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Structural Concrete

Frame
Building Construction 2
CONTENT
REFRESHER BC1:
• Concrete as Building Material
• Concrete Components
• Concrete Mixture

PERFORMANCE OF CONCRETE
• Concrete Quality Tests
• Concrete Admixtures

CONCRETE AS STRUCTURE
• Reinforced Concrete
• Precast Concrete
• Pre-stressed Concrete

DESIGNING WITH CONCRETE


• Foundation
• Columns
• Beams
• Slabs
• Walls
CONTENT CONCRETE AS BUILDING MATERIAL
REFRESHER BC1: Why Concrete?
• Concrete as Building Material
• Concrete Components
• Concrete Mixture • Resource Friendly – The predominant raw material for the cement in concrete
is limestone, the most abundant mineral on earth. Concrete can also be made
with fly ash, slag cement, and silica fume, all waste byproducts from power
plants, steel mills, and other manufacturing facilities.

• Durability. Concrete builds durable, long-lasting structures that will not rust,
rot, or burn. Life spans for concrete building products can be double or triple
those of other common building materials.

• Thermal mass. Homes built with concrete walls, foundations, and floors are
highly energy efficient because they take advantage of concretes inherent
thermal massor ability to absorb and retain heat. This means homeowners
can significantly cut their heating and cooling bills and install smaller-capacity
HVAC equipment.
CONTENT CONCRETE AS BUILDING MATERIAL
REFRESHER BC1: Why Concrete?
• Concrete as Building Material
• Concrete Components
• Reflectivity. Concrete minimizes the effects that produce urban heat islands.
• Concrete Mixture Light-colored concrete pavements and roofs absorb less heat and reflect
more solar radiation than dark-colored materials, such as asphalt, reducing air
conditioning demands in the summer.

• Ability to retain stormwater. Paved surfaces tend to be impervious and can


block natural water infiltration into the soil causing erosion, flash floods,
water table depletion, and pollution. Pervious concreteis a special type of
structural concrete with a sponge-like network of voids that water passes
through readily. When used for driveways, sidewalks, parking lots, and other
pavements, pervious concrete can help to retain stormwater runoff and
replenish local water supplies.

• Minimal waste. Concrete can be produced in the quantities needed for each
project, reducing waste. After a concrete structure has served its original
purpose, the concrete can be crushed and recycled into aggregate for use in
new concrete pavements or as backfill or road base.
CONTENT CONCRETE COMPONENTS
REFRESHER BC1:
• Concrete as Building Material
• Concrete Components
• Concrete Mixture

CEMENT AGGREGATES WATER

WET CONCRETE MIXTURE


CEMENT
CONTENT Production:
REFRESHER BC1: Portland cement is produced by heating sources of lime, iron, silica, and
• Concrete as Building Material alumina to clinkering temperature (2,500 to 2,800 degrees Fahrenheit) in a
• Concrete Components
• Concrete Mixture
rotating kiln, then grinding the clinker to a fine powder. The heating that
occurs in the kiln transforms the raw materials into new chemical
compounds.

