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UNIVERSITY OF NEW BRUNSWICK

ELECTRIC POWER QUALITY, HARMONIC REDUCTION


AND ENERGY SAVING USING MODULATED POWER
FILTERS AND CAPACITOR COMPENSATORS

POWER QUALITY-PQ

Professor Dr. Adel M. Sharaf. P.Eng.


UNB-ECE Dept
Canada

1
What is Power quality ?
 Definition : “Power quality problem is any power problem manifested
in voltage, current, or frequency deviation that results in failure or
misoperation of customer equipment”.
 Power quality can be simply defined as shown in the interaction
diagram:

•Voltage Sags Electrical Grid •Harmonics


Utility
•Voltage Swells •Waveform Distortion

•Blackouts/Brownouts
Voltage Power •Arc Type
Current
•Transient Quality Quality
Quality •Temporal
•Converter Type
•Inrush
Nonlinear Loads •Saturation Type
•Overcurrent
Industrial/Commercial/Residential
•NLL-Analog/Digital
•Flickering Consumers
Switching
2
Why are we concerned about PQ
The Main reasons behind the growing concern about
PQ are:
 North American industries lose Tens-of-Billions of Dollars every year in
downtime due to power quality problems. (Electrical Business Magazine)
 Load nonlinearities in rising and is expected to reach 50 to 70% in the year
2005 (Electric Power Research Institute) [Computers, UPS, fax machines,
printers, fluorescent lighting, ASD, industrial rectifiers, DC drives, arc
welders, etc).
 The characteristics of the electric loads have changed.
 Harmonics are continuous problem not transient or intermittent.

3
Power Quality Issue and Problems

Power Quality issues can be roughly broken into a number of sub-categories:


 Harmonics (sub, super and interharmonics);
 Voltage swells, sags, fluctuations, flicker, and transients
 Voltage magnitude and frequency deviation, voltage imbalance (3ph sys.)
 Hot grounding loops and ground potential rise (GPR)–Safety & Fire
Hazards
 Monitoring and measurement.

4
Power Quality PQ Issue

Harmonics and NLL issues:


 The harmonic issue (waveform distortion) is a top priority

to for all equipment manufacturer, users and Electric


Utilities (New IEC, ANSI, IEEE Standards).

  
  I 
2
n
PF 
1
DPF
THDi    n2 
 1  THDi2
I1
 
 

5
SYSTEM MODELS
Electric
Electric System+Transformer+Feeder Equivalent
Utility (Plant) Load
Transformer
Load Bus
Vs Rs Ls VL

Nonlinear Load (NLL)

Sw itched/Modulated  Converter Type


Pow er Filter or Static  Arc Type
Capacitor Compensator  Dynamic
* Smart-controllers are  Cyclical
based on specif ied control  Ripple
objectives SMPF  Inrush
YF(s)  Temporal
Different N
Topologies  Motorized on/of f
Control L  SMPS
is
Signals L  ASD
Smart on/of f or  Saturation Type
Vs Controller PWM Nonlinear
Ps *
Load
eight designs
(Dr. A.M. Sharaf ) YF (TAF, C-Type, HPDF, Special Topology)

Single Line Diagram of Radial Utilization System

6
Nonlinear Load Models
Vs Rs Ls VL
Volt-Ampere (VL – IL)
is

D1 D2

E1
E2 Arc Nonlinear
Load/ Cyclical
Symmetrical R1 R2
Asymmetrical
E1 different from E2
R1 different from R2

Arc Type
iS Ls Rs

iL

RL
Vs Nonlinear
Load
LL

Cyclical
Load

Temporal time-dependent (Cyclical load)


7
Nonlinear Load Models
Volt-Ampere (VL – IL)
Cyclical nonlinear Load

Z s ( stator )
iS Ls Rs iL Rs Ls istator ist
ir
irotor
imagnetizing im

VL1 VL2 Lr

Vs Lm Z r (rotor)
Rr
VL
Zm 
Industrial
( magnetizin g )
Motorized
Load
Alpha: Slip Measure of Loading

Cyclical Motorized
Id
Lf

Vs is Rs Ls Rac
Vd Rdc
Lac
Modulated
Converter- Fanning
 Modulated Loadt
Rectifier Modulated Rectifier Circuit Xac
Effect

Modulated Rac

8
Nonlinear Load Models
Volt-Ampere (VL – IL)
SMPS-Computer Netw ork
Diode-
Bridge L1
Vs is Rs Ls
idc
C1 Vc R1
Limiter
Type
Switch Mode Power Supply (SMPS)

Fluorescent Lamp
iS Ls Rs
iL Ballast

Starter L

RLamp
Vf eeder Magnetic Saturation-
VL Transf ormer
Vs type Nonlinear Load FL-Starter
Ballast
Nonlinear

