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CUSTOMER PERCEPTIONS OF 5

SERVICE

 Customer Perceptions
 Customer Satisfaction
 Service Quality
 Service Encounters: The Building
Blocks for Customer Perceptions
CUSTOMER PERCEPTIONS OF QUALITY AND
CUSTOMER SATISFACTION
OUTCOMES OF
CUSTOMER SATISFACTION
• Increased customer retention
• Positive word-of-mouth communications
• Increased revenues
SERVICE QUALITY
• The customer’s judgment of overall excellence of the
service provided in relation to the quality that was
expected.
• Service quality assessments are formed on judgments of:
– outcome quality
– interaction quality
– physical environment quality
THE FIVE DIMENSIONS OF
SERVICE QUALITY
RATER Model
Reliability Ability to perform the promised service
dependably and accurately.

Assurance Knowledge and courtesy of employees


and their ability to inspire trust and
confidence.
Tangibles Physical facilities, equipment, and
appearance of personnel.
Empathy Caring, individualized attention the firm
provides its customers.
Responsiveness Willingness to help customers and provide
prompt service.
SERVQUAL ATTRIBUTES
RELIABILITY EMPATHY
 Providing service as promised  Giving customers individual attention
 Dependability in handling customers’  Employees who deal with customers in a
service problems caring fashion
 Performing services right the first time  Having the customer’s best interest at heart
 Providing services at the promised time  Employees who understand the needs of their
 Maintaining error-free records customers
 Convenient business hours
RESPONSIVENESS
 Keeping customers informed as to when TANGIBLES
services will be performed  Modern equipment
 Prompt service to customers  Visually appealing facilities
 Willingness to help customers  Employees who have a neat, professional
appearance
 Readiness to respond to customers’
requests  Visually appealing materials associated
with the service
ASSURANCE
 Employees who instill confidence in customers
 Making customers feel safe in their transactions
 Employees who are consistently courteous
 Employees who have the knowledge to answer
customer questions
THE SERVICE ENCOUNTER
• is the “moment of truth”
• occurs any time the customer interacts with the firm
• can potentially be critical in determining customer
satisfaction and loyalty
• types of encounters:
– remote encounters, phone encounters, face-to-face encounters
• is an opportunity to:
– build trust
– reinforce quality
– build brand identity
– increase loyalty
A SERVICE ENCOUNTER CASCADE
FOR A HOTEL VISIT

Check-In

Bellboy Takes to Room

Restaurant Meal

Request Wake-Up Call

Checkout
A SERVICE ENCOUNTER
CASCADE FOR AN INDUSTRIAL PURCHASE

Sales Call

Delivery and Installation

Servicing

Ordering Supplies

Billing
CRITICAL SERVICE ENCOUNTERS RESEARCH
• GOAL:
– understanding actual events and behaviors that cause
customer dis/satisfaction in service encounters
• METHOD:
– Critical Incident Technique
• DATA:
– stories from customers and employees
• OUTPUT:
– identification of themes underlying satisfaction and
dissatisfaction with service encounters
SAMPLE QUESTIONS FOR CRITICAL INCIDENTS
TECHNIQUE STUDY
• Think of a time when, as a customer, you had a particularly
satisfying (dissatisfying) interaction with an employee of
______________.

• When did the incident happen?

• What specific circumstances led up to this situation?

• Exactly what was said and done?

• What resulted that made you feel the interaction was


satisfying (dissatisfying)?
COMMON THEMES IN CRITICAL
SERVICE ENCOUNTERS RESEARCH
CARS
Model

Recovery: Adaptability:
employee response employee response
to service delivery to customer’s special
system failure needs and requests

Coping: Spontaneity:
employee response unprompted and
to problem customers unsolicited employee
actions and attitudes
COPING
DO DON’T
• Listen • Take customer’s
dissatisfaction personally
• Try to accommodate
• Let customer’s
• Explain dissatisfaction affect others
• Let go of the customer
ADAPTABILITY
DO DON’T
• Recognize the seriousness • Ignore
of the need
• Promise, but fail to follow
• Acknowledge through
• Anticipate • Show unwillingness to try

• Attempt to accommodate • Embarrass the customer

• Adjust the system • Laugh at the customer

• Explain rules/policies • Avoid responsibility

• Take responsibility • “Pass the buck”


RECOVERY
DO DON’T
• Acknowledge problem • Ignore customer

• Explain causes • Blame customer

• Apologize • Leave customer to fend for


him/herself
• Compensate/upgrade
• Downgrade
• Lay out options
• Act as if nothing is wrong
• Take responsibility
• “Pass the buck”
SPONTANEITY
DO DON’T
• Take time • Exhibit impatience

• Be attentive • Ignore

• Anticipate needs • Yell/laugh/swear

• Listen • Steal from customers

• Provide information • Discriminate

• Show empathy
EVIDENCE OF SERVICE FROM THE
CUSTOMER’S POINT OF VIEW
 Contact employees
 Customer him/herself
 Operational flow of  Other customers
activities People
 Steps in process
 Flexibility vs.
standard
 Technology vs.  Tangible
human Process Physical
communication
Evidence
 Servicescape
 Guarantees
 Technology

Source: From “Managing the Evidence of Service” by M. J. Bitner from The Service Quality Handbook,
 Website
eds. E. E. Scheuing and W. F. Christopher (1993), pp. 358-70.