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URINARY SYSTEM AND

HOMEOSTASIS

Dr.dr.Zaenal M. Sofro, AIFM, Sport & Circ. Med.


Bagian Ilmu Faal Fak.Kedokteran UGM
NaCl
Stimulates fluid
absorption Enhances taste

Promotes fluid Helps body to


balance “hold” onto water

Avoid Maintains desire to


Hyponatremia drink
Muscle Physiology

Muscle

Motor Neuron

Motor Unit

Muscle Fibres
Connecti ve
Tissue ISF
3L

Transcellular
Intra-

Flu id 1L
Plasma

ISF and
Cellular
3L

Lymph
8L Fluid
24L

Bone
3L
Homeostasis

• The urinary system maintains


homeostasis in several ways:
– Removal of urea (nitrogenous waste) from
the bloodstream.
– Control of water and salt balance in the
bloodstream.
– Involved in blood pressure regulation.
Bayi yang Laki-laki dewasa Perempuan dewasa
baru Lahir
ICF ISF plasma organs
external
environment
internal environment

Exchange and communication are key concepts for


understanding physiological homeostasis.
Body Fluid Compartments:

2/3
ICF:
55%~75%

X 50~70% TBW
lean body weight

3/4 Extravascular
Interstitial
fluid
• Male (60%) > female (50%)

• Most concentrated in skeletal muscle


1/3
• TBW=0.6xBW ECF
• ICF=0.4xBW

• ECF=0.2xBW

Intravascular
1/4 plasma
Internal Structure of the
Kidney
Renal
Lobe
Renal
pyramids

Renal papilla

Renal
Columns 13
Kidney - Internal Micro Anatomy
• Nephron – the functional unit of kidney
– Three physiological processes: 1) filtration, 2) reabsorption , and
3) secretion
– These three processes cooperate to achieve the various functions
of the kidney
– Different sites  different primary functions
Renin

• Renin is an enzyme released by the


kidneys in response to a drop in blood
pressure.
• Renin catalyzes the production of
angiotensin, a hormone that causes
arterioles to constrict, raising blood
pressure. This also causes water
retention. How does this maintain
homeostasis of blood pressure?
Renal Corpuscle and Filtration

16
General Level of Physiologic Function %

120

100

80

50

40

20

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90

Age, year Active Person


Sedentary Person
Erythropoietin

• A second response to low blood


pressure is the release of erythropoietin,
another hormone.
• Erythropoietin travels to the bone
marrow and stimulates the production of
new blood cells. How does this maintain
homeostasis?
Proximal tubule

• Nutrients (salts, vitamins, etc.) are


moved out of the tubule through active
transport.
• Water follows the nutrients by osmosis.
Nephron-Tubular System
1. Proximal
convoluted tubule
2. Descending loop
of Henle
3. Ascending loop
of Henle
4. Distal convoluted
tubule
5. Collecting duct

20
Loop of Henle

• Tissue around
the Loop of
Henle is salty,
from active
transport and
diffusion of
sodium
chloride.
• The salty
conditions
allow water to
diffuse out of
the loop.
Distal tubule

• Active
transport is
used to move
more
nutrients out
of the
concentrated
urine.
• Some ions,
drugs, and
toxins are
actively
Collecting Duct

• More water
leaves the tube
by osmosis,
since the tube is
surrounded by
salty tissue.
• Some urea
leaves by
diffusion, and
may be cycled
through the
system.
Extremely Dehydrated

Mildly Dehidrated
Figure 25.5
PENGARUH JENIS MINUMAN TERHADAP
OSMOLARITAS TUBUH

urine
flow

drink 1200
ml water drink 1200 ml
isotonic saline
osmolarity

urine flow

Two Very Different Experimental


Observations
Thirst
Second Level

Brain Stem Third Level

First Level
Thank You