Magnetic Saturation type

9
Nonlinear Load Models

Nonlinear Load
Volt-Ampere (VL – IL)
Adjustable Speed Drive
VLL
Pin
Vs PCC
is Rs Ls
C M
PCC:point of common coupling AC Motor
Rectifier Inverter

AC Motor and Inverter have been replaced by an equivalent resistor

Adjustable Speed Drive (ASD)

Dual Loop Nonlinear

10
Switched Modulated Power Filters and Capacitor
Compensators
A N
VF

VF VF (Vn)
iF2 iF1 iF GTO or (IGBT
C2 w ith bridge) C1
C1 VF
C
Cf Cf

L2 L1 C1 C2
L
C2
R2 R1
L1 L2 R
R S2
Lf S2=S1 L

R1 R2
S1
S Rf
on/of f or
PWM
S1 S2 Parameters: (Cf, Lf, Rf) S
V >0 V <0
SPF/SCC
TAF Dual-Tuned-
Arm Filter ATAF TAF + Static C-Type
Tuned-Arm
Capacitor
Filter (TAF) Asymmetrical Tuned- C-Type
Compensator
Arm Filter (ATAF) Filter

MPF/SPF(Family of Filters – Compensators) Developed by Dr. A. M. Sharaf


11
Switched Modulated Power Filters and capacitor
Compensators
L
L
CS1
diode Bridge M1
CP Switched
S
CS2 PWM
Fixed on/of f M2

Economic Tuned-Arm Power Filter and Capacitor Compensator Scheme (used in S-


S1
phase 2 wire loads)

L CT M1
Motorized Inrush Loads
S2=S1
CL • Water Pumps
To Load
CS
•A/C
S2

•Refrigeration
M2
N

Switched Capacitor Compensator Scheme (used for on/off •Blower / Fans


Motorized loads)
12
Novel Dynamic Tracking Controllers (Family of Smart
Controllers Developed by Dr. A. M. Sharaf)

 The Dynamic Control Strategies are:


1. Dynamic minimum current ripple tracking
2. Dynamic minimum current level
3. Dynamic minimum power tracking
4. Dynamic minimum effective power ripple tracking
5. Dynamic minimum RMS source current tracking
6. Dynamic maximum power factor
7. Minimum Harmonic ripple content
8. Minimum reference harmonic ripple content
 Electric Power/Energy Savings
 Improve Supply PQ by reducing Harmonics and improve power
factor and enhance waveforms as close as possible to sine wave
13
Novel Dynamic Controllers
iL
iRef =0 Vc iF iS
e
 Kp + K i /s PWM Filter 
PI

I(k)
 RMS
Detector
I(k-1)
Delay

Dynamic Minimum-RMS Current tracking


iL

ihref  0 e Vc iF iS
 Kp + K i /s PWM Filter 
PI

ih
Notch
Abs
Filter
Reject 60Hz

Minimum Harmonic Reference Content


14
Switching Devices (on/off or PWM)
on/off
PI Controller
To GTO g(t)
10V on/off
ton
error Vc SSR/Triac
Kp + K i /s Controller g(t)=1 switch closed
error -e0 e0
generated by 0
g(t)=0 switch open
the Controller
e0:Deadband/Bias
Vc=(0-10V ) (a)
Bias 1 tof f

Ts/w
ton ton switch S1 0
Vc To GTO
PWM
S2=S1 SSR/Triac ton ts
NOT
Controller
0 S2 TS/W
0<t on<T s/w
Ts/w=1/f s/w (b)

The solid-state switches (S1, S2) are usually (GTO, IGBT/bridge,


MOSFET/bridge, SSR, TRIAC) turns “ON” when a pulse g(t) is applied to
its control gate terminal by the activation switching circuit. Removing the
pulse will turn the solid-state switch “OFF”
TS/W=1/fS = (ton + toff) 0<ton<TS/W

15
Switching Devices – PWM Circuits

(1)

PWM Circuit (Developed by Dr. C. Diduch) for use with Matlab/Simulink

(2)

PWM Circuit (Matlab/Simulink/Stateflow-Grundlagen)

16
Concept of Modulated Power Filters (MPF)

VF v
u(t)
IF
C

VF
-u(t-to) t
L to
TAF

u(t)-u(t-to)
R

on/of f or PWM to t
GTO, MOSFET,
Triac, IGBT

The Linear Combination of


Tune Arm two Unit Step Functions to
Filter layout describe a Pulse of Amplitude
1 and duration t0.

