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BAHAN KAJIAN

MK. Manajemen Agroekosistem

PENGELOLAAN
KESUBURAN
TANAH
Oleh:
Prof.Dr.Ir.Soemarno,M.S.
Jurs tanah FP-UB, Maret 2012
PENGERTIAN KESUBURAN TANAH

Tanah yang subur lebih disukai untuk usaha


pertanian, karena menguntungkan. Sebaliknya
terhadap tanah yang kurang subur dilakukan usaha
untuk menyuburkan tanah tersebut sehingga
keuntungan yang diperoleh meningkat.
Kesuburan Tanah adalah kemampuan suatu tanah
untuk menghasilkan produk tanaman yang
diinginkan, pada lingkungan tempat tanah itu
berada. Produk tanaman tersebut dapat berupa:
buah, biji, daun, bunga, umbi, getah, eksudat, akar,
trubus, batang, biomassa, naungan atau
penampilan.
Tanah memiliki kesuburan yang berbeda-beda
tergantung faktor pembentuk tanah yang
DOMINAN di suatu lokasi, yaitu: Bahan induk,
Iklim, Relief, Organisme, atau Waktu.
Tanah merupakan fokus utama dalam pembahasan
kesuburan tanah, sedangkan tanaman merupakan
indikator utama mutu kesuburan tanah.

Sumber: http://nasih.wordpress.com/category/pengelolaan-
kesuburan-tanah/
PENTINGNYA MENGELOLA
KESUBURAN TANAH
Jumlah penduduk Indonesia terus meningkat, sehingga
kebutuhan pangan terus bertambah. Sebaliknya luas lahan
produktif relatif tetap atau bahkan menyusut. Lahan-lahan
yang bagus di Jawa dialihfungsikan menjadi pemukiman
atau kawasan industri.

Peningkatan produksi dapat dilakukan melalui intensifikasi


untuk meningkatkan produktivitas atau ekstensifikasi untuk
mendapatkan lahan baru. Kunci utama dari kedua hal
tersebut adalah bagaimana memelihara atau meningkatkan
status kesuburan tanahnya.

Konsep pembangunan berkelanjutan terus digalakkan agar


kegiatan pertanian senantiasa menguntungkan, aman, lestari
dan ramah lingkungan. Perlu penyusunan rekomendasi
pemupukan terpadu yang bersifat spesifik lokasi
disesuaikan dengan komoditas yang diusahakan dan lahan
tempat usahanya. Hal ini bertujuan untuk meningkatkan
efisiensi pemupukan dan mengurangi dampak pencemaran
terhadap lingkungan.

Sumber: http://nasih.wordpress.com/category/pengelolaan-
INTEGRATED SOIL FERTILITY
MANAGEMENT

Integrated soil fertility management (ISFM)


aims at the optimal and sustainable use of soil
nutrient reserves, mineral fertilizers and organic
amendments. We explain in this reference how to
calculate mineral and organic fertilizer needs to
obtain target yields as a function of the soil
nutrient.supplying capacity (mainly nitrogen, N;
phosphorus, P; potassium, K) and taking into
account yield potential (determined by cultivar
choice, sowing date and climate). Analysis of soil
fertility using laboratory procedures is seldom
possible in farmers' fields, and the relation between
such analyses and rice growth is often poor,
especially for nitrogen. This reference offers
another method to determine the soil nutrient-
supplying capacity. The rice yield from a mini-plot,
with good soil.fertility management but without
application of one nutrient (for instance, without N,
P or K) is considered as an indicator of the capacity
of the soil to supply that Imissing nutrient.
INTEGRATED SOIL FERTILITY
MANAGEMENT

To increase yield by 1 t / ha, nutrient uptake at


maturity needs to increase by 15 kg N / ha, 6 kg
P2O5/ha and 18 kg K2O / ha. A well.balanced
fertilization thus requires an application of 50 kg N
/ ha, 30 kg P2O5/ha and 60 kg K2O / ha to increase
yield by 1 t / ha, based on a recovery rate of applied
fertilizer of 30% for N and K and of 20% for P. The
recovery rate is the percentage of fertilizer
effectively absorbed by the plant as compared to
the quantity applied. These relations are
approximate and only valid for yields not
exceeding 70 to 80% of the potential yield. For
higher yield targets, more nutrients have to be
applied to get the same return, and this is not
usually cost.effective. Nitrogen losses are
irreversible, thus it is very important to increase the
recovery rate of this nutrient. The recovery rate of
nitrogen is strongly related to crop management.
INTEGRATED SOIL FERTILITY
MANAGEMENT

This reference provides instructions to help


increase this recovery rate. For P and K, losses are
much less (P and K are absorbed by the soil), and
the residual effect of the fertilizer applied is often
visible several years after application. Organic
fertilizer can, to a certain extent, replace mineral
fertilizers, but large quantities need to be applied as
organic fertilizers have a low nutrient content.
However, using both mineral fertilizers and organic
amendments often has synergistic effects,
increasing the soil's nutrient.supplying capacity in
the long term and in some cases increasing the
recovery rate of mineral fertilizer nutrients.
SITE SPECIFIC INTEGRATED SOIL
FERTILITY MANAGEMENT

Integrated soil-fertility management aims at the


optimal and sustainable use of nutrient stocks from
the soil, mineral fertilizers and organic
amendments. A procedure is given below for
calculating fertilizer needs to reach target yields as
a function of the soil nutrientYsupplying capacity
and potential yield.

Three steps are necessary:


Fix a target yield.
Estimate the capacity of the soil to supply
N, P and K.
Calculate fertilizer requirements.
PEMUPUKAN VS. KESUBURAN
TANAH
Beberapa alasan kenapa harus memupuk:
1. Aplikasi pupuk terhadap hara yang diketahui menjadi
faktor pembatas, akan meningkatkan hasil.
2. Pengusahaan tanaman dengan hasil tinggi (high
yielding), membutuhkan tanah yang subur secara
berkesinambungan.
3. Hara yang diserap oleh tanaman harus digantikan.
4. Penggunaan pupuk yang tepat akan meningkatkan
keuntungan ekonomi.

Hubungan antara kesuburan tanah dengan keadaan


lingkungan dapat digambarkan sebagai berikut. Hara dapat
bergerak menuju badan air permukaan atau air dalam tanah.
Hal ini disebabkan bentang lahan saling berhubungan,
lahan pertanian tidak terpisah dari lingkungan di sekitarnya.

Pengelolaan hara yang buruk, misalnya pemupukan yang


berlebihan, pengelolaan rabuk yang sembarangan, akan
menimbulkan beaya lingkungan.
KOMPONEN KESUBURAN TANAH

Komponen penyusun mutu kesuburan suatu tanah


adalah:
1. Jeluk mempan perakaran : solum, erosi, konservasi,
daerah jelajah akar.
2. Struktur tanah: imbangan air-udara, kemudahan
ditembus akar.
3. Reaksi tanah: kelarutan unsur, dominansi mikrobia.
4. Hara cukup dan seimbang : macam, jumlah dan
nisbah.
5. Penyimpanan hara dan lengas: KPK, buffering
capacity, retensi lengas.
6. Humus: C-organik tanah, khelasi, energi untuk
mikrobia.
7. Mikrobia bermanfaat: sinergisme, daur hara dan
materi.
8. Bebas bahan meracun: toksin, limbah.
THE FLOW OF NITROGEN IN A SOIL-PLANT SYSTEM
Soil Nitrogen Fertility = f (mineralizable nitrogen, other chemical properties,
physical properties, agro-climatic factors,...)

http://www.agnet.org/library.php?func=view&style=&type_id=4&id=201107
22063019&print=1 ….. Diunduh 23/2/2012
LIMA
Pengendalian GULMA
FAKTOR An integrated weed management approach to land management
combines the use of complementary weed control methods such as:
PENGELOL grazing
AAN herbicide application
land fallowing
TANAH biological control.
The resulting combinations provide the best possible solutions to weed
problems for land managers.

PERGILIRAN TANAMAN
Crop rotation is the practice of growing a series of dissimilar types of crops in the same area in
sequential seasons.
Crop rotation confers various benefits to the soil. A traditional element of crop rotation is the
replenishment of nitrogen through the use of green manure in sequence with cereals and other
crops. Crop rotation also mitigates the build-up of pathogens and pests that often occurs when one
species is continuously cropped, and can also improve soil structure and fertility by alternating
deep-rooted and shallow-rooted plants.

PENGENDALIAN HAMA & PENYAKIT


Integrated Pest Management (IPM) is an effective and environmentally sensitive approach to pest
management that relies on a combination of common-sense practices. IPM programs use current,
comprehensive information on the life cycles of pests and their interaction with the environment.
This information, in combination with available pest control methods, is used to manage pest
damage by the most economical means, and with the least possible hazard to people, property,
and the environment.

PENYEDIAAN UNSUR HARA (PEMUPUKAN)


Nutrient management is managing crop fertility inputs and other production practices
for efficient crop growth and water quality protection. Nutrient management plans
for site-specific situations minimize undesired environmental effects while
optimizing farm profits and production.

Penyediaan AIR YANG CUKUP


Better management of soil moisture, i.e. green water management, is essential in
achieving higher yields from rainfed agriculture. Soil moisture is often the most unreliable and
scarce resource, so the challenge is to enhance the availability and productivity of water for biomass
production.
There are several ways to enhance soil moisture availability:
• conservation tillage;
• mulching and compost use;
• in-field water conservation; 11
• improving overall soil moisture by avoiding deep drainage.
Relationship between Soil Management and Various Aspects of Soil
Fertility
Source: Takai and Miyoshi 1977

.
http://www.agnet.org/library.php?func=view&style=&type_id=4&id=201107
PUPUK DAN PEMUPUKAN

Dalam arti luas yang dimaksud pupuk ialah suatu bahan


yang digunakan untuk mengubah sifat fisik, kimia atau
biologi tanah sehingga menjadi lebih baik bagi
pertumbuhan tanaman. Termasuk dalam pengertian ini
adalah pemberian bahan kapur dengan maksud untuk
meningkatkan pH tanah yang masam, pemberian legin
bersama benih tanaman kacang-kacangan serta pemberian
pembenah tanah (soil conditioner) untuk memperbaiki sifat
fisik tanah. Demikian pula pemberian urea dalam tanah
yang miskin akan meningkatkan kadar N dalam tanah
tersebut. Semua usaha tersebut dinamakan pemupukan.
Dengan demikian bahan kapur, legin, pembenah tanah dan
urea disebut pupuk.

Dalam pengertian yang khusus pupuk ialah suatu bahan


yang mengandung satu atau lebih hara tanaman. Dengan
pengertian ini, dari kegiatan yang disebutkan di atas hanya
urea yang dianggap pupuk karena bahan tersebut yang
mengandung hara tanaman yaitu nitrogen.

