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# Fundamentals of Heat

Transfer

CONVECTION

12/2/2018 PE 311 1
Heat Transfer by Convection
Convection heat transfer takes place whenever
a fluid is in contact with a solid surface that is
at a different temperature than the fluid.

## Involves movement of fluid on a macroscopic

scale:
eddies
circulating currents (as a result of density difference
or produced by an external agency such as an
agitator)
12/2/2018 PE 311 2
Heat Transfer by Convection
 If the fluid is moving past the solid surface
because of an external driving force, like a
pump or blower, then it is called forced
convection.

##  Natural convection is when a fluid motion is

due to density differences, caused by
temperature variation in fluid.

12/2/2018 PE 311 3
Newton’s Law of Cooling
The rate of convection heat transfer is
expressed by Newton’s Law of cooling as

## h depends on variables such as

Surface geometry
Nature of fluid motion
Properties of the fluid

12/2/2018 PE 311 4
Example
A 2-m long, 0.3 cm diameter electrical wire extends
across a room at 15˚C, heat is generated in the wire as
a result of resistance heating, and the surface
temperature of the wire is measured to be 152 ˚C in as
steady operation. Also, the voltage drop and electric
current through the wire are measured to be 60V and
1.5A, respectively. Disregarding any heat transfer by
radiation, determine the convection heat transfer
coefficient.

12/2/2018 PE 311 5
Boundary Layer
Viscous interaction of the fluid and surface give
rise to boundary layer flow.
Fluid dynamics in the boundary layer is
governed by the Reynolds number and the free
stream turbulence.
Boundary layer is dependent on the flow
geometry – internal, external, parallel, or cross
flow

12/2/2018 PE 311 6
Effect of Boundary layer
Fluid in the boundary layer is almost stagnant.
In this layer, heat transfer is by thermal conduction
Because the thermal conductivity of most fluids is
low, the main resistance to heat and mass transfer
lies there
Increase in fluid velocity reduces the thickness of
the boundary layer thus giving rise to improved
heat and mass transfer
The film coefficient increases as (fluid velocity)n,
where 0.6 < n< 0.8, depending upon the geometry

12/2/2018 PE 311 7
Heat transfer in boundary layer
Heat transfer in the boundary layer could be
given by:
A

Q  Ts ,1  Ts , 2 .......................(1)
L

## But the effective thickness L is not generally

known but is approximately proportional to
Re-0.2 and the equation is usually written as
Q    A  T1  T2 ...................(2)
where  is the heat transfer coefficient of the film

12/2/2018 PE 311 8
Dimensionless Numbers for
Convective Heat Transfer
Value of convective heat transfer coefficient
depends upon:
Physical configuration
Properties of fluid involved
Empirical correlations are available to estimate heat
transfer coefficients for a variety of natural and
forced convection heat transfer configurations.
These correlations are typically expressed in terms of
dimensionless number

12/2/2018 PE 311 9
Application of Dimensional Analysis to
Heat Transfer by Convection
A lot of factors influence the value of thus it is
not possible to determine their individual
effects by direct experimental methods
Q
q   f u, l , C p , T ,  , g ,  ,  , ..........(3)
A
Using π-theorem for solution of the equation:
Recurring set: l, ∆T ,, , 
Non-recurring set: u, (g), Cp, q

12/2/2018 PE 311 10
Application of Dimensional Analysis
to Heat Transfer by Convection
Equation (3) becomes
q l  l  l  u     C p     g  T  l 3  2 
  f  ,  ,  
  T          2


## Nu  f  Re , Pr , Gr

Nusselt Reynolds Prandtl Grashof

12/2/2018 PE 311 11
Dimensional Analysis
Natural convection:
Velocity depends only on the buoyancy effect
(Gr)
Magnitude of velocity is very small hence Re can
be omitted
Thus Nu = f(Pr, Gr)
Dimensionless number typically used are
Prandtl number
Rayleigh number
Grashof number
Ra = (Pr)(Gr)
12/2/2018 PE 311 12
Dimensional Analysis
Forced convection:
Magnitude of velocity is large hence Re cannot be
neglected
Buoyancy effect is usually negligible and Gr may be
omitted.
Thus: Nu = f( Re, Pr)

12/2/2018 PE 311 13
Forced Convection Heat Transfer
Configurations
Forced convection takes place when a flow is
pumped or blown past a solid surface that is at
a different temperature than the fluid
Heat transfer correlations to be discussed
Laminar flow inside a circular pipe
Turbulent flow inside circular pipes
Turbulent flow through non- circular ducts
Flow across single circular cylinder
Flow parallel to flat plate

12/2/2018 PE 311 14
Laminar Flow inside pipe
The velocity distribution across the diameter is
parabolic

Boundary
layer

## Boundary layer is very thick Heat transfer is by

conduction.
Velocity of fluid near the wall is greater in the heated
section, and correspondingly less at the centre.