17
Modulated Tuned Arm Filter (Sym. & Asym.)
Load is either: VL

•Symmetrical Arc Type utility


Vg Vs
NLL 3
SMPS-
is NLL 2 Computer
f eeder
•SMPS Transformer
NLL 1
Netw ork

iL-total
iF
•Adjustable Speed Drives VF

•Asymmetrical Arc-type C
L1

~ C
R1
L
Dynamic Controller: R1= constant or variably
sw itched
R Sample SMPS Load
-Min. effec. Power
-RMS current tracking
-Min. Harmonic Content

Single Line Diagram of System and Modulated / PWM Tuned-


Arm Filter
18
Modulated Tuned Arm Filter with (SMPS) Load

Without (THD=74%) With (THD=9%)

19
Modulated Asymmetrical Tuned-Arm Filter
Utility Transf ormer
R T LT Vs Rf Lf VL
f eeder iL
Rs=RT+R f
Ls=LT+Lf
iF VL
iL

VF iL1 iL2
DA DB
Without (THD=42%) With (THD=14%) D1 D2 R1 R 2  R1 (1   )

C1 C2
E1 E2  E1 (1   )

Nonlinear
L1 L2 Asymmetrical
(ATAF) Load
R1 R2
( S 2  S1)
S2 dual-
S1 complementary
ton2
ton1 sw itching

G
With (THD=7%)
Without (THD=18%)
Nonlinear Temporal Load Parameters:

R1=R01+R11sin(wr1*t); E1=E01+E11sin(wr2*t);
R2=R02+R22sin(wr1*t); E2=E02+E22sin(wr2*t);
Dynamic Controller: Dual loop of RMS current tracking R2= R1(1+) R01=8 R02=12 R11=2 R22=6 wr1=15
and Min. Harmonic Content E2= -E1(1+) E01= 46 E02=70 E11=12 E22=35 wr2=5

20
A Low-cost Voltage Stabilization and Power
Quality Enhancement Scheme for a Small
Renewable Wind Energy Scheme

Professor Dr. Adel M. Sharaf. P.Eng.


UNB-ECE Dept
Canada
OUTLINE

 Introduction
 System Description
 Novel PWM Switching Control Scheme
 Modulated Power Filter Compensator
 Simulation Results
 Conclusion

22
Introduction

 Motivation of renewable wind energy


 Fossil fuel shortage and its escalating prices
 Reducing environmental pollution caused by
conventional methods for electricity generation

23
Introduction

 Challenges of the reliability of wind power system


 Load excursion
 Wind velocity variation
 Conventional passive capacitor compensation
devices become ineffective

24
System Description

 Self-excited induction generator (SEIG)


 Transformers and short feeder
 Hybrid loads: linear load and non-linear load
 The modulated power filter compensator (MPFC)
25
Novel PWM Switching Control Scheme

26
Novel PWM Switching Control Scheme

 Multi-loop dynamic error driven


 The voltage stabilization loop
 The load bus dynamic current tracking loop
 The dynamic load power tracking loop
 Using proportional, integral plus derivative (PID)
control scheme
 Simple structure and fast response

27
Novel PWM Switching Control Scheme
 Objective:
 To stabilize the voltage under random load and
wind speed excursion
 Maximize power/energy utilization

 The control gains (Kp, Ki) are selected using a


guided trial and error method to minimize the
objective function, which is the sum of all three
basic loops.

28
The Functional Model of MPFC
 The capacitor bank and the
RL arm are connected by a
6-pulse diode to block the
reverse flow of current.

 Capacitor size normally


selected as 40%-60% of
the non-linear load KVAR
capacitor.

29
Proposed MPFC Scheme and Its Functional
Model

30
Simulation Results

 Digital simulation environment:


 MATLAB 7.0.1/SIMULINK
 Sequence of load excursion:
 From 0s to 0.2s: Both Linear Load 200 kVA (50%)
and nonlinear Load 200 kVA (50%) connected
 From 0.2s to 0.4s: Linear Load 200 kVA(50%)
connected only
 From 0.4s to 0.6s: No load is connected

31
System Dynamic Response Without MPFC

32
System Dynamic Response With MPFC

33
Error plane of the dynamic error driven
controller

The Error Diagram

Ep*r
0

-1
2
1
0 0
Ev*r -2 -1
Ei*r

34
Conclusions
 The digital simulation results validated that the
proposed low cost MPFC scheme is effective in
voltage stabilization for both linear and nonlinear
electrical load excursions.

 The proposed MPFC scheme will be easily integrated


in renewable wind energy standalone units in the
range from 600kW to 1600kW.

35
Reference
 [1] A.M.Sharaf and Liang Zhao, ‘A Novel Voltage Stabilization Scheme
for Standalone Wind Energy Using a Facts Dual Switching Universal
Power Stabilization Scheme’, 2005

 [2] M.S. El-Moursi and Adel M. Sharaf, 'Novel STATCOM controller for
voltage stabilization of wind energy scheme', Int. J. Global Energy
Issues, 2006.