Sumber: http://nasih.wordpress.com/category/pengelolaan-
Bahan pupuk selain mengandung hara tanaman umumnya
mengandung bahan lain, yaitu:
1. Zat pembawa atau karier (carrier). Double
superfosfat (DS): zat pembawanya adalah CaSO4 dan
hara tanamannya fosfor (P).
2. Senyawa-senyawa lain berupa kotoran (impurities)
atau campuran bahan lain dalam jumlah relatif
sedikit. Misalnya ZA (zwavelzuure amoniak) sering
mengandung kotoran sekitar 3% berupa khlor, asam
bebas (H2SO4) dan sebagainya.
3. Bahan mantel (coated) ialah bahan yang melapisi
pupuk dengan maksud agar pupuk mempunyai nilai
lebih baik misalnya kelarutannya berkurang, nilai
higroskopisnya menjadi lebih rendah dan mungkin
agar lebih menarik. Bahan yang digunakan untuk
selaput berupa aspal, lilin, malam, wax dan
sebagainya. Pupuk yang bermantel harganya lebih
mahal dibandingkan tanpa mantel.
4. Filler (pengisi). Pupuk majemuk atau pupuk campur
yang kadarnya tinggi sering diberi filler agar ratio
fertilizer nya dapat tepat sesuai dengan yang
diinginkan, juga dengan maksud agar mudah disebar
lebih merata.

Sumber: http://nasih.wordpress.com/category/pengelolaan-
PEMUPUKAN

Pemberian bahan yang dimaksudkan untuk memperbaiki suasana


tanah, baik fisik, kimia atau biologis disebut pembenahan tanah
(amandement) yang berarti perbaikan (reparation) atau
penggantian (restitution).

Bahan-bahan tersebut termasuk mulsa (pengawet lengas tanah,


penyangga temperatur), pembenah tanah (soil conditioner, untuk
memperbaiki struktur tanah), kapur pertanian (untuk menaikkan
pH tanah yang terlalu rendah, atau untuk mengatasi keracunan Al
dan Fe), tepung belerang (untuk menurunkan pH tanah yang
semula tinggi) dan gipsum (untuk menurunkan kegaraman tanah).

Rabuk kandang dan hijauan legum diberikan ke dalam tanah


dengan maksud sebagai pupuk maupun pembenah tanah.

Is there a choice to practice a particular method of


application?
The method of application has to be chosen to suit the particular
nutrient, the crop, as well as method of cultivation.
Nitrogen is generally applied as broadcast to irrigated crops.
Phosphorus needs to be placed near the plant rows. Potassium is
also applied as broadcast.
As all the 3 nutrients are applied using a complex fertilizer at the
time of sowing or planting, it is a good practice to apply the
fertilizer as placement.
Micronutrients are mostly applied as foliar sprays.

Sumber: http://nasih.wordpress.com/category/pengelolaan-
kesuburan-tanah/
PEMUPUKAN

Pemupukan merupakan salah satu usaha pengelolaan


kesuburan tanah. Dengan mengandalkan sediaan hara dari
tanah asli saja, tanpa penambahan hara, produk pertanian
akan semakin merosot. Hal ini disebabkan ketimpangan
antara pasokan hara dan kebutuhan tanaman. Hara dalam
tanah secara berangsur-angsur akan berkurang karena
terangkut bersama hasil panen, pelindian, air limpasan
permukaan, erosi atau penguapan. Pengelolaan hara terpadu
antara pemberian pupuk dan pembenah akan meningkatkan
efektivitas penyediaan hara, serta menjaga mutu tanah agar
tetap berfungsi secara lestari.

When is broadcasting of fertilizers practiced?


On all crops with a dense stand and not sown in rows.
In the case of plants whose roots spread widely in the soil.
On very fertile soils
When high rate of fertilizers are used
When readily soluble nitrogenous fertilizers are applied
When potassic fertilizers are applied in light soils.

http://vasat.icrisat.org/crops/MN/OrganicFAQs/appli_fertili
zer.htm
Pemupukan

Tujuan utama pemupukan adalah menjamin ketersediaan


hara secara optimum untuk mendukung pertumbuhan
tanaman sehingga diperoleh peningkatan hasil panen.
Penggunaan pupuk yang efisien pada dasarnya adalah
memberikan pupuk bentuk dan jumlah yang sesuai dengan
kebutuhan tanaman, dengan cara yang tepat dan pada saat
yang tepat sesuai dengan kebutuhan dan tingkat
pertumbuhan tanaman tersebut. Tanaman dapat
menggunakan pupuk hanya pada perakaran aktif, tetapi
sukar menyerap hara dari lapisan tanah yang kering atau
mampat. Efisiensi pemupukan dapat ditaksir berdasarkan
kenaikan bobot kering atau serapan hara terhadap satuan
hara yang ditambahkan dalam pupuk tersebut.

What are the different methods of placing the fertilizers?


Banding i.e. placing fertilizers in bands to one or both sides of the rows. This is
also called as side dressing.
Drilling in between rows.
Spot placement i.e. by placing in between the plants. This is mostly practiced for
vegetable crops.
By placing in a circular band away from the base of the plants as in the case of
fruit trees.
No single method can be considered best for all the crops. The method of
placement varies with the crop, fertilizer, and weather.

http://vasat.icrisat.org/crops/MN/OrganicFAQs/appli_fertilizer.htm

Sumber: http://nasih.wordpress.com/category/pengelolaan-kesuburan-
tanah/
FAKTOR PEMUPUYKAN

Faktor yang berpengaruh terhadap pemupukan:


1. Tanah: kondisi fisik (kelerengan, jeluk mempan perakaran,
retensi lengas dan aerasi), kondisi kimiawi (retensi hara
tersedia, reaksi tanah, bahan organik tanah, sematan hara,
status dan imbangan hara), kondisi biologis (pathogen,
gulma).
2. Tanaman: jenis, umur dan hasil panen yang diharapkan.
3. Pupuk: sifat, mutu, ketersediaan dan harga.
4. Iklim: temperatur, curah hujan, panjang penyinaran dan
angin.

METODE APLIKASI PUPUK.

1. Broadcasting: Uniform distribution over the


whole cropped field.
2. Placement: Application in bands or in pockets
near the plants or plant rows.
3. Foliar application: Using low or high volume
sprayers, the fertilizers are sprayed covering the
plants.

Sumber: http://nasih.wordpress.com/category/pengelolaan-
kesuburan-tanah/
Nutrient budgeting — Nutrient budgeting can be used to develop
improved ways of using available nutrients.

Crop nutrient budget methodology (Jackson et al. 1988), focusing on N


losses (N is the nutrient most limiting to growth, and most vulnerable
to losses from smallholder farms in southern and eastern Africa), is
being developed to test this theory.

19

http://apps.cimmyt.org/research/nrg/sfmr/htm/SFMRlinking.htm
diunduh 23/2/2012
POKOK- 1. Suplai nitrogen dari:
POKOK Sisa Tanaman Tanaman biasa
PENGELOLA Pupuk kandang Tanaman legume
Hujan & irigasi Pupuk hijau
AN Pupuk nitrogen Kompos
KESUBURAN
TANAH. 3. Penambahan kapur bila diperlukan
Batu kapur kalsit atau
dolomit yg biasa dilakukan
2. Penambahan bahan organik
melalui:
Sisa tanaman legume dan
non legume
Pupuk kandang
Pupuk hijau

5. Penambahan kalium
4. Penambahan fosfat:
tersedia:
Pupuk
superfosfat, atau
Pupuk kandang
Pupuk lainnya Sisa tanaman
Pupuk Kalium
6. Kekurangan belerang
diatasi dg:
Belerang, gipsum, 7. Penambahan unsur
superfosfat, Amonium mikro: Sebagai garam
sulfat, Senyawa terpisah atau campuran
belerangdalam air hujan
PEMUPUKAN NITROGEN

Nitrogen Fertilizer Recommendations for Corn


in Iowa
Nitrogen fertilization is essential for profitable corn production. It
also is a major cost of production and can contribute to degradation
of the environment. The economic and environmental costs of N
fertilization are more important than in the past, and they are likely
to become even more important in the future. These costs provide
compelling reasons for intensifying efforts to improve N
management practices.

Soil Test-based N Recommendations

Examples:
A soil test of 15 ppm and a critical concentration of 25
ppm results in a recommendation of 80 lb. of N per acre
to be applied.
(25 ppm - 15 ppm) x 8 = 80 lb. N/acre needed

A soil test of 35 ppm and a critical concentration of 25


ppm indicates that the soil already has approximately
80 lb. of N more than needed.
(25 ppm - 35 ppm) x 8 = -80 lb. N/acre needed.

Sumber: http://www.agron.iastate.edu/soiltesting/pm1714.pdf
NITROGEN FERTILIZATION IN CROP
PRODUCTION

PUPUK NITROGEN are most effectively used as part


of a balanced fertilization plan that aims to maximize
economic return and maintain
environmental quality. Nitrogen (N) is most often the
yieldlimiting nutrient with respect to crop production.

Nitrogen contributes primarily to grain yield and forage


biomass production, and at the same time to protein.
Once yield requirements for nitrogen have been met,
further nitrogen uptake contributes to protein level
increases. Optimum economic response to applied
nitrogen fertilizer requires that the nitrogen application
rate is balanced with moisture and the availability of
other plant nutrients.

Soil testing to determine availability of nitrogen along


with other nutrients and the assessment of stored soil
moisture is therefore critical to selecting the appropriate
rate of nitrogen fertilizer to match crop yield potential.

22

Sumber: http://www.agriculture.gov.sk.ca/Default.aspx?DN=eb5d4857-
9c2a-4cb9-a6e3-ba55e4c8f137
NITROGEN FERTILIZATION IN CROP
PRODUCTION
Changes in nitrogen uptake of cereals with
days after emergence in the fi eld experiment
For dryland annual at Melfort (Malhi et al., 2004).
crops grown on the
prairies, much of the
nitrogen uptake that
contributes to yield
occurs in the fi rst few
weeks following
germination, and is
complete after about
two months.
Maximum nutrient
uptake occurs earlier
than maximum
biomass production.
After maximum
biomass is achieved,
nitrogen uptake
contributes mainly to
protein content.

23

Sumber: http://www.agriculture.gov.sk.ca/Default.aspx?DN=eb5d4857-
9c2a-4cb9-a6e3-ba55e4c8f137
NITROGEN FERTILIZATION IN CROP
PRODUCTION
HASIL BIJI HASIL Protein

The response of grain yield Additional nitrogen usually results


to nitrogen fertilization in higher grain protein content.
depends greatly on moisture. Under conditions of extreme
Improved moisture nitrogen defi ciency, a small
conditions usually translate amount of added nitrogen may
to more yield, to a point result in no protein increase, or
where other limiting factors even a small decrease, due to
come into play. dilution from the large growth
Excess moisture can reduce enhancement associated with the
yield due to leaching losses added nitrogen.
of nitrate, as well as loss of Beyond this point, increased soil
nitrates by conversion nitrogen supplies are normally
(denitrifi cation) to gases that associated with increased protein
escape from the soil. content. Timing of moisture is
important and in particular the
High levels of available soil extent and duration of any moisture
nitrogen early on in the stress.
growing season can promote Moisture stress at flowering can
heavy vegetative growth and lower yield but increase protein
water use. content.

24

Sumber: http://www.agriculture.gov.sk.ca/Default.aspx?DN=eb5d4857-
9c2a-4cb9-a6e3-ba55e4c8f137
NITROGEN FERTILIZATION IN CROP
PRODUCTION

The fertilizer
industry is
moving to a 4R (
four “rights”)
nutrient
stewardship
program.

