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Identifying and analyzing the transfer of heat energy by conduction,

convection, and radiation

interpreting a phase diagram; describing and calculating velocity and

acceleration;

comparing Newton’s three laws; calculating mechanical advantage;

understanding

the work of simple machines

investigating light and sound phenomena and comparing light to sound;

Doppler effect; describing the causes of static electricity; constructing and

analyzing

series and parallel circuits; describing the relationship between voltage, current

and

resistance and relating electricity and magnetism and common applications

SPEED

an object

is moving.

distance

Average Speed =time

Velocity

The speed of an object

in a certain direction.

Velocity d

V= t

speed of an object

in a certain

direction.

V = velocity (meters/second)

d = distance (meters)

t = time (seconds)

Velocity

speed of an

object in a

certain direction.

0

3 seconds 1

2

Speed=?

Velocity=?

Total time=

4 seconds 20 meters

12 meters

16 meters

5

Numerator

Denominator 12

Acceleration

Acceleration is how quickly

velocity changes over time.

X L eh ray shun

0

3 Speed 1

2

Meters/second

Acceleration

how quickly velocity

changes over time.

(V -

___________V )

A= final initial

time

Acceleration the change

in velocity over time.

change in velocity

Acceleration =

time

(v – v

________

2 1 )

Acceleration =

Time

V1 =beginningvelocity

V2= endingvelocity

The graph below relates speed and time

of four cars (1, 2, 3, and 4) traveling

along a straight highway.

Which two cars move with zero

acceleration?

1 and 4

2 and 3

1 and 2

3 and 4

Which of the following is certain

to change as a ball accelerates?

inertia of the ball

velocity of the ball

force acting on the ball

What must happen to an object in

order to accelerate it?

Some weight must be removed.

Its frictional coefficient must be

reduced.

It must contain momentum.

Which of these describes the

object with the largest

acceleration ?

velocity over a small change in time

An object with a small change in

velocity over a large change in time

An object with a large change in

velocity over a small change in time

An object with a large change in

velocity over a large change in time

Scalar

a measurement that does

NOT contain direction.

Egg sample: Speed

Vector

a measurement that contains

direction.

Egg sample: Velocity

Forces of Nature

Gravitational

Magnetic

Mass and Inertia

The universe

consists of matter

in motion

The greater the mass

the harder it is to move.

And . . .

the harder it is to stop

moving.

Lower mass objects are

easier to move . . .and

to stop moving.

NEWTON’s Laws

1st Law of Motion :

An object remains

at a

constant speed

straight path

in a

,until a net force

acts on it.

NEWTON’s 1st Law of Motion

is the law of

ih ner shah

An object will

remain at a

constant

speed

the force of a

moving body.

the mass times velocity of an object

p=m•v

Momentum = mass x velocity

(Kgrams) (meters/second)

Momentum = mass x velocity

igher velocity higher momentum

p=m • v

includes velocity.

So, it has direction.

Momentum points in the

direction of motion.

Conservation of momentum

When objects collide, all of the

momentum goes somewhere.

Conservation of momentum

When objects collide, all of the

momentum goes somewhere.

Conservation of momentum

When objects collide, all of the

momentum goes somewhere.

Conservation of momentum

When objects collide, all of the

momentum goes somewhere.

NEWTON’s

2nd Law of Motion :

An object that

has a force

acting on it will

change its speed

(accelerate).

NEWTON’s

2nd Law of Motion :

f = m•a

force = mass • acceleration

m = mass (Kilograms)

a = acceleration

NEWTON’s

2nd Law of Motion : f= m •a

mass of the club

acceleration of the club

force of the

club

Net force is the total

amount of Force (minus

the forces that cancel

each otherForce of gravity

out).

Force of muscles

Net force

When the net force is Zero.

-> NO movement

-> movement

tic Equilibrium Balanced forces

When all forces are balance

The net force is Zero.

There is NO movement.

3 Kg

? 2 Kg

50 N

10

0

N

50 N

50 N

N

00

1

05

NEWTON’s

3rd Law of Motion:

an equal and opposite reaction.

NEWTON’s

3rd Law of Motion:

an equal and opposite reaction.

NEWTON’s

3rd Law of Motion:

an equal and opposite reactio

Gravity Inertia Friction

Balanced or unbalanced?

Action

Reaction

Gravity

UN balanced BALL

Time (mSec)

nertia

Inertia PUTTER

UN balanced

Time (mSec)

Friction SKATE

UN balanced

Speed (m/s)

Time (Sec)

A car is traveling down a hill. Which

of the following will affect the amount

of energy the car has?

the time of day

how much the car weighs

the color of the car

Friction

the resistive force that occurs

when two surfaces travel past

each other.

causes physical deformation

generates heat

Friction

the resistive

force that

occurs when

two surfaces

contact each

other.

Oliver the dog doesn't want to

walk in the rain. He can make his

owner pull harder on the leash to

get him out the door by

sitting on the tile floor.

sitting on the carpeted floor.

sitting on the wood floor.