 [3] A. M. Sharaf and Guosheng Wang, ‘Wind Energy System Voltage


and Energy Enhancement Using Low Cost Dynamic Capacitor
Compensation Scheme’, 2004.

 [4] A.M. Sharaf and Liang Yang, 'A Novel Efficient Stand-Alone
Photovoltaic DC Village Electricity Scheme’, 2005

36
Reference
 [5] Pradeep K. Nadam, Paresk C. Sen, 'Industrial Application of Sliding
Mode Control', IEEE/IAS International Conference On Industrial
Automation and Control, Proceedings, pp. 275-280, 1995

 [6] Paresk C. Sen, 'Electrical Motor and Control-Past, Present and


Future', IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, Vol.37, No.6,
pp.562-575, December 1990

 [7] Edward Y.Y. Ho, Paresk C. Sen, 'Control Dynamics of Speed Drive
System Using Sliding Mode Controllers with Integral Compensation',
IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, Vol.21, NO.5, pp 883-892,
September/October 1991.

37
A FACTS based Dynamic Capacitor Scheme
for Voltage Stabilization and Power Quality
Enhancement

38
Abstract
 Power Quality voltage problems in a power system may be either at
system frequency or due to transient surges with higher frequency
components.

 These are called switching-type over-voltages which can be produced


during opening or closing a switch and can be severe in certain cases.

 The paper presents a low-cost FACTS based dynamic capacitor


compensator DCC- scheme for voltage compensation and power quality
enhancement.

 The FACTS –DCC dynamic compensator is a member of a family of smart


power low cost compensators developed by the First Author.

39
Introduction
 The growing use of nonlinear industrial type or inrush type electric
loads can cause a real challenge to power quality for electric
utilities around the world, especially in the current era of the
unregulated power market where: competition, supply quality,
security and reliability are key issues for any economic survival.

 Power Quality over voltage conditions in a power system may be


either at system frequency or due to transient surges with higher
frequency components.

 With EHV transmission systems, lightning is less of a problem


because lightning surges rarely reach the impulse withstand voltage
of the system equipment, e.g. 400 kV circuit breakers are impulse
tested with an impulse 1425 kV , (1 us wave front to peak voltage
and 50% of peak voltage). In EHV systems, switching surges thus
become relatively more important [1].
40
Cont. / Introduction
 The problem of the dynamic switching overvolatges affects also voltage
stability of large non linear / motorized loads. It can increase the
transmission line losses, and decrease the overall power factor [8].

 Solid state AC controllers are widely Solid state AC controllers are widely
used to convert AC power for feeding number of electrical loads such as
adjustable speed drives, arc furnaces, power supplies etc.

 Some of theses power converter controllers behave as nonlinear loads


because they generally draw a non- sinusoidal current from AC sources.

 The paper presents a new low cost FACTS based dynamic compensator
scheme (DCC) for improving the voltage stability and enhancing power
quality for hybrid linear/nonlinear and motorized load.

41
The System under study

Fig.1 (a) depicts the single line diagram of the sample radial 138 kV (L-L) AC Power System.

42
MATLAB Sim-Power System Model
Fig.1 (b) shows the MATLAB block diagram.

43
The MATLAB Sim-Power System functional
model of the hybrid (linear, non linear and
motorized) load is shown in Fig.2.

44
New Dynamic Capacitor Compensator (DCC) scheme
comprising a switched power filter

45
Controller Design

Fig.4 shows the proposed novel Tri-loop (PI) Proportional plus Integral, dynamic
error driven sinusoidal SPWM switching controller.
46
Cont. / Controller Design

 The Tri-loop dynamic controller is used to stabilize the load bus voltage
by regulated pulse width switching of the two IGBT solid state switches.
The three regulating key loops are:
 Loop 1 – the main loop for the dynamic voltage error using the RMS
voltage at the load bus; this loop is to maintain the voltage at the load
bus at a reference value by modulating the admittance of the
compensator.
 Loop 2 – the dynamic error is using RMS dynamic load current. This loop
is an auxiliary loop to compensate for any sudden electrical load
excursions.
 Loop 3 – the Harmonic ripple loop is used to provide an effective
dynamic tracking control to suppress any sudden current ripples and
compensate the AC system power transfer capability even under
switching excursions.

47
The following Figures show the load voltage, current, and active
power, reactive power, the active vs. reactive power, and the
transmitted power loss; without the proposed low cost FACTS
Dynamic Capacitor Compensator (DCC).

48
The following Figures show the load voltage, current, and active
power, reactive power, the active vs. reactive power, with the
proposed low cost FACTS Dynamic Capacitor Compensator (DCC).