The 4Rs describe


the concept of
applying

The Right
fertilizer source,
at the Right rate,
Right time and
Right place.

Sumber: http://www.agriculture.gov.sk.ca/Default.aspx?DN=eb5d4857-
9c2a-4cb9-a6e3-ba55e4c8f137
NITROGEN EFFICIENCY AND
MANAGEMENT

The objective of N management is to maximize the efficiency of


plant use of the applied N. An increase in efficiency will increase
the agronomic value of the fertilizer by increasing crop
production, conserve energy by saving on the raw material used to
make the N, and minimize the potential for adverse effect on the
environment.

Nitrogen use efficiency is defined as the ratio of the crop nitrogen


uptake, to the total input of nitrogen fertilizer. It can also be
defined more broadly as the ratio, of crop nitrogen uptake, to
available soil N which would include applied fertilizer N plus
residual mineral N in the soil. The greater the ratio the better the
nitrogen use efficiency.

Producers and agronomists strive to optimize crop yields with


minimum nitrogen inputs. High nutrient use efficiencies reduce
the amount of nitrogen remaining following crop production.
Excess nutrients are subject to various fate and transport processes
that deliver the residual nitrogen to locations where it is not
needed and resource degradation can occur.

26

Sumber: ftp://ftp-
NITROGEN EFFICIENCY AND
MANAGEMENT
Erosion
Nitrogen attached to soil is moved to surface water by the processes
of detachment, transport, and deposition of soil particles. Soil
particles can be detached by raindrops or by surface flow. Eroded
sediments may travel only a few inches or long distances before they
are redeposited to the landscape or reach a surface water resource
(e.g., lakes, reservoirs, estuaries, or streams). Wind may also erode
and transport soil particles to surface water resources.
Ammonium (NH4+), a positively charged ion is attracted and bound
to negatively charged clay and organic surfaces in soil. Ammonium
typically moves with detached fine sediments (clay, silt, organic
matter).
When NH4 + laden sediments are combined with NO3− in surface
runoff, the resulting total N value can be greater than that measured
in the contributing soil(s).

Surface Runoff
Surface runoff is the loss of water from an area by flow over the land
surface. Runoff water can induce desorption and movement in
solution of nitrogen compounds as it passes across the soil surface.
The highest potential for nitrogen runoff comes from surface applied
fertilizers and manures, even if erosion is minimal. Under these
conditions, N losses in runoff can be high, but they can vary
depending on the amount of nitrogen applied and the soil surface
conditions.

27

Sumber: ftp://ftp-
fc.sc.egov.usda.gov/Economics/Technotes/TN_NM_6_a.pdf
NITROGEN EFFICIENCY AND
MANAGEMENT

N Management Practices that Improve Nitrogen Efficiency


The objective of N management is to maximize the efficiency of plants to
use the applied N. Improvements in nitrogen use efficiency are associated
with decreases in N loss through processes of fate and transport mentioned
above. While losses cannot be avoided completely, significant
improvements can be realized by applying management and conservation
practices to the cropping system. The following list of techniques and
practices provide some general guidance.

Conservation Tillage
• Conservation tillage reduces total N losses due to reduced sediment and
runoff.
• Conservation tillage optimizes soil moisture conditions that improve
water use efficiency.
• Runoff and leaching losses of nitrate are not consistently affected by
conservation tillage.

Other Conservation Practices


• Crop rotations favorably impact the fertility of the soil. Deep-rooted
crops capture nitrates lower in the soil profile.
• Cover crops capture residual nitrogen after crop harvest and recycle it as
plant biomass.
• Soil erosion and runoff control lessens the nutrient transport processes.
• Incorporation and/or injection lessen the volatilization of ammonium
nutrients.

Sumber: ftp://ftp-
NITROGEN EFFICIENCY AND
MANAGEMENT
Nitrogen Rates
• Maintain accurate yield records or use an alternate realistic method to
determine reasonable yield expectations.
• Follow your Land Grant University’s recommendation for nitrogen
application.
• Take credit for N applied as manure, irrigation water, atmospheric
deposition, and fixed by legumes in rotation.
• Use appropriate soil tests to determine residual soil, water and plant N.

Soil Testing for N


• Preplant soil tests provide information on the soil’s supply power.
• Late spring or pre-side-dress N tests can determine if and how much
additional N is needed.
• New soil test and sampling procedures, such as amino sugar tests, grid
mapping, and real-time sensors will define N requirements.
• Post-harvest soil tests determine if N management the previous season was
appropriate.

Application Precision of N
• New designs of manifolds on application equipment increases the
uniformity of anhydrous ammonia distribution.
• Row applicators, such as injectors, which form a compacted soil layer and
surface ridge, can reduce N losses.
• Variable rate applicators, combined with intensive soil or crop sampling,
allow more precise and responsive application rates.

Sumber: ftp://ftp-
NITROGEN EFFICIENCY AND
MANAGEMENT

Irrigation Management of N
• Schedule irrigation based on soil moisture estimates and daily crop
needs to improve irrigation efficiency and soil moisture use.
• Sprinkler irrigation systems apply water more uniformly and in
lower amounts than furrow or basin irrigation systems.
• Furrow irrigation efficiency can be improved by adjusting set time,
stream size, furrow length, watering every other row, or the use of
surge valves.
• Alternate row irrigation and fertilization minimizes water contact
with nutrients.
• Application of N fertilizer through irrigation systems facilitates
supplying N when crop demands are greatest.
• Polyacrylamide (PAM) treatment during furrow irrigation reduces
sediment and N losses.

Crop Testing for N


• Plant tissue tests can identify N deficiencies.
• Sensing variations in plant chlorophyll content facilitates variable
rate N applications in-season.
• Post-black-layer corn stalk nitrate tests help to determine if N rates
were low, optimal, or excessive in the previous crop, so that
management changes can be made in following crops.

Sumber: ftp://ftp-
fc.sc.egov.usda.gov/Economics/Technotes/TN_NM_6_a.pdf
NITROGEN EFFICIENCY AND
MANAGEMENT
Timing of N Applications
• Apply N close to the time when crops can utilize it.
• Make side-dress N applications close to the time of most rapid N
uptake.
• Split applications, involving more than one application, allow efficient
use of applied N and reduce the risk of N loss to the environment.
• Fall N applications may be discouraged in some areas, but can be
successful if ammonium fertilizers and manures are applied when soil
temperatures are below 50º F.

N Fertilizer Application Method and Placement


• Injection or incorporation of urea or N solutions reduces volatility
losses.
• In ridged crops, placing N fertilizers in a band in ridges makes N less
susceptible to leaching.

N Forms, including Slow or Controlled Release Fertilizers and


Inhibitors
• Slow or controlled release fertilizer delays the availability of nitrogen to
the plant until a time that is more appropriate for plant uptake and can
avoid periods of potentially risky fate and transport.
• Nitrification inhibitors maintain applied ammoniacal fertilizers in the
ammonium form longer, reducing leaching and denitrification losses.
• Where fall N applications are appropriate, nitrification inhibitors reduce
risk of leaching loss.
• Urease inhibitors temporarily block the function of the urease enzyme,
maintaining urea-based fertilizers in the non-volatile urea form, reducing
volatilization losses when these fertilizers are surface applied in high
residue, conservation tillage systems.

Sumber: ftp://ftp-
fc.sc.egov.usda.gov/Economics/Technotes/TN_NM_6_a.pdf
NITROGEN EFFICIENCY AND
Drainage Tile Systems
MANAGEMENT
• Subirrigation systems recycle nitrate leached from the soil profile and
reduce nitrate lost to subsurface tile drainage.
• Controlled drainage favors denitrification.

Conservation Buffers
• Buffers trap sediment containing ammonia and organic N.
• Nitrate in subsurface flow is reduced through denitrification enhanced by
carbon energy sources contained in the soil associated with buffer vegetation.
• Buffer vegetation takes up nitrogen, other nutrients, and reduces loss to
water.

Constructed Wetlands
• Constructed wetlands located strategically on the landscape to process
drainage effluent reduces sediment and nitrate loads to surface water.

Pest Management
• Appropriate pest management allows crops to attain their potential yields,
optimizing applied N thus reducing the excess N available for loss.
• Bt corn prevents European corn borer feeding and associated stalk rots,
which can cause corn to die early and leave excess N in the soil.

Breeding Crops for Efficient N Uptake


• Particular crop varieties are able to more efficiently extract N from the soil
and
improve N use efficiency.

Sumber: ftp://ftp-
MEMPERTAHA
APLIKASI BAHAN ORGANIK
NKAN BAHAN
ORGANIK
TANAH

APLIKASI PUPUK KANDANG

APLIKASI PUPUK HIJAU

APLIKASI KOMPOS

APLIKASI PUPUK ORGANIK


APLIKASI PUPUK HIJAU

Green manuring is the plowing under or soil


incorporation of any green manure
crops while they are green or soon after they start
flowering. Green manures are forage or leguminous
crops that are grown for their leafy materials needed for
soil nutrient conservation.

“The value of Green Manuring lies in the fact that


organic matter is
incorporated into the soil”.
The organic matter in the soil is recognized as being
one of its most valuable constituents for real soil
fertility. The soil nitrogen is associated with the organic
matter and the decay of this organic matter influences
the availability of the soil nutrients. For these reasons, it
has seemed advisable to discuss the amount of organic
matter in soils, its source, and the influences, which
operate for the increase of organic matter, as well as the
part it plays in the soil. Such a discussion is a necessary
preliminary to understand the need of green manuring.

http://www.sameti.org/ORGANICFARMING/03%20Green%20manuring.pdf …..
Diunduh 25/2/2012
APLIKASI BAHAN ORGANIK KE TANAH

http://www.organicagriculture.co/soil-fertility-management.php
….. Diunduh 22/2/2012
BAGAIMANA MEMANFAATKAN TANAMAN
PUPUK HIJAU?

http://www.organicagriculture.co/soil-fertility-management.php .....
diunduh 22/2/2012
Bagaimana aplikasi PUPUK HIJAU?

http://www.organicagriculture.co/soil-fertility-management.php .....
diunduh 22/2/2012
KONSEP PERTANIAN ORGANIK
Organic farming system in India is not new and is being
followed from ancient time. It is a method of farming system which
primarily aimed at cultivating the land and raising crops in such a
way, as to keep the soil alive and in good health by use of organic
wastes (crop, animal and farm wastes, aquatic wastes) and other
biological materials along with beneficial microbes (bio-fertilizers)
to release nutrients to crops for increased sustainable production in
an eco friendly pollution free environment.
As per the definition of the USDA study team on organic
farming “organic farming is a system which avoids or largely
excludes the use of synthetic inputs (such as fertilizers, pesticides,
hormones, feed additives etc) and to the maximum extent feasible
rely upon crop rotations, crop residues, animal manures, off-farm
organic waste, mineral grade rock additives and biological system
of nutrient mobilization and plant protection”.
In another definition FAO suggested that “Organic agriculture
is a unique production management system which promotes and
enhances agro-ecosystem health, including biodiversity, biological
cycles and soil biological activity, and this is accomplished by
using on-farm agronomic, biological and mechanical methods in
exclusion of all synthetic off-farm inputs”.

http://www.organicagriculture.co/home.php ….. DIUNDUH 22/2/2012


APLIKASI PUPUK HIJAU

Green manuring: green manure is a source of nitrogen and


other elements compensating for the high carbon content of
the trash (SERESAH TEBU).

http://www.fao.org/docrep/005/y4137e/y4137e07.htm ..... DIUNDUH


25/2/2012
APLIKASI PUPUK HIJAU
COVER CROPS AND GREEN MANURES
by Vern Grubinger ( Vegetable and Berry Specialist ,
University of Vermont Extension)

Cover crops and green manures are grown primarily for reasons
other than short term economic gain. In other words, they are not
produced for sale, but rather for the benefits they provide to the
production of subsequent cash crops. Cover crops are so-called
because they protect otherwise bare soil against erosion; green
manures improve soil fertility. Because a cover crop is inevitably
added to the soil, it becomes a green manure, so the terms are
reasonably interchangeable.