Click HERE for more info


CEMENT TYPES
CONTENT Types Composition Purpose
REFRESHER BC1: Rapid Attains high strength in early days it is
• Concrete as Building Material Hardening Increased Lime content used in concrete where formworks are
• Concrete Components Cement removed at an early stage.
• Concrete Mixture
Small percentage of aluminum sulphate Used in works is to be completed in very
Quick setting
as an accelerator and reducing short period and concreting in static and
cement
percentage of Gypsum with fine grinding running water
Low Heat Manufactured by reducing tricalcium It is used in massive concrete
Cement aluminate construction like gravity dams
It is prepared by maintaining the It is used in construction exposed to
Sulphates
percentage of tricalcium aluminate below severe sulphate action by water and soil
resisting
6% which increases power against in places like canals linings, culverts,
Cement
sulphates retaining walls, siphons etc.,
It is obtained by grinding the clinkers with
Blast Furnace It can be used for works economic
about 60% slag and resembles more or
Slag Cement considerations is predominant.
less in properties of Portland cement
Colored It is produced by mixing mineral pigments They are widely used for decorative
cement with ordinary cement. works in floors
CEMENT TYPES
CONTENT Types Composition Purpose
REFRESHER BC1: It is obtained by melting mixture of
• Concrete as Building Material bauxite and lime and grinding with the It is used in works where concrete is
• Concrete Components
High Alumina
clinker it is rapid hardening cement subjected to high temperatures, frost,
• Concrete Mixture Cement
with initial and final setting time of and acidic action.
about 3.5 and 5 hours respectively
It is costlier and is used for architectural
It is prepared from raw materials free
White Cement purposes such as precast curtain wall
from Iron oxide.
and facing panels, terrazzo surface etc.,
It is used in marine structures, sewage
Pozzolanic It is prepared by grinding pozzolanic works, sewage works and for laying
Cement clinker with Portland cement concrete under water such as bridges,
piers, dams etc.,
It is produced by adding indigenous air This type of cement is especially suited
Air Entraining entraining agents such as resins, glues, to improve the workability with smaller
Cement sodium salts of Sulphates etc. during water cement ratio and to improve frost
the grinding of clinker. resistance of concrete.
Hydrographic It is prepared by mixing water repelling This cement has high workability and
cement chemicals strength
AGGREGATES
CONTENT
 Aggregates comprise as much as 60% to 80% of a typical concrete mix, so
REFRESHER BC1: they must be properly selected to be durable, blended for optimum
• Concrete as Building Material efficiency, and properly controlled to produce consistent concrete
• Concrete Components
• Concrete Mixture
strength, workability, finishability, and durability
 Good-quality aggregate must be clean, hard, strong, have durable
particles, and be free of absorbed harmful chemicals, coatings of clay, or
other contaminates that can affect hydration of cement or reduce the
paste-aggregate bond.
 Concrete should include at least two different sizes of aggregate--fine and
coarse.
 Fine = 1/4 inch or less (not to include fines)
 Coarse = 1/4 to 2 inch
CONTENT TYPICAL CONCRETE MIX To reduce shrinkage, we need to reduce
Ingredient Range the total amount of cement paste in the
REFRESHER BC1: Cement 7% - 15% mix—the aggregate doesn't shrink. To
• Concrete as Building Material
• Concrete Components
Aggregate 60% - 80% reduce the cement paste, we need to
• Concrete Mixture Water 14% - 18% minimize the spaces between the
Air 2% - 8% aggregate particles. That is accomplished
with a "well-graded" aggregate mixture
that starts with the largest aggregate size
possible—ideally 1 ½ inches, although it
should be less than 1/3 of the slab
thickness and few stamping contractors
will want to stamp a mix with aggregate
that large. "I specify ¾ inch,"
CONTENT READY MIX CONCRETE SITE MIX CONCRETE
REFRESHER BC1: Consistent quality – high Inconsistent quality – hand
• Concrete as Building Material tech computerized mixed
• Concrete Components manufacturing in batching
• Concrete Mixture
plants
Time saver Time consuming
Raw materials are strictly Raw materials are
checked before manually checked on site,
manufacturing or not checked at all
Large quantities can be Large quantities requires
ordered at the same time repeated mixing as the
– increase efficiency mixer is small
No wastage of raw High wastage of raw
materials material
Reduce labour cost for High labour cost to mix
mixing concrete concrete
Ease in stock control Difficult to manage stock
CONCRETE QUALITY
CONTENT TESTED FOR TO PREVENT FROM

REFRESHER BC1: Consistency Workability Segregation Bleeding


• Concrete as Building Material Wetness of the Concrete Separation of the appearance of
• Concrete Components
• Concrete Mixture concrete compaction without coarse and fine water along with
bleeding or aggregate, and cement particles on
PERFORMANCE OF CONCRETE segregation cement paste - the surface of the
• Concrete Quality
• Concrete Admixtures
Weaker, less freshly laid
durable and poor concrete.
CONCRETE AS STRUCTURE surface finish
• Reinforced Concrete
• In-situ Concrete too wet-segregation Factors: To avoid: To avoid:
• Precast Concrete with resulting -Increase -Mix concrete properly -Don’t add too much
• Pre-stressed Concrete honeycomb, excessive water/cement ratio -Place concrete water
bleeding -Cement properties a.s.a.p. -Use finely ground
DESIGNING WITH CONCRETE too dry- difficult to -Aggregate grading -Load carefully when cement
• Foundation place/compact, -Humidity of transporting -Use more cement
• Columns
segregation due to environment -Always pour fresh -Use air-entraining
• Slabs
• Walls lack of cohesiveness of -Temperature of concrete onto the admixture
the paste. concrete mix surface of concrete
already in place
SLUMP TEST COMPACTING
FACTOR TEST
CONCRETE QUALITY
CONTENT
SEGREGATION BLEEDING
REFRESHER BC1:
• Concrete as Building Material
• Concrete Components
• Concrete Mixture