49
Conclusions
 The paper presents a low cost FACTS Based Capacitor Compensator (DCC)
for a radial 138 kV L-L sample test system. Digital simulation and comparison
between without and with figures validated the following:
 The receiving load bus voltage without the FACTS Based Capacitor
Compensator (DCC) was about 0.66 pu when reaching steady state. Using
the FACTS (DCC) compensator it is increased to about 0.96 pu (which is
acceptable -5% from 1 pu).
 The receiving load bus current is increased from 0.36 pu to 0.62 pu with the
FACTS Based Capacitor Compensator (DCC).
 The received active power at the hybrid load bus is increased from 0.36 pu
to 0.95 pu.
 The received reactive power at the hybrid load side is decreased from 0.2 pu
to -0.5pu.
 The receiving end power factor is also increased from 0.832 lag to 0.95 lag.
 The transmitted power loss is decreased from 0.042 pu to 0.017 pu (about
40% less).

50
References
 [1] Guile, & Paterson, Electrical Power Systems: vol.2, Pergamon international
library of science, 1977.
 [2] A.M.Sharaf, “Harmonic interference from distribution systems”, IEEE Winter
Meeting, New York, 1982.
 [3] A.M.Sharaf, H.Huang, “Flicker control using rule based modulated passive
power filters”, Electric Power System Research Journal 33 (1995) 49-52.
 [4] A.M.Sharaf, C.Gua, and H.Huang, “A Smart Modulated Filter for Energy
Conservation in Utilization Network”, IACPSS, April 6-8, 1997, Al-Ain, UAE, pp 211-
212.
 [5] A.M.Sharaf, S.S.Shokralla and A.S.Abd El-Ghaffar, “Efficient Power Tracking
using an Error Driven Modulated Passive Filter”, AEIC’ 95, AL-AZHAR Conference,
December 16 – 19, 1995.
 [6] A.M.Sharaf, P.Kreidi, “Power Quality enhancement and harmonic reduction
using dynamic power filters”, ELECTRIMACS 2002. Montreal, Quebec, Canada,
August 18-21, 2002.
 [7] A.M.Sharaf, P.Kreidi, “Power Quality enhancement using a unified compensator
and switched filter “, ICREPQ’ 2003, Vigo-Spain, April 9-11, 2003.
 [8] Uzunoglu, M., Kocatepe, C. and Yumurtaci, R. (2004) “Voltage stability analysis
in the power systems including non-linear loads”, European Transactions on
Electrical Power, January–February, Vol. 14, No. 1, pp.41–56.
 [9] B.Singh, V.Verma, A.Chandra and K.Al-Haddad, “Hybrid filters for power quality
improvement”, IEE Proc.Gener.Transm.Distrib., Vol. 152, No.3, May 2005. 51
A NOVEL MAXIMUM POWER TRACKING
CONTROLLER FOR A STAND-ALONE
PHOTOVOLTAIC DC MOTOR DRIVE

A.M. Sharaf, SM IEEE


Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering
University of New Brunswick
PRESENTATION OUTLINE

 Introduction
 System Model Description
 Novel Dynamic Error Driven Self Adjusting Controller
(SAC)
 Digital Simulation Results
 Conclusions
 Future Work

53
Introduction

The advantages of PV solar energy:


 Clean and green energy source that can reduce
green house gases
 Highly reliable and needs minimal maintenance
 Costs little to build and operate ($2-3/Wpeak)
 Almost has no environmental polluting impact
 Modular and flexible in terms of size, ratings and
applications

54
Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT)

 The photovoltaic system displays an inherently nonlinear current-


voltage (I-V) relationship, requiring an online search and
identification of the optimal maximum power operating point.

 MPPT controller/interface is a power electronic DC/DC converter or


DC/AC inverter system inserted between the PV array and its electric
load to achieve the optimum characteristic matching.

 PV array is able to deliver maximum available solar power that is also


necessary to maximize the photovoltaic energy utilization in stand-
alone energy utilization systems (water pumping, ventilation)

55
I-V and P-V characteristics of a typical PV array at a fixed ambient temperature and solar irradiation condition
56
The performance of any stand-alone PV
system depends on:

 Electric load operating conditions/Excursions/


Switching
 Ambient/junction temperature (Tx)
 Solar insolation/irradiation variations (Sx)

57
System Model Description
Key components:
 PV array module model
 Power conditioning filter:
♦ Blocking Diode
♦ Input filter (Rf & Lf )
 Storage Capacitor (C1)
 Four-Quadrant PWM converter feeding the
PMDC (Permanent Magnet Direct Current)
motor (1-15kW size)