Potential benefits of cover crops are numerous:


1) Reducing the impact of wind and water passing over the soil
surface can reduce erosion.
2) Adding organic matter to soil improves its physical condition,
or structure.
3) Competing for light, water and nutrients may suppress weeds.
4) Legume cover crops add "free" symbiotically-fixed nitrogen to
the farming system.
5) Crops growing late in the season can capture and "recycle"
soluble nutrients otherwise lost.
6) Providing cropping system diversity may create habitats for
beneficial insects.

http://www.uvm.edu/vtvegandberry/factsheets/covercrops.html .....
Diunduh 25/2/2012
STRATEGI COVER-CROP

Cover crop strategies refer to how the cover crop fits


into a crop rotation plan.

There are 4 general strategies for the use of cover crops:


1. Fallow crops that require taking land out of cash crop
production for all or part of a season.
2. Winter cover crops that are sown in late summer or
autumn and remain in place until spring.
3. Smother crops that are grown during a spring, summer
or fall window between cash crops.
4. Interseeded cover crops that may remain in place for
varying amounts of time.
A fundamental goal of cover cropping is to avoid bare soil
between cash crop plantings. This not only protects soil,
but captures sunlight and produces biomass that enhances
soil quality.
Numerous side benefits accrue from this approach as well,
such as improved trafficabilty of fields and reduced
compaction, enhance aesthetics, and potential for animal
feed production.

http://www.uvm.edu/vtvegandberry/factsheets/covercrops.html .....
Diunduh 25/2/2012
MANFAAT PUPUK HIJAU

Advantages of green manuring


1. Improves the soil fertility by the increasing the humus content
of the soil,
2. Adds nutrients and organic matters,
3. Improves the soil structure,
4. Improves soil aeration,
5. Increases the water holding capacity of the soil,
6. Increases the nutrient holding capacity of the soil
7. Helps control the soil born insects/ mite (neem, Vitex, etc),
nematodes (marigold) and diseases (crucifers),
8. Used as a soil binder in the sloppy areas,,
9. Conserves and recycles plant nutrients,
10. Protects the soil from erosion.
11. Promotes habitat for natural enemies,
12. Serves as a good food for the earthworms,
13. Increases soil’s biodiversity of beneficial microbes by
stimulating their growth.

http://www.sameti.org/ORGANICFARMING/03%20Green%20manuring.pdf …..
Diunduh 25/2/2012
POHON PUPUK HIJAU

Tree green manure:


Biomass from the farm can be generate from the legume or
non-legume tees that were grown along the boundaries of the
farm and along the main bunds of the fields at 15 –20 feet
intervals. While preparing the main fields for the next crop the
foliage from these tress will be lopped and chopped in to small
pieces and then incorporated by hoeing in the garden lands and
by puddling in the wet lands.

The trees that can be grown for this purpose are as follows:-
1. Azadiracta indica,
2. Pungamia pinnata,
3. Glyricidia sps,
4. Thespesia populina,
5. Cassia seamia

http://www.sameti.org/ORGANICFARMING/03%20Green%20manuring.pdf …..
Diunduh 25/2/2012
PENGAPURAN

A liming material must be


finely ground to be
effective.

This is important because (1)


limestone’s solubility
increases as it is ground
finer, and (2) limestone
affects only a very small
volume of soil around
each particle.

Therefore, more finely


ground limestone has
more particles and, if
there is adequate mixing,
neutralizes more of the
soil with which it comes
into close contact.

http://extension.psu.edu/agronomy-guide/cm/sec2/sec22b .....
diunduh 23/2/2012
PEMUPUKAN FOSFAT
Best management practices for phosphorus (P) fertiliser use

Choice of fertiliser:

Soluble phosphate fertiliser is used where:


1. rapid plant response is required
2. soil P levels are required to be increased rapidly
3. plants are actively growing
4. there is a low risk of runoff

Slow release phosphate fertiliser is used when:


1. there is a high risk of runoff and/or
2. a rapid plant response is not required and/or
3. soil P levels are adequate and/or
4. soil pH is less than 6.0 and annual rainfall is
greater than 800mm

http://www.fertresearch.org.nz/code-of-practice/best-management-practices-
and-ideas/fertiliser-use/best-management-practices-for-ph ..... diuinduh
25/2/2012
BMP PEMUPUKAN FOSFAT
Rate of fertiliser application Nutrient application rates are determined
using some or all of the following factors:
Soil and plant tissue analysis
Nutrient budgets (including any effluent and/or feed imported to
the block)
Crop type, yield/quality/stocking rate targets
The need for capital or maintenance applications
Previous crop and fertiliser history
Soil moisture conditions and expected future weather patterns
Local knowledge

The amount of phosphate applied per application is limited:


1. when high rainfall is anticipated or irrigation is planned
2. on very sandy soils, particularly for soluble phosphate fertilisers
3. when slope is greater than 25º, and/or pasture is less than 25mm
high (approx. 1000 kg DM/ha)
4. during winter

Soluble phosphate fertiliser must be applied in split dressings if the


single application rate would exceed 100 kg P/ha.

Phosphate is applied in proportion to other nutrients, according to


plant requirements. (Adding excessive P when other elements limit
crop or pasture growth is inefficient and could lead to P losses.)

http://www.fertresearch.org.nz/code-of-practice/best-management-practices-and-
ideas/fertiliser-use/best-management-practices-for-ph ..... diuinduh 25/2/2012
BMP PEMUPUKAN FOSFAT

Application technique Application equipment


used is suitable for the conditions and fertiliser
type.
Only Spreadmark accredited spreading companies (experienced
operators and calibrated equipment) should be used

GPS and GIS technology is used for precise application and for a
digital record of fertiliser application locations.

Non-target application of fertiliser is avoided by:


1. Using fertiliser with larger particle sizes and few or no fine
particles (aerial application)
2. Application techniques that direct or specifically place the
fertiliser appropriately
3. Application in bands when sowing crops or pasture seed
4. Applying fertiliser only when any wind is blowing away from
sensitive areas
5. Apply fertiliser only under agreed conditions (e.g. wind speed
of less than 15 km/h)

http://www.fertresearch.org.nz/code-of-practice/best-management-practices-
and-ideas/fertiliser-use/best-management-practices-for-ph ..... diuinduh
25/2/2012
BMP PEMUPUKAN FOSFAT

Frequency of application
1. Nutrient availability is matched to plant demand,
particularly for soluble P products and liquids.
2. Split applications are used where the single application
rate would exceed 100 kg P/ha for soluble P or liquid
fertiliser.

Timing of application
1. Pasture is at least 25 mm high (approx. 1000 kg
DM/ha) before P is applied.
2. Phosphate fertiliser is not applied after a dry (drought)
period until sufficient regrowth has occurred after rain.
3. P fertiliser is not applied when the soil is saturated

http://www.fertresearch.org.nz/code-of-practice/best-management-practices-
and-ideas/fertiliser-use/best-management-practices-for-ph ..... diuinduh
25/2/2012
BMP PEMUPUKAN FOSFAT

Fertiliser use and management measures

1. P fertiliser is not applied to severely compacted soils. Soil


aeration techniques are used on such soils before fertiliser
application.

2. To avoid fluoride toxicity to stock, pastures top-dressed


with P fertiliser are not grazed for 21 days or until 25mm
of rain has fallen.

3. Only phosphate fertilisers which comply with the


industry limit of 280mg of cadmium per kg of P are used.

4. Vegetated riparian buffer strips of sufficient width (10m -


adjust for slope) to filter any run-off are maintained
adjacent to all waterways.

http://www.fertresearch.org.nz/code-of-practice/best-management-practices-
and-ideas/fertiliser-use/best-management-practices-for-ph ..... diuinduh
25/2/2012
BMP PEMUPUKAN KALIUM

Potassium in Soils
The total K content of
soils frequently exceeds
20,000 ppm (parts per
million). Nearly all of
this is in the structural
component of soil
minerals and is not
available for plant
growth.

Because of large
differences in soil
parent materials and the
effect of weathering of
these materials, the
amount of K supplied
by soils varies.
Three forms of K
(unavailable, slowly
available or fixed,
readily available or
exchangeable) exist in
soils.

http://www.extension.umn.edu/distribution/cropsystems/dc6794.html ....
DIUNDUH 25/2/2012
PEMUPUKAN P DAN K

Fertilizer P and K
recommendations are
largely driven by soil test
P and K levels and use
the build-up,
maintenance and
drawdown philosophy to
interpret soil test P and K
levels and make fertilizer
rate recommendations.

Below some soil test P and


K level, there is a good
chance of getting a yield
response to nutrient
additions. We refer to
this soil test level as the
“critical level”. The
likelihood and magnitude
of response to P or K
applications increases as
the soil test drops farther
below the critical level.

http://extension.entm.purdue.edu/pestcrop/2008/issue24/index.html ….
DIUNDUH 25/2/2012
PEMUPUKAN P DAN K

Table 1. Critical Soil Test Levels for Several Agronomic


Crops
Critical Cation Exchange Capacity,
Level P, meq/100 g
ppm
Crop (lb/acre) 5 10 20 30
---- Critical Level K, ppm (lb/acre)
----
Corn 15 (30)

100 125 150


Soybean 15 (30) 88 (165)
(200) (250) (300)

---- Same Critical Level for All Crops


Wheat 25 (50)
----
---- Same Critical Level for All Crops
Alfalfa 25 (50)
----

http://extension.entm.purdue.edu/pestcrop/2008/issue24/index.html ….
DIUNDUH 25/2/2012
Siklus BELERANG

http://biology.kenyon.edu/courses/biol112/Biol112WebPage/Syllabus/Topics/
Week%2013/Week%2013.htm ….. Diunduh 25/2/2012
PEMUPUKAN BELERANG

Microorganisms in the soil transform sulfur from its


natural state into sulfate (SO₄-2), which is soluble in
the soil. This process occurs during the entire crop
growth process.

http://www.heringer.com.br/heringer/web/conteudo_eni.asp?idioma=1&tipo=31647&su
bmenu=&img=31647&conta=46&son=29550 … DIUNDUH 25/2/2012
.
PEMUPUKAN UNSUR MIKRO

Managing soils
effectively to make
essential micro-
nutrients available
for CROP health.