PERFORMANCE OF CONCRETE
• Concrete Quality
• Concrete Admixtures

CONCRETE AS STRUCTURE
• Reinforced Concrete
• In-situ Concrete
• Precast Concrete
• Pre-stressed Concrete

DESIGNING WITH CONCRETE


• Foundation
• Columns
• Slabs
• Walls
CONTENT CONCRETE QUALITY – SLUMP TEST
REFRESHER BC1:
• Concrete as Building Material
• Concrete Components
• Concrete Mixture

PERFORMANCE OF CONCRETE
• Concrete Quality
• Concrete Admixtures

CONCRETE AS STRUCTURE
• Reinforced Concrete
• In-situ Concrete
• Precast Concrete
• Pre-stressed Concrete

DESIGNING WITH CONCRETE


• Foundation
• Columns
• Slabs
• Walls
CONTENT CONCRETE QUALITY TESTS – SLUMP TEST
REFRESHER BC1: A slump test is a method used to determine the consistency of concrete. The
• Concrete as Building Material
• Concrete Components
consistency, or stiffness, indicates how much water has been used in the mix. The
• Concrete Mixture stiffness of the concrete mix should be matched to the requirements for the
finished product quality
PERFORMANCE OF CONCRETE
• Concrete Quality
• Concrete Admixtures Apparatus
• Slump cone : frustum of a cone, 300 mm (12 in) of height. The base is 200 mm
CONCRETE AS STRUCTURE (8in) in diameter and it has a smaller opening at the top of 100 mm
• Reinforced Concrete
• In-situ Concrete
• Scale for measurement,
• Precast Concrete • Temping rod(steel) 15mm diameter, 60cm length.
• Pre-stressed Concrete

DESIGNING WITH CONCRETE


• Foundation
• Columns
• Slabs
• Walls
PROCEDURES:
CONTENT 1. The base is placed on a smooth surface and the container is filled with concrete
REFRESHER BC1: in three layers
• Concrete as Building Material 2. Each layer is temped 25 times with a standard 16 mm (5/8 in) diameter steel
• Concrete Components rod, rounded at the end.
• Concrete Mixture
3. When the mold is completely filled with concrete, the top surface is struck off
PERFORMANCE OF CONCRETE (leveled with mold top opening) by means of screening and rolling motion of
• Concrete Quality the temping rod.
• Concrete Admixtures
4. The mold must be firmly held against its base during the entire operation so
CONCRETE AS STRUCTURE that it could not move due to the pouring of concrete and this can be done by
• Reinforced Concrete means of handles or foot – rests brazed to the mold.
• In-situ Concrete 5. Immediately after filling is completed and the concrete is leveled, the cone is
• Precast Concrete
• Pre-stressed Concrete slowly and carefully lifted vertically, an unsupported concrete will now slump.
6. The decrease in the height of the center of the slumped concrete is called
DESIGNING WITH CONCRETE slump.
• Foundation
• Columns
7. The slump is measured by placing the cone just besides the slump concrete and
• Slabs the temping rod is placed over the cone so that it should also come over the
• Walls area of slumped concrete.
8. The decrease in height of concrete to that of mould is noted with scale. (usually
measured to the nearest 5 mm (1/4 in).
CONTENT
REFRESHER BC1:
• Concrete as Building Material
• Concrete Components
• Concrete Mixture

PERFORMANCE OF CONCRETE
• Concrete Quality
• Concrete Admixtures

CONCRETE AS STRUCTURE
• Reinforced Concrete
• In-situ Concrete
Concrete Concrete is High
• Precast Concrete mixture is lack in workability
• Pre-stressed Concrete too wet cohesion concrete
DESIGNING WITH CONCRETE
• Foundation
• Columns
• Slabs
Other test: Compacting Factor Test. Click HERE to know more.
• Walls
CONTENT CONCRETE QUALITY TESTS – COMPACTING FACTOR TEST

REFRESHER BC1:
• Concrete as Building Material
• Concrete Components
• Concrete Mixture