58
Photovoltaic powered Four-Quadrant PWM converter PMDC motor drive system
59
Novel Dynamic Error Driven Self Adjusting
Controller (SAC)

Three regulating loops:


 The motor reference speed (ωm-reference)
trajectory tracking loop
 The first supplementary
motor current (Im) limiting loop
 The second supplementary
maximum photovoltaic power (Pg) tracking loop

60
Dynamic tri-loop self adjusting control (SAC) system
61
 The global error signal (et) comprises
3-dimensional excursion vectors (ew, ei, ep)

 The control modulation ΔVc is

 β is the specified squashing order (2~3)


 │Re│ is the magnitude of the hyper-plane error
excursion vector at time instant k

62
The loop weighting factors (γw, γI and γp)
and the parameters k0 and β are assigned to
minimize the time-weighted excursion index J0

where
 N= T0/Tsample
 T0: Largest mechanical time constant (10s)
 Tsample: Sampling time (0.2ms)
 t(k)=k·Tsample: Time at step k in seconds

63
Digital Simulation Results

 Photovoltaic powered Four-Quadrant PWM converter PMDC motor


drive system model using the
MATLAB/Simulink/SimPowerSystems software
64
Test Variations of ambient temperature and solar irradiation

Variation of Variation of
ambient temperature (Tx) solar irradiation (Sx)
65
For trapezoidal reference speed trajectory

Ig vs. time Vg vs. time

Pg vs. time Vg vs. Ig 66


For trapezoidal reference speed trajectory
(Continue)

Pg vs. Ig & Vg Iam vs. time

ωref & ωm vs. time ωm vs. Te 67


For sinusoidal reference speed trajectory

Ig vs. time Vg vs. time

Pg vs. time Vg vs. Ig 68


For sinusoidal reference speed trajectory
(Continue)

Pg vs. Ig & Vg Iam vs. time

ωref & ωm vs. time ωm vs. Te 69


The digital simulation results validate the tri-loop dynamic
error driven Self Adjusting Controller (SAC), ensures:

 Good reference speed trajectory tracking with


a small overshoot/undershoot and minimum
steady state error
 The motor inrush current Im is kept to a specified
limited value
 Maximum PV solar power/energy tracking near
knee point operation can be also achieved

70
Conclusions

 The proposed dynamic error driven controller


requires only the PV array output voltage and current
signals and the DC motor speed and current signals
that can be easily measured.
 The low cost stand-alone photovoltaic renewable
energy scheme is suitable for village electricity
application in the range of (150 watts to 15000
watts), mostly for water pumping and irrigation use
in arid developing countries.

71
Future Work

 Other PV-DC, PV-AC and Hybrid PV/Wind energy


utilization schemes
 New control strategies

72
Future Work (Continue) Novel Dynamic Error Driven
Sliding Mode Controller (SMC)

Three regulating loops:


 The motor reference speed (ωm-reference)
trajectory tracking loop
 The first supplementary
motor current (Im) limiting loop
 The second supplementary
maximum photovoltaic power (Pg) tracking loop

73
Dynamic tri-loop error-driven Sliding Mode Control (SMC) system
74
A Low Cost Dynamic Voltage Stabilization
Scheme for Standalone Wind Induction
Generator System
Outline
 1.Introduction
 2.Standalone Wind Energy System
 3.Dynamic Series Switched Capacitor Compensation
including two parts: Digital Simulation Models and
Dynamic Simulation Results
 4.Conclusions
 5.Future Work
 References

76
1. Introduction

 Wind energy has become one of the most significant,


alternative energy resources.
 Most wind turbines(15-200kw) use the three phase
asynchronous induction generator for its low lost,
reliable and less maintenance.
 However, the voltage stability of a wind driven
induction generator system is fully dependent on
wind gusting conditions and electrical load
changes[1-3].
 New interface technology is needed such as
DSSC and other MPF/CCcompensation scheme
[1-3]. 77
1. Introduction: What is DSSC?
 DSSC is a low cost dynamic series switched
capacitor (DSSC) interface compensation scheme.
 Capacitance in parallel or series of the DSSC
scheme are interfaced with the output feeder
lines.
 DSSC scheme can be used to improve the
induction generator voltage stability and ensure
dynamic voltage stabilization under varying wind
and load conditions, thus prevent loss of severe
generator bus voltage excursions.

78
2. Standalone Wind Energy System

Figure 1 shows Standalone Wind Energy Conversion Scheme Diagram with


Hybrid Load and Dynamic Series Switched Capacitor Compensations

79
2. Standalone Wind Energy System

Figure 2 shows Low Cost Dynamic Series Switched Capacitor (DSSC)


Stabilization Scheme using Gate Turn off GTO switching Device

80
2. Standalone Wind Energy System

Figure 3 shows the Hybrid Electrical Load


81
3. Dynamic Series Switched Capacitor
Compensation

 A sample test standalone wind induction


generator system (WECS) is modeled using the
Matlab/ Simulink/ Sim-Power Block-set software
environment.