The pH of the soil


influences the
ability of soils to
release and or hold
onto chemical
nutrients that are
needed for trees to
live and be healthy.

The measurement of
pH is just the ability
of soils to exchange
hydrogen ions for
other chemical
elements.

http://www.rainbowtreecare.com/tree-knowledge/health-
maintenance/manganese-and-iron-chlorosis/ …. DIUNCUH 25/2/2012
MENGATAS
I
KEKURANG
AN
NITROGEN

Penambahan & Kehilangan


N-tersedia

Pengikatan Pupuk
Nitrogen Buatan

Simbiotik Non-
Simbiotik

Sisa N-
tanaman tersedia Atmosf
Pupuk dlm er
Kandang tanah

Bahan
Organik

Panen Hilang Hilang


Tanam Pencuci Erosi
an an
NITROGEN PROCESSING IN SOIL
If applied N or mineralized organic matter N (conversion from organic to
ammonium) would stay in the ammonium (NH4+) form, then losses would not
occur because ammonium attaches to soil and does not leach (move through the
soil with water) or denitrify (microbial conversion to N gases when soils become
saturated). Unfortunately, that isn't the way it works. Ammonium is converted to
nitrate (NO3-) via nitrification.

http://www.ipm.iastate.edu/ipm/icm/2007/5-14/nitrogenloss.html .....
diunduh 22/2/2012
The soil nitrogen cycle. Mineralization refers to the microbial
breakdown of organic N to form NH4+. Nitrification is the microbial
oxidization of NH4+ to form NO3-. Denitrification is the reduction of
NO3- under moist conditions to form N2O and N2 gas.
Figure credit: Jackson et al., 2008, adapted from Schimel and Bennett, 2004. Reprinted, with
permission, from the Annual Review of Plant Biology, Volume 59 ©2008 by Annual Reviews
http://www.annualreviews.org.

http://www.extension.org/pages/18657/soil-microbial-nitrogen-cycling-for-organic-farms
… DIUNDUH 26/2/2012
FIKSASI NITROGEN

Nitrogen fixation is the process when it is changed into a


more reactive substance.

http://www.revisionworld.co.uk/gcse/biology/living-things-their-
environment/nitrogen-cycle ... diunduh 23/2/2012
FIKSASI NITROGEN

http://en.citizendium.org/wiki/Nitrogen_cycle ..... diunduh 23/2/2012


FIKSASI NITROGEN

Nitrogen fixation, is when atmospheric nitrogen is changed or fixed


to make it useful by plants. It can happen by:

1. Lightning strikes, which have enormous energy to break down


inert nitrogen molecules, allowing them to combine with oxygen
making nitrogen oxides; these can dissolve in rain, forming
"nitrates", that are carried by gravity to the earth.
2. Symbiotic bacteria which have the nitrogenase enzyme that
combines gaseous nitrogen with hydrogen to produce ammonia,
which is then further converted by the bacteria to make their
organic compounds needed by the bacterium for internal
processes. Some nitrogen fixing bacteria, such as Rhizobium live
in the root nodules of legumes and work with the plant as a form
of symbiosis and produce ammonia in exchange for
carbohydrates. If a soil is lacking valuable nutrients, it's possible
to plant legumes to add the nitrogen quotient. It's possible for
nitrogen fixing bacteria to take nitrogen from the air and convert
it into ammonia (NH3). It goes into a variety of amino acids and
helps make proteins.
3. Industrial fixation is a third way. Under great pressure at 600°C,
and using a catalyst, atmospheric nitrogen and hydrogen (usually
derived from natural gas or petroleum) can be combined to form
ammonia (NH3) which can be used directly as fertilizer, but for
economic reasons, mostly it's processed further to yield urea and
ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3)

. http://en.citizendium.org/wiki/Nitrogen_cycle ..... diunduh


23/2/2012
FIKSASI NITROGEN SECARA BIOLOGIS

Biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) occurs when atmospheric


nitrogen is converted to ammonia by an enzyme called
nitrogenase.

The reaction for BNF is:

N2 + 8 H+ + 8 e− → 2 NH3 + H2

The process is coupled to the hydrolysis of 16 equivalents of ATP


and is accompanied by the co-formation of one molecule of H2. In
free-living diazotrophs, the nitrogenase-generated ammonium is
assimilated into glutamate through the glutamine
synthetase/glutamate synthase pathway.

Enzymes responsible for nitrogenase action are very susceptible


to destruction by oxygen. Many bacteria cease production of the
enzyme in the presence of oxygen.

Many nitrogen-fixing organisms exist only in anaerobic conditions,


respiring to draw down oxygen levels, or binding the oxygen with
a protein such as Leghemoglobin.

Postgate, J. 1998. Nitrogen Fixation, 3rd Edition. Cambridge University


Press, Cambridge UK.
NITROGEN FIXATION BY LEGUMES
W.C. Lindemann, Soil Microbiologist
C.R. Glover, Extension Agronomist

Some legumes are better at fixing nitrogen than others. Common


beans are poor fixers (less than 50 lbs per acre) and fix less than
their nitrogen needs.
Other grain legumes, such as peanuts, cowpeas, soybeans and faba,
beans are good nitrogen fixers and will fix all of their nitrogen needs
other than that absorbed from the soil. These legumes may fix up to
250 lbs of nitrogen per acre and are not usually fertilized. In fact,
they usually don’t respond to nitrogen fertilizer as long as they are
capable of fixing nitrogen.
Nitrogen fertilizer is applied at planting to these legumes when
grown on sandy or low organic matter soils to supply nitrogen to the
plant before nitrogen fixation starts.
If nitrogen is applied, the rate is low, 10-15 lbs per acre.

Perennial and forage legumes, such as alfalfa, sweetclover, true


clovers and vetches, may fix 250-500 lbs of nitrogen per acre. Like
the grain legumes previously discussed, they are not normally
fertilized with nitrogen. They occasionally respond to nitrogen
fertilizer at planting or immediately after a cutting when the
photosynthate supply is too low for adequate nitrogen fixation.

http://aces.nmsu.edu/pubs/_a/a-129.pdf ….. DIUnduh 26/2/2012


MINERALISASI BAHAN ORGANIK
Kinetic Analysis of Nitrogen Mineralization Curve, and Estimation of
Nitrogen Mineralization Based on the Kinetic Parameters
Source:Sugihara etal.1986,Konno etal.1986 Source:Saigusa etal.1983

http://www.agnet.org/library.php?func=view&style=&type_id=4&id=201107
22063019&print=1 ….. Diunduh 22/2/2012
NITROGEN EFFICIENCY AND
MANAGEMENT
Mineralization, Nitrification and Denitrification
As plants and other organic residues decompose, nitrogen is converted from
organic-N into ammonium (NH4+), a process referred to as mineralization.

Nitrification
Is generally viewed as a two-step process involving several types of
specialized bacteria.
Step 1. Ammonium (NH4+) → Nitrite (NO2-)
In the presence of genus Nitrosomonas bacteria.
Step 2. Nitrite (NO2-) → Nitrate (NO3-) occurs
In presence of genus Nitrobacter bacteria.
The over-all process results in the biological oxidation of ammonia with
oxygen into nitrite followed with the oxidation of these nitrites into nitrates.
Nitrification is an important step in the nitrogen cycle.

Denitrification
Nitrate can also be lost to the atmosphere through the denitrification
processes. Nitrite
(NO2-) usually does not accumulate in soils because it is rapidly
transformed to NO3− or is denitrified to N2 gas, nitrous oxide (N2O), nitric
oxide (NO), or one of the other gaseous nitrogen oxide (NOx) compounds.
Nitrous oxide, a product of incomplete denitrification, is a greenhouse gas
and may contribute to global climate change and to thinning of the ozone
layer.
Denitrification is the route for most losses of gaseous N compounds to the
atmosphere. The potential for denitrification is increased as oxygen levels in
the soil decrease. Nitrate, a
desirable nutrient for plants, is reduced first to NO2−, then to NO, next to
N2O, and finally to N2. In addition to limited oxygen, denitrification needs
a carbon source of energy, effective microbes, and oxides65of N.
Denitrification losses can be as high as 10 pounds of nitrogen per acre per
Sumber: ftp://ftp-
day when conditions are optimum.
fc.sc.egov.usda.gov/Economics/Technotes/TN_NM_6_a.pdf
SERAPAN NITROGEN OLEH
TANAMAN
Effect of Crop Rotation on Nitrogen Uptake of Rice from Plow Soil
and Subsoil in a Heavy Clay Polder Soil
Source:Kaneta etal.1989

http://www.agnet.org/library.php?func=view&style=&type_id=4&id=201107
22063019&print=1 ….. Diunduh 23/2/2012
The corn plant grows and accumulates dry weight (Hanway, 1963).
Nitrogen uptake follows the same general trend as plant growth. The
maximum N uptake occurs during the month prior to tasseling and
silking. Significant amounts of N are transferred from leaf tissue to grain
during the grain-fill process.
Hanway, J. J. 1963. Growth stages of corn (Zea mays, L.). Agron. J.
55:487-492.

http://pubs.ext.vt.edu/424/424-027/424-027.html ….. Diunduh


23/2/2012
PENGUAPAN NITROGEN DARI TANAH

Volatilization is when nitrogen is moved out of the soil and


into the Earth's atmosphere in the form of a gases such as
NH3, NO, N2O, or N2.
Ammonia volatilization from Breakdown of urea
urea For plants to absorb nitrogen
from urea it must first be broken
Urea (46-0-0) accounts for
down into ammonium.
more than fifty percent of the
Urease is a naturally occurring
world’s nitrogenous fertilizers.
It is found in granular or prill enzyme that catalyzes the
form, which allows urea to be hydrolysis of urea to unstable
easily stored, transported and carbamic acid. Rapid
applied in agricultural settings. decomposition of carbamic acid
It is also the cheapest form of occurs without enzyme catalysis
granular nitrogen fertilizer. to form ammonia and carbon
Since urea is not an oxidizer at dioxide. The ammonia will
standard temperature and
likely escape to the atmosphere
pressure, it is safer to handle
unless it reacts with water to
and less of a security risk than
other common nitrogen form ammonium (NH4+).
fertilizers, such as ammonium This is important because
nitrate. ammonium is a plant available
source of nitrogen while
ammonia is not

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ammonia_volatilization_from_urea …
diunduh 26/2/2012
VOLATILIZATION LOSSES FROM SURFACE
APPLIED NITROGEN

Concern over volatilization losses from surface applied nitrogen are


justified during periods of high temperatures, high winds and little rain in
the foreseeable future.
In the case of urea, hydrolysis converts the urea to ammonia, and if the urea
is not incorporated, the ammonia is lost to the air.
Conditions favouring high volatilization potential are:
1. high soil temperatures
2. moist conditions, followed by rapid drying
3. windy conditions
4. high soil pH (>pH 7.5)
5. high lime content in surface soil
6. coarse soil texture (sandy)
7. low organic matter content
8. high amounts of surface residue (e.g. Zero tillage)
9. nitrogen source: urea>UAN solution > ammonium nitrate

University of Manitoba studies indicate potential losses of 38%-46% of


urea N during 5 days at 25°C versus less than 7% loss when temperatures
are 15C (U of M, Toews). More recent studies under zero tillage conditions
at Brandon found 40% and 88% loss of urea N after 7 days in May and July,
respectively. Our high soil pH increases volatilization losses. As soil pH
increases from 6.5 to 7.5 volatilization losses double from 10% to 20% foe
urea left on the surface for 4 days.

http://www.gov.mb.ca/agriculture/soilwater/soil/fbd12s00.html …..
DIUNDUH 26/2/2012
VOLATILIZATION LOSSES FROM SURFACE
APPLIED NITROGEN

The longer rainfall is delayed after application, the greater the


volatilization losses.