12/2/2018 PE 311 15
Laminar Flow inside pipe
The temperature distribution across the diameter is
also parabolic

Boundary
layer

## Because of the increase of viscosity with temperature

in gases, the variation in velocity profile becomes
slightly different. The heat transfer problem is
therefore complex.
12/2/2018 PE 311 16
Laminar Flow inside pipe
Before reaching stead state conditions, the velocity
and temperature profiles will be varying
hydrodynamic and thermal entry lengths,
respectively.

12/2/2018 PE 311 17
Laminar Flow inside pipe
For thermally developing, hydrodynamically
developed laminar flows:
Uniform Wall Temperature:
0.8
 D
0.19   Re Pr 
Nu  3.657   L
..................(5)
0.467
 D
1  0.117   Re Pr 
 L
Uniform Heat Flux:
  D 3
1
 D
1.953   Re Pr   Re Pr   33.3
  L  L
Nu   ..............(6)
  D  D
 4.364  0.0722   Re  Pr    Re  Pr    33.3
  L   L

12/2/2018 PE 311 18
Laminar Flow inside pipe
For thermally and hydrodynamically
developing flows
Uniform Wall Temperature
1/ 3
 D
0.0677   Re Pr 
Nu  3.657   L
...................(7)
0.3
 D
1  0.1 Pr  Re 
 L

## This is the same as Equation (13) except for circled

part

12/2/2018 PE 311 19
Laminar Flow inside pipe
For thermally and hydrodynamically
developing flows :
Uniform Heat Flux
1/ 3
 D
0.086   Re Pr 
Nu  4.364   L
..................(8)
0.83
 D
1  0.1 Pr  Re 
 L

## The first value on the LHS is is the same as that in

Equation (14), otherwise the structure is slightly
different
12/2/2018 PE 311 20
Laminar Flow inside pipe
For infinitely long pipe, the system will be
thermally developed giving:
~0
Uniform Wall Temperature:
0.8
 D 
0.19   Re Pr 
Nu  3.657   L L  
 3.657..............(9)
0.467
 D 

1  0.117   Re Pr 
 L L  
Uniform Heat Flux: ~0
 
1
 3
1.953   Re Pr D  D
   0  Re Pr   33.3
  L L    L
Nu   .......(10)
  D   D

4.364  0.0722   Re Pr L   4.364  Re Pr   33.3
  L    L
~0
12/2/2018 PE 311 21
Laminar Flow inside pipe
For infinitely long pipe, the system will be
thermally and hydrodynamically developed
giving:
Uniform Wall Temperature:
Same as Equation (9)

## Uniform Heat Flux:

Same as Equation (10)

12/2/2018 PE 311 22
Laminar Flow inside pipe
Physical properties of the fluid are likely to vary with
temperature
This might affect the heat transfer calculated.
For Gases the effect on Nusselt numbers is negligible,
thus the same correlations could be used.
For liquids viscosities are affected most by
temperature variations hence need for correction of
the Nusselt numbers:
0.14
 
Nuo  Nu  ........................(11)
 s 
where Nuo is the actual (corrected) Nusselt number.

12/2/2018 PE 311 23
Turbulent flow in Pipes
Variety of fluids led to the following general
correlation:
Nu  C  Re  Pr ........(12)
m n

## where C is a constant, m and n are exponents, which are less than 1

All the correlations presented here were developed
for Uniform Heat Flux
However, for fluids with Pr > 0.7 these correlations
apply for Uniform Wall Temperatures with
negligible error

12/2/2018 PE 311 24
Turbulent flow in Pipes
The simplest in the series of such equations is
the one by Dittus and Boelter, which is
expressed as:
Nu  0.023  Re  Pr ......(13)
0.8 n