82
3. Dynamic Series Switched Capacitor
Compensation

Figure 4 shows the Unified Systems Matlab/Simulink Functional Model


83
3. Dynamic Series Switched Capacitor
Compensation

Figure 5 shows Tri-loop Error Driven PID Controlled PWM Switching Scheme

84
3. Dynamic Series Switched Capacitor
Compensation

Linear and non-linear load excursions


Figure 6 in next slide depicts the digital simulation
dynamic response to both in linear and nonlinear load
excursion.
 From time interval 0.1s to 0.3s, we applied 50%
(100kVA) linear load; from 0.4s-0.6s, we applied
60% (120kVA) non-linear load.
 So the DSSC can stabilize for both linear and

nonlinear load excursions and ensure the generator


bus stabilization

85
3. Dynamic Series Switched Capacitor
Compensation

 Without DSSC  With DSSC


Compensation Compensation

Figure 6

86
3. Dynamic Series Switched Capacitor
Compensation

Under inrush induction motor load excursion


Figure 7 in the next slide shows the dynamic simulation
response to the induction motor load excursions.
 From time 0.2s to0.4s, we applied about 20%
(20kVA) induction motor load.
 From the figure we can see that DSSC did not
compensate for this inrush motor load excursions
adequately.

87
3. Dynamic Series Switched
Capacitor Compensation
 Without DSSC  With DSSC
Compensation Compensation

Figure 7

88
3. Dynamic Series Switched
Capacitor Compensation
Under wind excursion

 Figure 8 in the next slide shows the dynamic


simulation response to wind excursions
 From 0.3s-0.6s, the wind speed was decreased
to 6m/s from initial value 10m/s.
 From figure 8 we can see that DSSC did
compensate wind excursion, the voltage at
generate bus keeps 1.0pu.
89
3. Dynamic Series Switched Capacitor
Compensation

 Without DSSC  With DSSC


Compensation Compensation

Figure 8

90
4. Conclusions
 The low cost DSSC compensation scheme is very
effective for the voltage stabilization under linear,
non-liner passive load excursions as well as wind
speed excursions.
 But it can not compensate adequately for large
inrush dynamic excursions such as induction motor.
 The proposed low cost DSSC voltage compensation
scheme is only suitable for isolated wind energy
conversion systems feeding linear and non-linear
passive type loads.

91
5. Future Study

 Another new compensation scheme that can


compensate for a large inrush induction motor
excursion will be studied in my future research.
 That scheme will be very effective for bus
voltage stabilization under linear, non-liner,
inrush motor load excursions and wind
excursions.

92
Reference
 [1]. K.Natarajan, A.M Sharaf, S.Sivakumarand and
S.Nagnarhan, “Modeling and Control Design for Wind
Energy Conversion Scheme using Self-Excited Induction
Generator”, IEEE Trans. On E.C., Vol.2, pp.506-512,
Sept.1987.
 [2]. S.P.Singh, Bhim Singh and M.P.Jain, “Performance
Characteristic and Optimum Utilization of a Cage Machine as
a Capacitor excited Induction Generator”, IEEE Trans. On
E.C., Vol. 5, No.4, pp.679-685, Dec.1990
 [3]. A.Gastli, M.akherraz, M. Gammal,
“Matlab/Simulink/ANN Based Modeling and Simulation of A
Stand-Alone Self-Excited Induction Generator”, Proc. of the
International Conference on Communication, Computer and
Power, ICCCP’98, Dec.7-10 1998, Muscat, Sultanate of
Oman, pp.93-98
93
94
ULTRA HIGH SPEED PROTECTION OF SERIES
COMPENSATED TRANSMISSION LINES USING
WAVELET TRANSFORMS

Dr. A. M. Sharaf, SMIEEE

95
Presentation Outline
Introduction
Wavelets
Background Theory
Proposed Scheme
Study System: Single Line Diagram
Study System: Test Cases
Incremental Voltages and Currents
Relaying Signals
Wavelet Approximation
Fault Direction Determination
Travelling Waves
Wavelet Thresholding
Conclusion
96
Introduction

Ultra High Speed (UHS) relaying is a new area of Power


System Protection.
Protection of series compensated transmission lines can
be best accomplished by a UHS relaying system.
But, UHS distance protection implementation methods
are fraught with difficulty.
In this paper, a novel non-unit UHS distance protection
scheme using wavelet transforms is proposed.

97
Wavelets

Wavelets were first applied in the area of geophysics.