Effect of rainfall on N volatilization


losses
Within days N
Rainfall after Volatilization
application Losses, %
0.4 2 0
0.4 3 10
0.1 to 0.2 5 10 to 30
0 5 30+

http://www.gov.mb.ca/agriculture/soilwater/soil/fbd12s00.html …..
DIUNDUH 26/2/2012
VOLATILIZATION LOSSES FROM SURFACE
APPLIED NITROGEN

The influence of temperature on urea


volatilizations.
Percent of surface-added urea volatilized
as ammonia as influenced by soil
temperature and days urea was left on the
soil surface (from Overdahl, et al., 1987).
Temperature (f)
Days 45 60 75 90
% of added N volatilized
0 0 0 0 0
2 0 0 1 2
4 2 2 4 5
6 5 6 7 10
8 5 7 12 19
10 6 10 14 20
http://www.gov.mb.ca/agriculture/soilwater/soil/fbd12s00.html …..
DIUNDUH 26/2/2012
VOLATILIZATION LOSSES FROM SURFACE
APPLIED NITROGEN

The influence of temperature on urea


volatilizations.

Percent of surface – applied urea volatilized in


7 days as influenced by time and N source
(Grant et al, 1996.)
UAN
Urea + +
Check Urea UAN
NBPT NBP
T
% of added N volatilized
May
(Warm
0 40 2 7 1
20-
25°C)
July
(Hot 0.6 88 12 50 16
30°C)
http://www.gov.mb.ca/agriculture/soilwater/soil/fbd12s00.html …..
DIUNDUH 26/2/2012
VOLATILIZATION LOSSES FROM SURFACE
APPLIED NITROGEN

The influence of Soil pH on urea volatilization

Percent of surface-applied urea volatilized as ammonia as


influenced by soil pH and days urea was left on the soil
surface (from Overdahl, et al, 1987).

Soil pH
5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5
Days % of added N volatilized
0 0 0 0 0 0
2 0 0 0 1 5
4 2 5 10 18 20
6 5 7 11 23 30
8 9 12 18 30 33
10 10 13 22 40 44

http://www.gov.mb.ca/agriculture/soilwater/soil/fbd12s00.html …..
DIUNDUH 26/2/2012
EFISIENSI DAN PENGELOLAAN NITROGEN

Ammonia volatilization
Ammonium ions (NH4+) in the soil solution exist in equilibrium
with ammonia (NH3) in the soil solution. There is a tendency for
the equilibrium to favor conversion to ammonia because solution
NH3 is subject to gaseous losses to the atmosphere.
Soil pH and the concentration of ammonium (NH4+) in the soil
solution are important factors affecting amount of ammonia (NH3)
volatilized. As soil pH increases, the fraction of soil-solution
ammonium and NH3 increases by an order of magnitude for every
unit of pH above 6.0. The following summarizes favorable
conditions for NH3 volatilization:
1. Prominent on calcareous soils, especially as soil pH exceeds 7;
2. Can be appreciable for neutral or alkaline soils as they dry out;
3. Increases with temperature and wind speed;
4. Greater in soils of low CEC, such as sands where NH4+
adsorption is low;
5. High when high-N organic wastes, such as manure, are applied
to the soil surface and permitted to decompose;
6. High from urea when it is applied to grass or pasture, as a
result of hydrolysis of the urea to NH3 by urease enzyme;
7. Losses are decreased by growing plants. Volatilization losses
can be as high as 100% of the ammonium on or near the soil
surface if one or more of the above conditions exist.

Sumber: ftp://ftp-
fc.sc.egov.usda.gov/Economics/Technotes/TN_NM_6_a.pdf
PENCUCIAN NITROGEN
The nitrogen cycle. NO3 is subject to
leaching, especially when soil experiences
prolonged waterlogged conditions, and
volatization, espeically in temperatures
over 90oF..
Generally, inorganic nitrogen, which, in
the case of China, is usually introduced to
fields in the form of urea-based fertilizers,
is quickly converted into ammonium
(NH4+) and later into nitrate (NO3-) by
microorganisms in the soil according to
the normal function of the nitrogen cycle.
A portion of the nitrogen is also lost by
NH3 volatization to the atmosphere,
which contributes to air pollution and acid
rain. Most plants, including rice and
wheat. more readily take up the nitrate
form of nitrogen than they do the
ammonuium form. However, due to the
negative repelling charge of nitrite with
the surrounding soil (especially if the
soil’s content is high in clay), the nitrate
form is also highly mobile in soil and is
easily carried by percolating water into
surface water or
groundwater. Ammonium, on the other
hand, sorbs to clay and organic matter,
and although is less readily absorbed by
plants, is held in soil for a prolonged
period of time if not further converted to
the nitrate form.

http://www.sherwoodinstitute.org/category/blog/agriculture/ … DIUNDUH
25/2/2012
NITROGEN EFFICIENCY AND
MANAGEMENT

PENCUCIAN NITROGEN

Nitrate (NO3−), a negatively charged ion, is


repelled by negatively charged clay and
organic surfaces in soil. Nitrate nitrogen, the
primary form of N leached into groundwater,
moves freely with water through most soils.

The undesirable addition of NO3 − to ground


water is a consequence of its high solubility,
mobility, and easy displacement by water.
Leaching losses in agricultural systems can be
large, often in a range of 10 to 20% of the
nitrogen applied.

Sumber: ftp://ftp-
fc.sc.egov.usda.gov/Economics/Technotes/TN_NM_6_a.pdf
PENTINGN Soils are limed to reduce the harmful effects
YA KAPUR, of low pH (aluminum or manganese toxicity)
Ca & Mg and to add calcium and magnesium to the
soil.
The amount of lime needed to achieve a
certain pH depends on (1) the pH of the soil
and (2) the buffering capacity of the soil.

Penambahan dan
kehilangan

Sisa
Pupuk Mineral
tanaman &
Komersial Tanah
Pupuk
Kandang

Ca dan Mg
tersedia dalam KAPU
tanah R

PANEN Hilang
TANAMAN Hilang Erosi
pencucian
PENGAPURAN TANAH MASAM

Lime reduces soil acidity (increases pH) by changing some of the


hydrogen ions into water and carbon dioxide (CO2). A Ca++ ion
from the lime replaces two H+ ions on the cation exchange
complex. The carbonate (CO3-) reacts with water to form
bicarbonate (HCO3-). These react with H+ to form H2O and CO2.

The pH increases because the H+ concentration has been reduced.

H+ Soil Colloid + CaCO3 ---------------

Soil Colloid-Ca++ + H2O + CO2

Remember, the reverse of the above process can also occur. An


acid soil can become more acid as basic cations such as Ca2+,
Mg2+, and K+ are removed, usually by crop uptake or leaching,
and replaced by H+.

The limestone can then react with exchangeable acidity in the


following manner.

http://hubcap.clemson.edu/~blpprt/acidity2_review.html ….. Diunduh 27/2/2012


PENGAPURAN TANAH MASAM

APPLICATION AND PLACEMENT OF LIME

Time of year. Lime may be applied at any time during the year.
For the farmer or gardener, winter or early spring just prior to soil
preparation is usually most convenient. Don't apply caustic liming
materials such as burned lime, hydrated lime, or wood ashes to
actively growing plants. Ground limestone will not harm plants.

Lime placement. The most important consideration is lime


placement. Ground agricultural limestone is relatively insoluble in
water so maximum contact with the soil is necessary to neutralize
the soil acidity. Lime will not move into the soil like water-soluble
fertilizers. Thoroughly mix the recommended amount of lime with
the top 6 to 8 inches of soil. As soon as moisture is present, the
lime will begin to react.

Coarse lime particles react more slowly than very fine particles.
Therefore, using very finely ground limestone and thoroughly
mixing it are necessary to achieve the desired soil pH change
within a few months. If the soil will be turned with a bottom plow,
turn it first and then apply the lime and mix.

http://hubcap.clemson.edu/~blpprt/acidity2_review.html ….. Diunduh 27/2/2012


KAPUR PERTANIAN

Some common soil liming materials.


Relative
Neutralizing value
Material Comment
----------- % ------------
pure CaCO3 100 not generally available
Calcitic agricultural lime,
(calcium carbonate, 90 - 100 easily available
CaCO3 +impurities)

Dolomitic agricultural lime, easily available; provides


95 - 108
CaCO3 + MgCO3 Mg
Ground oyster shells 85 - 95
Selma chalk/marl,
50 - 85 contains clay; keep dry
CaCO3 + clay
Burned lime, CaO 150 - 175 very caustic; don't use
Hydrated lime or caustic; use with caution; no
120 - 135
builders' lime, Ca(OH)2 Mg
contains some P &
Basic slag 50 - 70
micronutrients; byproduct
Wood stove or fireplace provides some plant
40 - 70
ashes nutrients
provides some plant
Boiler wood ash 30 - 60
nutrients
use as specified by
By-products Variable
manufacturer
Gypsum and/or NOT A LIMING
0
ground drywall, CaSO4 MATERIAL

Charles C. Mitchell
Extension Agronomist-Soils & Professor, Auburn University

http://hubcap.clemson.edu/~blpprt/acidity2_review.html ….. Diunduh 27/2/2012


MEMPERTAHAN
KAN
KETERSEDIAAN
FOSFAT.

Kehilangan & Penambahan P-


tersedia

Sisa Pukuk Mineral P-


tanaman komersial tanah
PuPuk
kandang

Bahan
Organik
P-tersedia dalam
Tanah
tanah

Terangkut Hilang Hilang


tanaman Pencucian Erosi Fiksasi
SIKLUS P DALAM TANAH
Soil P exists in inorganic and organic forms. Each form is
a continuum of many P compounds, existing in equilibrium with
each other and ranging from solution P (taken up by plants) to very
stable or unavailable compounds (the most typical). In most soils,
50% to 75% of the P is inorganic.

www.p2pays.org/.../34_3_Phosphorus_Soil.p..... DIUNDUH 26/2/2012


pH SANGAT MEMPENGARUHI REAKSI P
DALAM TANAH
Approximate representation of the fate of P added to
soil by sorption and occlusion in inorganic forms, as a
function of soil pH.
In acid soils, Al and Fe dominate P fixation, while Ca
compounds fix P in alkaline soils. As a result, P
availability is greatest at soil pH between 6 and 7

www.p2pays.org/.../34_3_Phosphorus_Soil.p..... DIUNDUH 26/2/2012


REAKSI PUPUK P DALAM TANAH
The change in soil test (Mehlich-3 P) and absorbed soil P (Al and Fe-
bound) with time after P application.
Immobilization of inorganic P by these processes renders
a portion of the added P unavailable for plant uptake . Mehlich-
3 soil P decreased with time after application of P to a clay and silt loam soil.
At the same time, more inorganic P was fixed with Al and Fe

www.p2pays.org/.../34_3_Phosphorus_Soil.p..... DIUNDUH 26/2/2012


MINERALISASI BAHAN ORGANIK (P-
ORGANIK)

Mineralization and Immobilization of Phosphate


In an average soil, approximately 50% of total phosphorus is organic. Thus,
soil organic phosphorus is a very important aspect of the P cycle.
The various sources of organic phosphorus include
Phytin
Nucleic acids
Phospholipids

Organic phosphorus is converted to inorganic phosphate through the process


of mineralization.