## where n = 0.4 for heating (i.e. Ts>Tm) and n=0.3 for

cooling (i.e. Ts<Tm).
Physical properties are evaluated at the mean bulk
temperature of the fluid T: T  Tin  Tout ......(14)
2
Equation (14) is valid for: L
 10
Re > 10000; 0.7 < Pr < 160 and D
12/2/2018 PE 311 25
Turbulent flow in Pipes
Viscous liquids will have a marked difference between
the viscosity of the fluid adjacent to the surface and at
the centre of the pipe
Sieder and Tate proposed a modified equation to cater
for this:
0.14
 
Nu  0.027  Re  Pr
0.8 0.33
   ................(15)
 s 

## where  is the viscosity at the bulk temperature and s is the

viscosity at the wall or surface temperature

12/2/2018 PE 311 26
Turbulent flow in Pipes
Disagreement between practise and Equations (13)
and (15) is as large as 25%
Both equations are not valid in the transition region
(2300 < Re < 10000)
Petukhov and later Gnielinsk proposed a more
suitable expression:

 Re  1000  Pr
  D 23 
Nu  8  1    ............(16)
  2 3    L  
1  12.7    Pr  1
8  
1

1.82  log Re   1.642 is friction factor
12/2/2018 PE 311 27
Turbulent flow in Pipes
Variation of fluid properties with temperature affect
the calculated heat transfer
To cater for the effects Equation (16) is multiplied by a
viscosity correction factor
For Liquids:

 Re  1000  Pr
  D  2 3     0.14
Nu  8  1        ........(17)
  2 3    L     s 
1  12.7    Pr  1
8  

For Gases:

 Re  1000  Pr  D  2 3   T  0.36
Nu  8  1       m  ........(18)
  2 3    L    Ts 
1  12.7    Pr  1
8  

12/2/2018 PE 311 28
Turbulent Flow in Non-Circular sections
Fluids flow and heat transfer can occur in non-circular
ducts

D1 D2
Pipe material

## Figure 3: Cross-section of concentric pipes

12/2/2018 PE 311 29
Turbulent Flow in Non-Circular sections
Equations developed for turbulent flow inside circular
pipe are valid
Pipe diameter, D has to be replaced by equivalent or
hydraulic mean diameter, Dh
Hydraulic mean diameter is calculated as

## 4  Flow Cross Sectional Area 

Dh  ..........(19)
Wetted Perimeter

12/2/2018 PE 311 30
Turbulent Flow in Non-Circular sections
Applying Equation (20) in Figure 3
4  Flow Cross Sectional Area 
Dh 
Wetted Perimeter
4  Cross Sectional Area of Outer Pipe   Cross Sectional Area of Inner Pipe 

Wetted Perimeter of Outer Pipe  Wetted Perimeter of Inner Pipe

4
4

 D2  D1
2 2

Dh   D2  D1...........(20)
  D1  D2 

12/2/2018 PE 311 31
Turbulent Flow in Non-Circular sections
Fluid flowing through the annulus is unique:
Heat transfer at the inner wall while the outer wall is
insulated 0.16
Nu  D1 
 0.86    ...........(21)
Nuinner pipe  D2 
Heat transfer at the outer wall while the inner wall is
insulated  
0.6
Nu D
 1  0.14   1  ...............(22)
Nuinner pipe  D2 

Heat transfer at both walls and the walls are at the same
temperature 0.84
 0.6

 D1   D1 
0.86     1  0.14    
Nu  D2    D2  
 ...(23)
Nuinner pipe D1
1
12/2/2018 PE 311 D2 32
Forced Convection outside Tubes
Fluid flow at right angle across a single tube gives
non-uniform velocity distribution.

## Similarly, rate of heat flow around a hot pipe is non-

uniform but is a maximum at the front and back and a
minimum at the sides.