PERFORMANCE OF CONCRETE
• Concrete Quality
• Concrete Admixtures

CONCRETE AS STRUCTURE
• Reinforced Concrete
• In-situ Concrete
• Precast Concrete
• Pre-stressed Concrete

DESIGNING WITH CONCRETE


• Foundation
• Columns
• Slabs
• Walls
CONTENT CONCRETE QUALITY TESTS – COMPACTING FACTOR TEST

REFRESHER BC1: Apparatus


• Concrete as Building Material • Trowels
• Concrete Components • Hand Scoop (15.2 cm long)
• Concrete Mixture
• Rod of steel or other suitable material
PERFORMANCE OF CONCRETE (1.6 cm diameter, 61 cm long rounded at one end ).
• Concrete Quality • Balance
• Concrete Admixtures

CONCRETE AS STRUCTURE
• Reinforced Concrete
• In-situ Concrete
Workability Slump (mm) C.F Uses
• Precast Concrete
• Pre-stressed Concrete Very Low 0 - 25 0.78 Roads - Pavements
Foundations
DESIGNING WITH CONCRETE Low 25 - 50 0.85
• Foundation Concrete
• Columns Reinforced
• Slabs Medium 25 - 100 0.92
• Walls
Concrete
Reinforced
High 100 - 175 0.95 Concrete (High
Reinforcement)
CONTENT CONCRETE QUALITY TESTS – COMPACTING FACTOR TEST
Procedures
REFRESHER BC1: 7. Wipe clean the outside of cylinder of concrete and weigh to nearest
• Concrete as Building Material
• Concrete Components 10gm .
• Concrete Mixture 8. Subtract the weight of empty cylinder from the weight of cylinder plus
concrete to obtain the weight of partially compacted concrete .
PERFORMANCE OF CONCRETE
• Concrete Quality
9. Remove the concrete from the cylinder and refill with sampled
• Concrete Admixtures concrete in layers .
10. Compact each layer thoroughly with the standard Compacting Bar to
CONCRETE AS STRUCTURE achieve full compaction .
• Reinforced Concrete
• In-situ Concrete 11. Float off the surplus concrete to top of cylinder and wipe it clean .
• Precast Concrete 12. Weigh the cylinder to nearest 10gm and subtract the weight of empty
• Pre-stressed Concrete cylinder from the weight of cylinder plus concrete to obtain the weight
DESIGNING WITH CONCRETE
of fully compacted concrete .
• Foundation
• Columns
• Slabs
• Walls
CONTENT CONCRETE QUALITY TESTS – COMPACTING FACTOR TEST
Procedures
REFRESHER BC1: 1. Ensure the apparatus and associated equipment are clean before test
• Concrete as Building Material
• Concrete Components and free from hardened concrete and superfluous water .
• Concrete Mixture 2. Weigh the bottom cylinder to nearest 10gm , put it back on the stand
and cover it up with a pair of floats .
PERFORMANCE OF CONCRETE
• Concrete Quality
3. Gently fill the upper hopper with the sampled concrete to the level of
• Concrete Admixtures the rim with use of a scoop .
4. Immediately open the trap door of the upper hopper and allow the
CONCRETE AS STRUCTURE sampled concrete to fall into the middle hopper .
• Reinforced Concrete
• In-situ Concrete 5. Remove the floats on top of the bottom cylinder and open the trap
• Precast Concrete door of the middle hopper allowing the sampled concrete to fall into
• Pre-stressed Concrete the bottom cylinder .
DESIGNING WITH CONCRETE
6. Remove the surplus concrete above the top of the bottom cylinder by
• Foundation holding a float in each hand and move towards each other to cut off
• Columns the concrete across the top of cylinder
• Slabs
• Walls
ADMIXTURES
CONTENT  Admixtures are additions to a concrete mix that can help control the set
time and other aspects of fresh concrete
REFRESHER BC1:
• Concrete as Building Material  They can improve the performance of problem concrete by modifying its
• Concrete Components characteristics and enhancing workability.
• Concrete Mixture  Five Classes of Chemical Admixtures:
 Air-Entraining Admixture
PERFORMANCE OF CONCRETE
• Concrete Quality Tests
 Water-Reducing Admixture
• Concrete Admixtures  Retarding Admixture
 Accelerating Admixture
CONCRETE AS STRUCTURE  Superplasticizer Admixture
• Reinforced Concrete
• In-situ Concrete  Special Admixture
• Precast Concrete  Corrosion-inhibiting Admixture – slow down corrosion of RC in
• Pre-stressed Concrete concrete (marine facilities, highway bridges, and parking garages,
that will be exposed to high concentrations of chloride)
DESIGNING WITH CONCRETE  Shrinkage-reducing admixtures - control drying shrinkage and
• Foundation minimize cracking
• Columns
 Alkali-silica reactivity inhibitors - control durability problems
• Slabs associated with alkali-silica reactivity
• Walls
Admixture Function
CONTENT
Air-entraining air pockets relieve internal pressure on the concrete by
REFRESHER BC1:
• Concrete as Building Material
providing tiny chambers for water to expand into when it
• Concrete Components freezes
• Concrete Mixture
Water-reducing reduce the required water content for a concrete mixture by
PERFORMANCE OF CONCRETE about 5 to 10 percent
• Concrete Quality Retarding slow the setting rate of concrete, are used to counteract the
• Concrete Admixtures
accelerating effect of hot weather on concrete setting
CONCRETE AS STRUCTURE Accelerating increase the rate of early strength development, reduce the
• Reinforced Concrete
• In-situ Concrete
time required for proper curing and protection, and speed up
• Precast Concrete the start of finishing operations.
• Pre-stressed Concrete Superplasticizer reduce water content by 12 to 30 percent and can be added to
DESIGNING WITH CONCRETE concrete with a low-to-normal slump and water-cement ratio
• Foundation to make high-slump flowing concrete
• Columns
• Slabs
• Walls
CONTENT CONCRETE AS STRUCTURE – In-situ Concrete (On-site)
A concrete structure is classified as in-situ when it is casted on site. This requires
REFRESHER BC1: formwork to be build in place as a mould to hold the concrete pour. Concrete curing
• Concrete as Building Material
• Concrete Components time should also be considered when using in-situ concrete.
• Concrete Mixture