The immobilization of inorganic phosphate, in contrast, is the reverse


reaction of mineralization. During immobilization, microorganisms convert
inorganic forms to organic phosphate, which are then incorporated into their
living cells.
Mineralization and immobilization of phosphorus occur simultaneously in
the soil. Ultimately, the C:P ratio determines whether there is net
mineralization or net immobilization.

When the C:P ratio is less than 200:1, net mineralization prevails. Net
mineralization indicates that there is enough phosphorus in the soil to sustain
both plants and microorganisms.
When the C:P ration is between 200:1 and 300:1, immobilization and
mineralization rates are fairly equal.
When the C:P ratio is greater than 300:1, net immobilization occurs. During
immobilization there is not enough P to sustain both plants and
microorganisms; and so, microorganisms scavenge the soil for P.

http://www.ctahr.hawaii.edu/mauisoil/c_nutrients02.aspx DIUNDUH 26/2/2012


SERAPAN P OLEH TANAMAN
Phosphorus Uptake by Plant Roots

Plant roots absorb phosphorus from the soil solution. In


comparison to other macronutrients, the phosphorus
concentration in the soil solution is much lower and ranges
from 0.001 mg/L to 1 mg/L (Brady and Weil, 2002).

In general, roots absorb phosphorus in the form of


orthophosphate, but can also absorb certain forms of
organic phosphorus. Phosphorus moves to the root surface
through diffusion. However, the presence of mycorrhizal
fungi, which develop a symbiotic relationship with plant
roots and extend threadlike hyphae into the soil, can
enhance the uptake of phosphorus, as well especially in
acidic soils that are low in phosphorus.

http://www.ctahr.hawaii.edu/mauisoil/c_nutrients02.aspx DIUNDUH 26/2/2012


FIKSASI P OLEH TANAH

P-fixation is a term that is used to describe both P-sorption and


P precipitation. Since both P-sorption and P precipitation reduce
phosphorus availability, a soil with a great P-fixation capacity
has less available phosphorus after fertilization than a soil with a
low P-fixation capacity.
In other words, when the same amount of fertilizer is applied to a
volcanic soil and a moderately weathered grassland soil, the
volcanic soil has less P available due to its greater P-fixation
capacity.

Phosphorus Sorption and Desorption


P-sorption occurs when the orthophosphates, H2PO4- and HPO42-, bind
tightly to soil particles.
Since phosphate is an anion, particles that generate an anion exchange
capacity will form strong bonds with phosphate.

Particles with anion exchange capacity:


Aluminum and iron oxides
Highly weathered kaolin clays (under acidic conditions)
Amorphous materials.
These particles are commonly found in many of the most highly
weathered soils and high weathered volcanic soils of Hawaii. Since P-
sorption results in a decrease of plant available phosphorus, P-sorption
can become a major issue in many Hawaii soils.
Additionally, in calcareous soils P-sorption may occur as phosphates
sorb to impurities such as aluminum and iron hydroxides or displace
carbonates in calcium carbonate minerals.

http://www.ctahr.hawaii.edu/mauisoil/c_nutrients02.aspx DIUNDUH 26/2/2012


KETERSEDIAAN Tanah mineral umumnya mengandung
KALIUM cukup banyak kalium, kisaran 40 ton setiap
hektar lapisan olah tanah. Namun
demikian hanya sebagian kecil yangtersedia
bagi tanaman

Kehilangan & Penambahan


Kalium:

Sisa tanaman Pupuk Mineral-K


& Pupuk komersial lambat
Kandang tersedia

K-tersedia
tanah

Terangkut Kehilangan
tanaman Kehilangan
Kehilangan erosi Fiksasi
pencucian
KALIUM DALAM TANAH

Relationship among unavailable, slowly available, and readily available


potassium in the soil-plant system.
Three forms of K (unavailable, slowly available or fixed, readily available
or exchangeable) exist in soils.

Unavailable Potassium
Depending on soil type, approximately 90-98% of total soil K is found in
this form. Feldspars and micas are minerals that contain most of the K.
Plants cannot use the K in this crystalline-insoluble form. Over long
periods of time, these minerals weather (break down) and K is released.
This process, however, is too slow to supply the full K needs of field
crops. As these minerals weather, some K moves to the slowly available
pool.

http://www.extension.umn.edu/distribution/cropsystems/dc6794.html .... diunduh


27/2/2012
KALIUM TERSEDIA DALAM TANAH

Readily Available Potassium :


Potassium that is dissolved in soil water (water soluble) plus that held on
the exchange sites on clay particles (exchangeable K) is considered readily
available for plant growth. The exchange sites are found on the surface of
clay particles. This is the form of K measured by the routine soil testing
procedure.
Plants readily absorb the K dissolved in the soil water. As soon as the K
concentration in soil water drops, more is released into this solution from
the K attached to the clay minerals. The K attached to the exchange sites
on the clay minerals is more readily available for plant growth than the K
trapped between the layers of the clay minerals.

The relationships among slowly available K, exchangeable K, and water-


soluble K are summarized below.

slowly available K

exchangeable K

water-soluble K

Notice that when the arrows go in both directions, one form of K is


converted to another. The rate of conversion is affected by such factors as
root uptake, fertilizer K applied, soil moisture, and soil temperature.

http://www.extension.umn.edu/distribution/cropsystems/dc6794.html .... diunduh


27/2/2012
SERAPAN KALIUM OLEH TANAMAN

FAKTOR SERAPAN KALIUM

Soil Moisture:
Higher soil moisture usually means greater availability of K.
Increasing soil moisture increases movement of K to plant roots and
enhances availability. Research has generally shown more responses
to K fertilization in dry years.

Soil Aeration and Oxygen Level:


Air is necessary for root respiration and K uptake. Root activity and
subsequent K uptake decrease as soil moisture content increases to
saturation. Levels of oxygen are very low in saturated soils.

Soil Temperature:
Root activity, plant functions, and physiological processes all increase
as soil temperature increases. This increase in physiological activity
leads to increased K uptake. Optimum soil temperature for uptake is
60-80°F. Potassium uptake is reduced at low soil temperatures.

Tillage System:
Availability of soil K is reduced in no-till and ridge-till planting
systems. The exact cause of this reduction is not known. Results of
research point to restrictions in root growth combined with a
restricted distribution of roots in the soil.

http://www.extension.umn.edu/distribution/cropsystems/dc6794.html .... diunduh


27/2/2012
PREDICTING THE NEED FOR POTASH
The K status of soils can be monitored with either plant analysis or routine soil
testing procedures. Plant analysis can be used to either confirm a suspected
deficiency indicated by visual symptoms or routinely monitor the effects of a
chosen fertilizer program. .

Interpretation of plant analysis for K for major agronomic crops


grown in Minnesota.

Interpretation
Defisien Rendah Cukup Tinggi Berlebihan

Bagian Waktu
Tanaman
tanaman sampling …………………………% K - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

top 6
alfalfa bud <1.8 1.8-2.4 2.5-3.8 3.9-4.5 >4.5
inches
whole head
barley <1.25 1.25-1.49 1.50-3.00 >3.00 -
plant emergence
corn ear leaf silking <1.30 1.30-1.70 1.80-2.30 2.40-2.90 >2.90

most
recently early
soybean <1.30 1.30-1.70 1.80-2.50 2.60-4.50 >4.50
matured flower
trifoliate

whole head
wheat <1.25 1.25-1.49 1.50-3.00 >3.00 -
plant emergence

http://www.extension.umn.edu/distribution/cropsystems/dc6794.html .... diunduh


27/2/2012
PEMUPUKAN KALIUM
Suggested management practices for K vary with crop. There is a higher
probability of successful establishment of perennial crops such as alfalfa and
grasses if the soil test for K is in the medium range or higher. For these crops, the
best strategy would be to apply potash fertilizers before seeding followed by
annual topdress applications. The annual applications should be based on the
results of routine soil tests for K.
Any potash needed for corn and small grain production can be applied in a band
near the seed at planting or broadcast and incorporated before planting. When
applied in a band, the recommended broadcast rate of potash can be reduced by
one-half without causing a reduction in yield.

The effect of management of potash fertilizer on corn production.


Soil test (0-6 in.) = 85 ppm

Rate of K Applied Placement Yield

lb./acre bu./acre
0 - 114
40 starter (band) 143

100 broadcast 136

200 broadcast 141

http://www.extension.umn.edu/distribution/cropsystems/dc6794.html .... diunduh


27/2/2012
CROPPING
TUJUAN: Keberlanjutan produksi yang
SYSTEMS & menguntungkan
SOIL
MANAGEMENT Ada beberapa faktor penting:
1. Bahan organik tanah & sifat olah
tanah
2. Ketersediaan unsur hara tanaman
3. Gangguan hama, penyakit, gulma
4. Water intake & Soil erosion

What are some features of good soil?