12/2/2018 PE 311 33
Forced Convection outside Tubes
For design purposes reference is made to the average
value
The general empirical correlation for turbulent flow
becomes as given by Hilpert:
1
Nu  C  Re  Pr 3 .............(25)
m

## where C and m are given in the Table 1;

Table 1: Values of C and m
Re C m
0.4 – 4 0.989 0.330
4 – 40 0.911 0.385
40 – 4,000 0.683 0.466
4,000 – 40,000 0.193 0.618
40,000 – 400,000 0.027 0.805
12/2/2018 PE 311 34
Forced Convection outside Tubes
Constants for other non-circular cross sections
Table 2: Values of C and m for non-circular sections
Geometry Re C m
Square 5,000 – 100,000 0.246 0.588
D
u

u D

u D

D
u

## Hexagon 5,000 – 19,500 0.160 0.638

u D
19,500 – 100,000 0.153 0.782
12/2/2018 PE 311 35
Forced Convection outside Tubes
Zukauskas ‘ correlation for the circular cylinder in
cross flow.
1
 Pr  4
Nu  C  Re  Pr  
m n
 .............(26)
 Prs 

is valid for 0.7 < Pr < 500 and 1 < Re < 106

## If Pr ≤ 10, n = 0.37 otherwise n = 0.36.

The values of where C and m are given in Table 3
12/2/2018 PE 311 36
Forced Convection outside Tubes
Table 3: Values of C and m for Eq. (26)
Re C m
1 – 40 0.75 0.4
40 – 1,000 0.51 0.5
1,000 – 2x105 0.26 0.6
2x105– 106 0.076 0.7
Physical properties are evaluated at free
stream temperature (upstream of the obstacle)
of the fluid, except Prs which is evaluated at
the surface temperature
12/2/2018 PE 311 37
Forced Convection outside tubes
Churchill and Bernstein proposed the
following correlation for a circular cylinder
in cross flow.
4
1
0.62  Re 2  Pr
1
3   Re  5
8  5
Nu  0.3  1     .....(27)
  282,000  
1
  0.4  2
3  4
 
1    
  Pr  

## All properties are evaluated at Film

temperature
12/2/2018 PE 311 38
Example
A metallic cylinder 12.7 mm in diameter and 94 mm
long is heated internally by an electric heater and is
subjected to a cross flow of air. Under a specific set of
operating conditions for which upstream air velocity
and temperature were 10 m/s and 26.2 oC,
respectively the heater power dissipation was 46 W,
while the average cylinder surface temperature was
128.4 oC. Assuming 15 % of the power dissipation is
lost through surface radiation and conduction
through the end pieces:
a) Determine the convective heat transfer coefficient
b) Compare the result with the convection coefficient
computed from appropriate correlation.
12/2/2018 PE 311 39
Example – Solution 1
V=10m/s
Air
T=26.2oC

D=12.7mm Ts=128.4oC
L=94mm

P=46W

## Figure 9: Heat transfer Layout

12/2/2018 PE 311 40
Example – Solution 2
Convective heat transfer is given by:

Q   A  Ts  T 
Giving
Q
 
A  Ts  T 

But
A    D L
12/2/2018 PE 311 41
Example – Solution 3
Thus
Q
 exp 
  D  L  Ts  T 
0.85 x 46
  102 W m 2 K
  0.0127 x0.094  128.4  26.2

12/2/2018 PE 311 42
Example – Solution 4
Using Zukauskas correlation, Equation (33)
Physical properties of air:
at T = 273+26.2=299.2 K:
Pr = 0.707
 = 15.89 x 10-6 m2/s
 = 26.3 x 10-3 W/mK
at Ts = 273 + 128.4 = 401 K: Prs = 0.69
• Giving
uD 10 x0.0127
Re    7,992
12/2/2018
 15
PE 311
. 89 x10 6
43
Example – Solution 5
From Table 3, C = 0.26 and m = 0.6. Since Pr <10, n =
0.37
Therefore
1
 0.707  4
Nu Z  0.26 x7,992 x0.707 x   50.5
0.6 0.37

 0.69 
Nu Z   50.5 x26.3x10 3
Z    105 W mK
D 0.0127
Giving
  Z   exp   105  102 
Error  100     100     2.94 %
    102 
 exp 
12/2/2018 PE 311 44
Example – Solution 6
Using Hilpert correlation Equation (31)
Properties evaluated at bulk mean temperature
T  Ts 128.4  26.2
T  273   350 K
2 2
Gives
Pr = 0.700
 = 20.92 x 10-6 m2/s
 = 30 x 10-3 W/mK
• Thus
uD 10 x0.0127
Re    6,071
 20.92 x10 6

12/2/2018 PE 311 45
Example – Solution 7
From Table 1, C = 0.193 and m = 0.618
Therefore

Nu H  0.193 x6,071
1
 37.3
0.618 3
x0.700

## NuH   37.3x30 x10 3

H    88.2 W m 2 K
D 0.0127
Giving
  H   exp 
Error  100     100   88.2  102   13.56 %
    102 
 exp 

