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ORGANIZING

What is organizing as a management


function?

 Organizing and organization structure


– Organizing
• The process of arranging people and other resources
to work together to accomplish a goal.
– Organization structure
• The system of tasks, workflows, reporting
relationships, and communication channels that link
together diverse individuals and groups.

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Management Function
Organizing viewed in relationship with the other management functions.

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THE PURPOSE OF THE STRUCTURE

1. It defines the relationships between tasks and authority for individuals

and departments.
2. It defines formal reporting relationship, the number of levels in the
hierarchy of the organization, and the span of control.
3. It defines the groupings individuals into departments and departments
into organization.
4. It defines the system to effect coordination of effort in both vertical
(authority) and horizontal (task) directions.
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What is organizing as a management
function?
 Formal structures 
– The structure of the organization in its official state.
– An organization chart is a diagram describing reporting
relationships and the formal arrangement of work
positions within an organization.
– An organization chart identifies the following aspects
of formal structure:
• The division of work.
• Supervisory relationships.
• Communication channels.
• Major subunits.
• Levels of management.
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What is organizing as a management
function?

 Informal structures 
– A “shadow” organization made up of the unofficial, but
often critical, working relationships between
organization members.
– Potential advantages of informal structures:
• Helping people accomplish their work.
• Overcoming limits of formal structure.
• Gaining access to interpersonal networks.
• Informal learning.
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What is organizing as a management
function?

 Informal structures (cont.) 


– Potential disadvantages of informal structures:
• May work against best interests of entire organization.
• Susceptibility to rumor.
• May carry inaccurate information.
• May breed resistance to change.
• Diversion of work efforts from important objectives.
• Feeling of alienation by outsiders.

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TYPES OF ORGANIZATIONAL
STRUCTURES

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What are the major types of organization
structures?
 Functional structures
– People with similar skills and performing
similar tasks are grouped together into formal
work units.
– Members work in their functional areas of
expertise.
– Are not limited to businesses.
– Work well for small organizations producing
few products or services.
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Functional structures in a business, branch bank, and
community hospital.

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 Potential advantages of functional
structures:
– Economies of scale.
– Task assignments consistent with expertise and
training.
– High-quality technical problem solving,
– In-depth training and skill development.
– Clear career paths within functions.
 Potential disadvantages of functional
structures:
– Difficulties in pinpointing responsibilities.
– Sense of cooperation and common purpose
break down.
– Narrow view of performance objectives.
– Excessive upward referral of decisions.

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What are the major types of organization
structures?

 Divisional structures
– Group together people who work on the same
product or process, serve similar customers,
and/or are located in the same area or
geographical region.
– Common in complex organizations.
– Avoid problems associated with functional
structures.

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Divisional structures based on product,
geography, customer, and process.

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 Types of divisional structures and how they group
job and activities:
– Product structures focus on a single product or service.
– Geographical structures focus on the same location or
geographical region.
– Customer structures focus on the same customers or
clients.
– Process structures focus on the same processes.

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 Potential advantages of divisional
structures:
– More flexibility in responding to environmental
changes.
– Improved coordination.
– Clear points of responsibility.
– Expertise focused on specific customers,
products, and regions.
– Greater ease in restructuring.
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 Potential disadvantages of divisional
structures:
– Duplication of resources and efforts across
divisions.
– Competition and poor coordination across
divisions.

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What are the major types of organization
structures?
 Matrix structure

– Combines functional and divisional structures to gain


advantages and minimize disadvantages of each.

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Matrix structure in a small multiproject
business firm.

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 Potential advantages of matrix structures:
– Better cooperation across functions.
– Improved decision making.
– Increased flexibility in restructuring.
– Better customer service.
– Better performance accountability.
– Improved strategic management.

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 Potential disadvantages of matrix structures:
– Two-boss system is susceptible to power struggles.
– Two-boss system can create task confusion and conflict
in work priorities.
– Team meetings are time consuming.
– Team may develop “groupitis.”
– Increased costs due to adding team leers to structure.

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What are the new developments in
organization structures?
 Guidelines for horizontal structures:
– Focus the organization around processes, not functions.
– Put people in charge of core processes.
– Decrease hierarchy and increase the use of teams.
– Empower people to make decisions critical to performance.
– Utilize information technology.
– Emphasize multiskilling and multiple competencies.
– Teach people how to work in partnership with others.
– Build a culture of openness, collaboration, and performance
commitment.
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What are the new developments in
organization structures?

 Team structures

– Extensively use permanent and temporary

teams to solve problems, complete special

projects, and accomplish day-to-day tasks.

– Often use cross-functional teams.

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TYPES OF AUTHORITY
1. Line authority – a manager’s right to tell
subordinates what to do and then see that they do
it.
2. Staff Authority – A staff specialist’s right to give
advice to a superior.
3. Functional Authority – A specialist’s right to
oversee lower level personnel involved in that
specialty, regardless of where the personnel are in
the organization.

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TWO CLASSIFICATION OF STAFF
OFFICERS
1. Personal Staff – Those individuals assigned to a
specific manager to provide needed staff services.

2. Specialized Staff – Those individuals providing


needed staff services for the whole organization.

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THE PURPOSE OF COMMITTEES
When certain formal groups are deemed inappropriate to meet
expectations, committees are often times harnessed to achieve
organizational goals. May organizations, large or small, make
use of committees.
A committee is a formal group of persons formed for a
specific purpose. For instance, the product planning
committee, as described by Millevo, is often staffed by top
executives from marketing, production, research, engineering,
and finance, who work part time to evaluate and approve
ideas.

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Committees may classified as follows:

1. Ad hoc committee – one created for a short-term


purpose and have limited life.
2. Standing committee – it is a relatively permanent
committee that deals with issues on an ongoing
basis.

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TWO CLASSIFICATION OF STAFF
OFFICERS
1. Personal Staff – Those individuals assigned
to a specific manager to provide needed
staff services.

2. Specialized Staff – Those individuals


providing needed staff services for the
whole organization.

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