Any farmer will tell you that a good soil:
1. drains well and warms up quickly in the spring
2. does not crust after planting
3. soaks up heavy rains with little runoff
4. stores moisture for drought periods
5. has few clods and no hardpan
6. resists erosion and nutrient loss
7. supports high populations of soil organisms
8. does not require increasing fertilizer for high yields
9. has that rich, earthy smell
10. produces healthy, high quality crops

Cramer, Craig. 1994. Test your soils' health-first in a series. The


New Farm. January. p. 17-21.

http://www.soilandhealth.org/01aglibrary/010117attrasoilmanual/010117attra.html ….
DIUNDUH 27/2/2012
Sustainable Soil Management
Principles :
1. Soil livestock cycle nutrients and provide many other
benefits.
2. Organic matter is the food for the soil livestock herd.
3. The soil shall be covered to protect it from erosion.
4. Tillage speeds the decomposition of organic matter.
5. Excess nitrogen speeds the decomposition of organic
matter.
6. Moldboard plowing speeds the decomposition of
organic matter, destroys earthworm habitat, and
increases erosion.
7. To build soil organic matter, the production or addition
of organic matter must exceed the decomposition of
organic matter.
8. Soil fertility levels need to be within acceptable ranges
before starting a soil building program.

http://www.soilandhealth.org/01aglibrary/010117attrasoilmanual/010117attra.html ….
DIUNDUH 27/2/2012
PENGELOLA
Efek Penggenangan thd sifat fisik
AN TANAH tanah:
SAWAH 1. Hancurnya agregat tanah
2. Swelling
3. Soil Permeability
4. Aggregate stability

Permeabilitas tanah, (cm/jam)

sterilized soil

unsterilized soil

0 20 40 60
Hari setelah penggenangan

Sumber: Allison (1974)


PELUMPURAN:
Proses penghancuran agregat tanah menjadi
PENGELOLAAN lumpur yang homogen, dilakukan dengan
TANAH SAWAH menggunakan gaya mekanik pada tanah
yang kandungan airnya tinggi
1. Aggregate destruction
2. Changes in soil porosity
3. Changes in Bulk Density
4. Increased soil moisture retention
5. Decreased moisture losses
6. Soil reduction
7. Regeneration os the structure

Kohesi, sekala logaritmik.

within aggregate

between aggregate

Shrinkage limit Field capacity Saturation

Soil moisture
EFFECTS
Pelumpuran tanah mengakibatkan:
OF 1. Kerusakan pori makro - non kapiler
PUDDLIN 2. Meningkatkan pori kapiler yang jenuh
G air
3. Menurunkan bulk density
4. Menahan lebih banyak air pd tegangan
air tertentu

% H2O.
Sumber: Croney dan Coleman (1954)

Puddled soil

Undisturbed soil

0.001 0.01 0.1 1 10 100 1000 10.000

Soil moisture tension (bars)


PERTANIAN ORGANIK

KEUNTUNGAN PERTANIAN ORGANIK

1. Organic farming is more cost effective. It reduces the


production cost by about 25-30%, because it does not
involve the use of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides.
2. It retains 40% more topsoil, thus increasing the crop yield
up to five-fold within five years.
3. Organic farming is more profitable because it reduces
water use, nutrient-contamination by pesticides, and
reduced soil erosion.
4. It also enables the farmers to use the soil for a longer
period of time to grow crops as soil fertility is maintained
for a long time.
5. Cattle grazing on organic farmlands have been found to
be less prone to diseases, and they yield more healthy milk.
6. Products or foodstuffs produced from organic farming do
not contain any sort of artificial flavors or preservatives.
7. Due to the absence of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides,
the original nutritional content of food is preserved.
8. Organic farming also helps reduce the occurrence of many
ailments, and speeds the recovery process by boosting the
immune system.

http://www.organicagriculture.co/advantages-of-organic-farming.php .....
diunduh 22/2/2012
PERTANIAN ORGANIK

KERUGIAN PERTANIAN ORGANIK

1. Organic farming results in smaller yields,


and is more labor intensive, and time-
consuming.
2. Organic fertilizers tend to release slowly, and
hence may need several applications before
the desired results can be brought about.
3. Farming the organic way requires deep skill
and extensive knowledge.

http://www.organicagriculture.co/advantages-of-organic-farming.php .....
diunduh 22/2/2012
http://www.organicagriculture.co/soil-fertility-management.php .....
diunduh 20/2/2012
The Soil Food Web
In 1 teaspoon of soil there are…

5 or more ------------ Earthworms

Up to 100 ……………. Arthropods

10 to 20 bacterial feeders and a few fungal feeders …….


Nematodes

Several thousand flagellates & amoeba


One to several hundred ciliates ……. Protozoa

6-9 ft fungal strands put end to end ………. Fungi

100 million to 1 billion …………. Bacteria


Classical C Pools

Nonhumic substances—carbohydrates,
lipids, proteins
Humic substances—humic acid, fulvic
acid, humin

BOT berpengaruh terhadap:

-Plant nutrition
-Soil and Plant health
-Soil physical, chemical and
biological
properties

103
BOT ----- FRAKSI RINGAN

The light fraction (LF) with a density of ~1.6


gm cm-3 is relatively mineral free and consists
of partially decomposed plant material, fine
roots and microbial biomass with a rapid
turnover time.

The LF is a source of readily mineralizable C


and N, accounts for ~50% of total soil C and
declines rapidly under cultivation.

104
BOT --- FRAKSI BERAT --- The
Heavy Fraction

The heavy fraction (HF) is organic


matter adsorbed onto mineral surfaces
and sequestered within organomineral
aggregates.

The HF is less sensitive to disturbance


an chemically more resistant than the
LF.

105
Major features of some
representative soil bacteria (true
bacteria).

Bacteria vs.
Fungi
Bacteria are smaller
than fungi and can
occupy smaller pores
and thus potentially
have greater access to
material contained
within these pores.
Bacteria are less
disrupted than are
fungi by tillage
practices commonly
used in agriculture.

Sumber:
http://filebox.vt.edu/users/chagedor/biol_4684/Microbes/SoilB
iota.html
Bacteria vs. Fungi
Fungi tend to be selected for by plant
residues with high C/N ratios.

Fungi have a greater influence on


decomposition in no-till systems in
which surface residues select for
organisms that can withstand low
water potentials and obtain nutrients
from the underlying soil profile.
Bacteria vs. Fungi
Fungi often produce more cell wall
than cytoplasmic material when
starved for N, and thus can extend into
new regions of the soil without
requiring balanced growth conditions.

The filamentous growth structure of a


fungus permits it to access C in one
location and nutrients in another.
Soil Organic Matter Content
How organic matter in soil influences the soil-plant
relationship?
• Decomposed organic matter provides nutrients for
plant
growth (Mineralization)
• It determines the soil’s temperature, air ventilation,
structure and water management
• It contains bioregulators which affects plant growth
• It contains bioregulators, which affects plant growth
(enzymes, hormones, etc.)
• Its carbon and energy content is the soil’s energy
battery
for future use
• It determines the soil’s capacity to compensating,
regenerating and protecting the environment
regenerating and protecting the environment
PENTINGNYA BOT

➢ Organic material in the soil is essentially derived


from residual plant and animal material, synthesised by
microbes and decomposed under influence of
temperature, moisture
and ambient soil conditions
➢ Soil organic matter is extremely important in all soil
processes
➢ Cultivation can have a significant effect on the
organic matter content of the soil
➢ In essentially warm and dry areas like Southern
Europe,
depletion of organic matter can be rapid because the
processes of decomposition are accelerated at high
temperatures
➢ Generally, plant roots are not sufficiently numerous
to replace the organic matter that is lost
MANFAAT BOT
➢ Storehouse for nutrients
➢ Source of fertility
➢ Contributes to soil aeration thereby
reducing soil
compaction

➢ Important ‘building block’ for the soil


structure
➢ Aids formation of stable aggregates
➢ Improves infiltration/permability
➢ Increase in storage capacity for water.
➢ Buffer against rapid changes in soil
reaction (pH)
➢ Acts as an energy source for soil micro-
organisms
Degradation: HILANGNYA BOT

➢ During field operations, fresh topsoil becomes


exposed
and dries rapidly on the surface
➢ Organic compounds are released to the atmosphere
result from breakdown of soil aggregates bound
together
by humic materials

➢ Unless the organic matter is quickly replenished,


the system is in a state of degradation leading
eventually to un-sustainability

➢ The removal of crop residues in dry ecosystems,


which are inherently marginal, can cause such systems
to be quickly transformed from a stage of fragility to
total exhaustion and depletion
FAKTOR YG PENGARUHI BOT

Natural factors:
➢ Climate
➢ Soil parent material: acid or alkaline
(or even saline)
➢ Land cover and or vegetation type
➢ Topography – slope and aspect

Human-induced factors:
➢Land use and farming systems
➢Land management (cultivation)
➢Land degradation
FAKTOR IKLIM PENGARUHI BOT:

Temperature:
OM decomposition rapid in warm climates
OM Decomposition is slower for cool regions

Result:
Within zones of uniform moisture and
comparable vegetation --
Av total OM increases 2x to 3x for each 10 deg C
fall in mean temperature

Moisture:
OM decomposition rapid in warm climates
OM Decomposition is slower for cool regions
Result:
Under comparable conditions
Av total OM increases as the effective moisture
increases
Sumber:
pgsgrow.com/blog/tag/
organic-gardening/

Dalam tanah terdapat


beragam organisme
tanah yang berperan
sangat penting dalam
menentukan kualitas
kesuburan tanah

Sebagian dari mikroba


tanah ini berperan
dalam dekomposisi
bahan organik dalam
tanah dan melepaskan
hara mineral dalam
bentuk tersedia bagi
tanaman
Structure of soil, indicating presence of bacteria,
inorganic, and organic matter
Sumber:
www.cartage.org.lb/en/themes/sci...ones.htm
A number of good crop management practices
help limit losses of N applied with mineral
fertilizers:
1. Using good-quality seed.
2. Transplanting seedlings at the right age.
3. Using a plant spacing that is adequate for the
variety used, usually 0.2 × 0.2 m.
4. Removing weeds before fertilizer application.
5. Using pest and disease control.
6. Harvesting on time, at maturity.
7. Applying N when the crop most needs it: at
tillering, panicle initiation and, if required, at
heading; for small N doses, apply at tillering
and panicle initiation.
8. Using N in two splits of 50% each, at the start
of tillering and at panicle initiation, or in three
splits of 40%, 40% and 20%, respectively, at
the start of tillering, at panicle initiation and at
heading.
MODEL NEPALESE:
Integrated plant nutrient components in the
farming system

FAO. Paper Number 3. Plant nutrient management for


improving crop productivity in Nepal. D.P. Sherchan and K.B.
Karki. http://www.fao.org/docrep/010/ag120e/AG120E10.htm
Model of soil-plant transfer of
mineral nutrients
Modelling nutrient uptake by crops
implies considering and integrating the
processes controlling the soil nutrient
supply, the uptake by the root system and
relationships between the crop growth
response and the amount of nutrient
absorbed. We have developed a model that
integrates both dynamics of maize growth
and phosphorus (P) uptake. The crop part of
the model was derived from Monteith's
model.
A complete regulation of P-uptake by the
roots according to crop P-demand and soil
P-supply was assumed. The soil P-supply to
the roots was calculated using a diffusion
equation and assuming that roots behave as
zero sinks. The actual P-uptake and crop
growth were calculated at each time step by
comparing phosphate and carbohydrate
supply-demand ratios. Model calculations
for P-uptake and crop growth were
compared to field measurements on a long
term P-fertilization trial.

http://www.bordeaux-
aquitaine.inra.fr/tcem_eng/recherche/nutrition_minerale_et_gestion_de_la_f
ertilite
Biogeochemical cycle of
mineral nutrients in
agricultural ecosystems

The objective is to develop


new approaches to the
measurement and
understanding of the
behaviour of P cycling in
agricultural ecosystems. This
includes both to analyze and
quantify inputs and outputs
of P at the field scale for
different cropping systems
and also to assess associated
P transformations in soils.
We mainly focuse our
research on the soil P
availability to plants in
agricultural soils because
available soil P often control
the greatest annual P flux
that affect P cycling. We
develop a process-based
assessment of plant-
available soil P which
accounted for
orthophosphate ions in
solution and the amount of P
ions associated to soil
constituents that can diffuse
with time towards solution.

http://www.bordeaux-
aquitaine.inra.fr/tcem_eng/recherche/nutrition_minerale_et_gestion_de_la_fertili
PENGELOLAAN
KESUBURAN
TANAH
Oleh:
Prof.Dr.Ir.Soemarno,M.S.

121