12/2/2018 PE 311 46
Example – Solution 8
Using Churchill and Bernstein equation Equation (34)

## Properties evaluated at bulk mean temperature

T  Ts 128.4  26.2
T  273   350 K
Gives 2 2
Pr = 0.700
 = 20.92 x 10-6 m2/s
 = 30 x 10-3 W/mK
• Thus
uD 10 x0.0127
Re    6,071
 20.92 x10 6

12/2/2018 PE 311 47
Example – Solution 9
Therefore
NuC  
C   96 W / m 2 K
D

Giving

  C   exp 
Error  100     100   96  102    5.88 %
    102 
 exp 

12/2/2018 PE 311 48
Forced Convection for Flow over Flat
Plates

## For laminar boundary layer, constant wall

temperature we use equation by Pohlhausen, Equation
(28)
1 1
Nu lam  0.664  Re 2  Pr 3 .............(28)
valid for ReL < 2x105 and 0.6 < Pr < 10

12/2/2018 PE 311 49
Forced Convection for Flow over Flat
Plates
For a turbulent boundary layer along the whole plate
and constant wall temperature we use equation (29)
by Petukhov: Nu turb  0.037  Re 0.8  Pr
..........(29)

  Pr 3  1
2
0.1
1  2.443  Re
 

## And where we have laminar-turbulent transition

Gnielinski’s equation is more suitable. This is
expressed as:

2 2
Nu  Nu lam  Nu turb ............(30)
12/2/2018 PE 311 50
Convective Heat Transfer to Spherical Particles
Relative motion between fluid and particle or droplet
causes an increase in heat transfer due to convection,
expressed generally as:

Nu  2    Re  Pr ........(31)

 m n

## where values of   (constant) and exponents m and n

are found experimentally.
The characteristic length for computation of Re and
Nu is the diameter of the sphere.

12/2/2018 PE 311 51
Convective Heat Transfer to Spherical
Particles
The Reynolds number is calculated using the
relative velocity between the particle and the
fluid:
u f  u p Dp 
Re p  ..........(32)

## where uf is the fluid velocity, up is the particle

velocity and Dp is the mean particle diameter.
As u  u  0 , Re 0
f p
and Eq. (31) reduces to Nu=2, representing pure
conduction
12/2/2018 PE 311 52
Convective Heat Transfer to Spherical
Particles
For particle Reynolds numbers in the range
20 to 2000, Equation (31) can be written as

Nu  2     Re  Pr
0.5 0.33
..........(33)

## and   lies between 0.4 and 0.8 and has a

value of 0.69 for air and 0.79 for water.

12/2/2018 PE 311 53
Natural Convection
In the same way air in contact with a hot plate will
be heated by natural convection currents.
There is no external agency forcing the fluid to
move.
Transfer of heat is relatively low since the natural
convection currents move rather slowly.

12/2/2018 PE 311 54
Natural Convection to Air
For a special case of convection from a hot body to air
the Equation (34) may be simplified.
For streamline flow Equation (34) becomes:
1
x  g  T  x   C p   4
3 2
Nu   C     ........(34)
   2
 
On rearrangement becomes
1
 g  T  x 3   2 C p    4
 4

  C    
  x
2 4
 
1 1
 T  4  g   C p  4
2
 C       
 x   x  
4

12/2/2018 PE 311 55
Natural Convection to air
Over a wide range of temperature:
1
 g   C p  2 4
    C2  CONSTANT ..........(35)
   
The heat transfer coefficient may thus be
obtained from the relation:
1 1 1
 T   g   C p 
4 2
 T  4 4
  C          C     C2
 x   x    x 
4

1
 T  4
 C   2.45    ...........................................................(36)
 x 

12/2/2018 PE 311 56
Natural Convection to air
Churchill and Thelen proposed the following
correlation for heat transfer by natural convection
1
  6
 Ra 
 
Nu  Nuo   300  .......(37)
 16
9 

   0.5   
9
16 

 1   Pr   
   
Valid for 104  Ra  4 1014 and 0.022  Pr  7640
Nuo Characteristic length
Vertical wall 0.67 Height
Horizontal cylinder 0.36 Diameter
Sphere 2.00 Diameter
12/2/2018 PE 311 57