PERFORMANCE OF CONCRETE
• Concrete Quality Tests
• Concrete Admixtures

CONCRETE AS STRUCTURE
• In-situ or Precast
• Reinforced or Pre-stressed
DESIGNING WITH CONCRETE
• Foundation
• Columns
• Slabs
• Walls
CONTENT CONCRETE AS STRUCTURE – Precast Concrete / Prefabricated Concrete
Concrete cast into structural members under factory conditions and then brought to
REFRESHER BC1: the building site. Precast concrete components include slabs, beams, columns, walls,
• Concrete as Building Material
• Concrete Components stairways, modular boxes, and even kitchens and bathrooms with precast fixtures.
• Concrete Mixture

PERFORMANCE OF CONCRETE
• Concrete Quality Tests
• Concrete Admixtures

CONCRETE AS STRUCTURE
• In-situ or Precast
• Reinforced or Pre-stressed
DESIGNING WITH CONCRETE
• Foundation
• Columns
• Slabs
• Walls
CONTENT CONCRETE AS STRUCTURE

REFRESHER BC1: IN-SITU CONCRETE PRECAST / PREFAB CONCRETE


• Concrete as Building Material
• Concrete Components Build on site and requires experienced Manufactured in controlled factory
• Concrete Mixture skilled labour environment (computerized)
PERFORMANCE OF CONCRETE
Quality control is harder Quality control is easier
• Concrete Quality Tests Requires more labour Less labour required
• Concrete Admixtures Requires waiting time for concrete No waiting time. Can be installed upon
CONCRETE AS STRUCTURE curing arrival from factory
• In-situ or Precast Requires on-site concrete quality test Does not require any concrete test
• Reinforced or Pre-stressed
Time-consuming construction Speedy construction
DESIGNING WITH CONCRETE
• Foundation More resistant to earthquake and wind Less resistant to earthquake and wind
• Columns Less complicated jointing More complicated jointing systems
• Slabs
• Walls
CONTENT CONCRETE AS STRUCTURE – Reinforced Concrete
Reinforced concrete is a combination of concrete and steel wherein the steel
REFRESHER BC1: reinforcement provides the tensile strength lacking in the concrete. Steel reinforcing
• Concrete as Building Material
• Concrete Components is also capable of resisting compression forces and is used in columns as well as in
• Concrete Mixture other situations
PERFORMANCE OF CONCRETE
• Concrete Quality Tests
• Concrete Admixtures