Today, Wavelets are employed in a variety of
applications, from detecting High Impedance Faults to
compression of fingerprint files.
A signal can be decomposed using Wavelet Transform
as follows,

where

98
Proposed Scheme

The measured phase voltages and currents are decoupled


to obtain the modal components .
Incremental voltage and current signals are obtained.
Relaying signals a(t) and b(t)are obtained.
Wavelet transform of relaying signals is obtained to
remove the high frequency travelling waves from the
relaying signals. The resultant signals are denoted as
“Approx.a(t)” and “Approx.b(t)”.
A forward fault is indicated if Approx.b(t) crosses a set
threshold before Approx.a(t) does. Similarly, a reverse
fault is indicated if Approx.a(t) crosses the threshold
before Approx.b(t).

99
Proposed Scheme

The incremental voltage signal is decomposed to level1


using Wavelet transform. The DWT first level coefficients
are then used to reconstruct a signal which has power
system frequency components and the decaying DC
component removed from the original signal.
Noise and reflections from other points can cause relay
mal-operation. Therefore, the travelling waves are
thresholded.
The fault distance is given by x=(valpha/ (2*tau)) where
valpha is alpha -mode propagation velocity, close to
2.99x108 m/s and tau is the time from positive (negative)
peak to the next positive (negative) peak.
Study System: Single Line Diagram

750kV, 250km un-transposed transmission line.


Local source of 10GVA and a remote source of
6GVA.

Figure 1: Single Line Diagram.

101
Study System: Test Cases

The fault distance measured from the local source G1.


Voltage and current signals measured near the local
AC source G1.
Fault inception time t = 28.5ms.
Ground resistance 3 ohms.

102
Incremental Voltage (Case 1)

The incremental voltage signal was obtained using


cycle subtraction.

Figure 2a: Incremental Voltage for Case 1.


Incremental Current (Case 1)

The incremental current signal was obtained using


cycle subtraction.

Figure 2b: Incremental Current for Case 1.


Incremental Voltage (Case 2)

The incremental voltage signal was obtained using


cycle subtraction.

Figure 3a: Incremental Voltage for Case 2.


Incremental Current (Case 2)

The incremental current signal was obtained using


cycle subtraction.

Figure 3b: Incremental Current for Case 2.


Relaying Signals (Case 1)

The synthesized relaying signals a(t) and b(t) are


shown in Figure 4. The value of Rs =200 ohms.

Figure 4: Relaying Signals at the Local End for Case 1.


Relaying Signals (Case 2)

The synthesized relaying signals a(t) and b(t) are


shown in Figure 5. The value of Rs =200 ohms.

Figure 5: Relaying Signals at the Local End for Case 2.


Wavelet Approximation (Case 1)
In order to utilize the relaying signals for fault direction
determination, travelling waves are removed using
Wavelet Transform.

Figure 6: Wavelet Approximated Relaying Signals at the Local


End for Case 1.
Wavelet Approximation (Case 2)
In order to utilize the relaying signals for fault direction
determination, travelling waves are removed using
Wavelet Transform.

Figure 7: Wavelet Approximated Relaying Signals at the Local


End for Case 2.
Fault Direction Determination

For cases 1 and 2, as evident in Figure 6 and Figure 7


in previous slides, b(t) starts increasing before a(t) ,
indicating a forward fault.
Travelling Waves (Case 1)
Wavelets transform is utilized to obtain the travelling
waves from the incremental voltage signals. The
“Mother Wavelet” chosen was Daubechies “db3”.

Figure 8: Travelling Waves Signals obtained at the Local


End for Case 1.
Travelling Waves (Case 2)
Wavelets transform is utilized to obtain the travelling
waves from the incremental voltage signals. The
“Mother Wavelet” chosen was Daubechies “db3”.

Figure 9: Travelling Waves Signals obtained at the Local


End for Case 2.
Wavelet Thersholding (Case 1)

The travelling waves signals are thresholded using


hard thresholding. Thresholding level = 25kV.

Figure 10: Wavelet Thresholded Signals obtained at the Local


End for Case 1.
Wavelet Thresholding (Case 2)

The travelling waves signals are thresholded using


hard thresholding. Thresholding level = 25kV.

Figure 11: Wavelet Thresholded Signals obtained at the Local


End for Case 2.
Conclusion

Novel UHS distance relaying scheme is presented.


Fault distance is calculated using the travelling waves
present in the incremental voltage signal directly.
The scheme is able to utilize the first backward
travelling wave entering the relay as opposed to utilizing
the synthesized relaying signals for distance calculation,
which is prone to error.
Cross-correlation function is not used to determine the
fault distance.
The relaying signals are processed using the Wavelet
transform instead of conventional filtering methods.

116