanism that lowers


the amount of force needed
to do work, by increasing
the distance.
On which simple machine is a
fulcrum found?

pulley
wheel
axle
lever
ALL Simple Machines
work the same way
Lever action

2 meters
1 meter
Force= ?
Force=13 N
Mechanical
Advantage= final distance
starting distance

9 meters
3 meters
Mechanical
Advantage= distance
distance
8 meters
2 meters
Which of the following is often
used as a lever?

file
nail
saw
crowbar
The Wedge
The bottom of this light bulb is
an example of what type of
simple machine?
a lever
a pulley
a screw
a wedge
What type of simple machine is
used to split things apart?

screw
wheel and axle
wedge
inclined plane
What type of simple machine is
used to pull a flag up to the top
of a flagpole?

screw
wheel and axle
inclined plane
pulley
Pulley Lab
A fixed pulley
B movable pulley
C double pulley (end in top)
D double pulley (end in bottom)
DO THIS FIRST!

Hook on
Bottom
dude !

Force of the
weight ONLY. A. fixed pulley
Get out your own sheet B. movable pulley
of paper
1. Write down the force
of the weight
(newtons).
2. For each pulley
system write down
the NEW force of
the weight.
• Pull the string
exactly 20 cm.
• Write down the
distance (cm) that C. double pulley (end in top)
the weight moved. D. double pulley (end in bottom)
BIG Teeth=16
small Teeth =8

16:8
2:1

So, the small gear


spins TWICE AS FAST
as the big gear.
A 200 pound man lifts a rock weighing
800 pounds by standing on the end of
a lever. calculating
How much mechanical
mechanical
advantage did the lever provide ?

Advantage
M.A. = 800 Kg/200 Kg = 4
If you wuz ‘n a
Merry-go-round
& yuz let go,
Which wayz wud yu
go?
Centripetal force
The inward force
on a spinning object,
that stops it
from going in
a straight line.

Perpendicular
Centripetal force
Centripetal force
sen tripit ul
The inward
force
on a
Spinning
object.
Centripetal force
The
inward force
on a
Spinning
object.
Satellites stay in place as they orbit
because of . . .
the repeated firing of rocket
boosters.
the gravitational pull of Earth.
a narrow path through the vacuum
of space.
solar panels generating energy to
hold them in place
© 2009
All rights reserved.
This powerpoint was kindly donated to
www.worldofteaching.com

http://www.worldofteaching.com is home to over a


thousand powerpoints submitted by teachers. This is
a completely free site and requires no registration.
Please visit and I hope it will help in your teaching.