CONCRETE AS STRUCTURE
• In-situ or Precast
• Reinforced or Pre-stressed
DESIGNING WITH CONCRETE
• Foundation
• Columns
• Slabs
• Walls
CONTENT CONCRETE AS STRUCTURE – Pre-stressed Concrete
Concrete reinforced by either by pre-tensioning or posttensioning, allowing it to
REFRESHER BC1: carry a greater load or span a greater distance than ordinary reinforced concrete.
• Concrete as Building Material
• Concrete Components
• Concrete Mixture

PERFORMANCE OF CONCRETE
• Concrete Quality Tests
• Concrete Admixtures

CONCRETE AS STRUCTURE
• In-situ or Precast
• Reinforced or Pre-stressed
DESIGNING WITH CONCRETE
• Foundation
• Columns
• Slabs
• Walls
CONTENT CONCRETE AS STRUCTURE

REFRESHER BC1: REINFORCED CONCRETE PRESTRESSED CONCRETE


• Concrete as Building Material
• Concrete Components Can be in-situ or precast Can be in-situ or precast
• Concrete Mixture Susceptible to corrosion when exposed Not subjected to corrosion
PERFORMANCE OF CONCRETE
Does not require specialized machine Requires specialised machine for in-situ
• Concrete Quality Tests to create tension to concrete upon
• Concrete Admixtures curing
CONCRETE AS STRUCTURE Economical Less economical due to heavy
• In-situ or Precast machineries
• Reinforced or Pre-stressed
Less skilled labour Requires highly skilled labour
DESIGNING WITH CONCRETE
• Foundation Often resulted in thick structures to Can achieve required strength with
• Columns achieve strength minimal depth
• Slabs
• Walls
Suitable for medium-span structure Suitable for longer span structure
CONTENT DESIGNING WITH CONCRETE - Foundation

REFRESHER BC1:
• Concrete as Building Material
• Concrete Components
• Concrete Mixture

PERFORMANCE OF CONCRETE
• Concrete Quality Tests
• Concrete Admixtures

CONCRETE AS STRUCTURE
• Reinforced Concrete
• Precast Concrete
• Pre-stressed Concrete

DESIGNING WITH CONCRETE


• Foundation
• Columns
• Beams
• Slabs
• Walls
CONTENT DESIGNING WITH CONCRETE - Columns

REFRESHER BC1:
• Concrete as Building Material
• Concrete Components
• Concrete Mixture

PERFORMANCE OF CONCRETE
• Concrete Quality Tests
• Concrete Admixtures

CONCRETE AS STRUCTURE
• Reinforced Concrete
• Precast Concrete
• Pre-stressed Concrete

DESIGNING WITH CONCRETE


• Foundation
• Columns
• Beams
• Slabs
• Walls
CONTENT DESIGNING WITH CONCRETE - Beams

REFRESHER BC1:
• Concrete as Building Material
• Concrete Components
• Concrete Mixture

PERFORMANCE OF CONCRETE
• Concrete Quality Tests
• Concrete Admixtures

CONCRETE AS STRUCTURE
• Reinforced Concrete
• Precast Concrete
• Pre-stressed Concrete

DESIGNING WITH CONCRETE


• Foundation
• Columns
• Beams
• Slabs
• Walls
CONTENT DESIGNING WITH CONCRETE - Slabs

REFRESHER BC1:
• Concrete as Building Material
• Concrete Components
• Concrete Mixture

PERFORMANCE OF CONCRETE
• Concrete Quality Tests
• Concrete Admixtures

CONCRETE AS STRUCTURE
• Reinforced Concrete
• Precast Concrete
• Pre-stressed Concrete

DESIGNING WITH CONCRETE


• Foundation
• Columns
• Beams
• Slabs
• Walls
CONTENT DESIGNING WITH CONCRETE - Wall

REFRESHER BC1:
• Concrete as Building Material
• Concrete Components
• Concrete Mixture

PERFORMANCE OF CONCRETE
• Concrete Quality Tests
• Concrete Admixtures

CONCRETE AS STRUCTURE
• Reinforced Concrete
• Precast Concrete
• Pre-stressed Concrete

DESIGNING WITH CONCRETE


• Foundation
• Columns
• Beams
• Slabs
• Walls