Pauline needs to measure the sliding friction of a

brick. How should she go about doing this?

attach the brick to a string and then to a spring

scale and read the force needed to quickly lift the

brick off the ground

drag the brick by a string attached to a spring scale

so that it gradually speeds up

drag the brick by a string attached to a spring scale

along the surface of a table at a constant speed and

read the force

hang the brick from a string attached to a spring

scale and read the force

Sliding friction-the

drag force created when

the surface of one object

slides across the surface of

Sliding Friction Lab

another object. Object

Surface

force (Newstons)

terminal velocity gravity will

accelerate an object until air

resistance (friction) does not

allow it to go any faster.

In the absence of air resistance,

which of these objects will fall at

the fastest rate when dropped?

the ball with a mass of 25 kg

the ball with a mass of 10 kg

They all fall at the same rate.

Pressure is the amount of

force exerted over a certain

area.

Pressure = Force

Area

ressure = Force (newton

Area (m2)

1 Pascal = 1 Newton/meter2

Distance{

W = f • d

Force

Distance {

Gravitational force

Gravitational force

Gravitational force

o INCREASES with Mass

o DECREASES with Distance

All objects in the universe are

attracted to each other by the

force of

effort.

friction.

gravity.

inertia.

Four pairs of objects have the masses

shown below. If the objects in each pair

are the same distance apart, the

gravitational force between the objects

in which pair is greatest?

1 kilogram and 1 kilogram

1 kilogram and 2 kilograms

2 kilograms and 1 kilogram

2 kilograms and 2 kilograms

As an astronaut travels from Earth to a

space station orbiting Earth, what

happens to her mass and weight?

remains the same.

Her mass increases as her weight

decreases.

Her mass remains the same, but her

weight decreases.

Her mass decreases and her weight

also decreases.

Which hill would you slide down

the fastest?

hill A

hill B

hill C

It would take the same time to

slide down all of the hills.

Projectile

Motion

Velocity (m/s)

forward downward

50 39.2

19.6

29.4

9.8

0

0

3 seconds 1

2

Projectile

Motion

Velocity (m/s)

forward downward

46

47

48

49

50 39.2

19.6

29.4

9.8

0

0

3 seconds 1

2

Simple Machines

and work

Lever

Inclined plane

Pulley

Wedge

Screw

Wheel and axle

Simple

Machines

• Pulley

• Wheel & Axle

• Lever

• Inclined plane

• Screw

• Wedge

• Gear

Simple Machines

Pulley Inclined plane

Lever Wedge

Gear

Which activity involves the use of

a simple machine?

riding on a seesaw

flying a kite

listening to a radio

skiing down a hill

Simple Machine

the amount of force needed

to do work, by increasing

the distance.

On which simple machine is a

fulcrum found?

pulley

wheel

axle

lever

ALL Simple Machines

work the same way

Lever action

2 meters

1 meter

Force= ?

Force=13 N

Mechanical

Advantage= final distance

starting distance

9 meters

3 meters

Mechanical

Advantage= distance

distance

8 meters

2 meters

Which of the following is often

used as a lever?

file

nail

saw

crowbar

The Wedge

The bottom of this light bulb is

an example of what type of

simple machine?

a lever

a pulley

a screw

a wedge

What type of simple machine is

used to split things apart?

screw

wheel and axle

wedge

inclined plane

What type of simple machine is

used to pull a flag up to the top

of a flagpole?

screw

wheel and axle

inclined plane

pulley

Pulley Lab

A fixed pulley

B movable pulley

C double pulley (end in top)

D double pulley (end in bottom)

DO THIS FIRST!

Hook on

Bottom

dude !

Force of the

weight ONLY. A. fixed pulley

Get out your own sheet B. movable pulley

of paper

1. Write down the force

of the weight

(newtons).

2. For each pulley

system write down

the NEW force of

the weight.

• Pull the string

exactly 20 cm.

• Write down the

distance (cm) that C. double pulley (end in top)

the weight moved. D. double pulley (end in bottom)

BIG Teeth=16

small Teeth =8

16:8

2:1

spins TWICE AS FAST

as the big gear.

A 200 pound man lifts a rock weighing

800 pounds by standing on the end of

a lever. calculating

How much mechanical

mechanical

advantage did the lever provide ?

Advantage

M.A. = 800 Kg/200 Kg = 4

If you wuz ‘n a

Merry-go-round

& yuz let go,

Which wayz wud yu

go?

Centripetal force

The inward force

on a spinning object,

that stops it

from going in

a straight line.

Perpendicular

Centripetal force

Centripetal force

sen tripit ul

The inward

force

on a

Spinning

object.

Centripetal force

The

inward force

on a

Spinning

object.

Satellites stay in place as they orbit

because of . . .

the repeated firing of rocket

boosters.

the gravitational pull of Earth.

a narrow path through the vacuum

of space.

solar panels generating energy to

hold them in place

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