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Transfer

CONVECTION

12/2/2018 PE 311 1

Heat Transfer by Convection

Convection heat transfer takes place whenever

a fluid is in contact with a solid surface that is

at a different temperature than the fluid.

scale:

eddies

circulating currents (as a result of density difference

or produced by an external agency such as an

agitator)

12/2/2018 PE 311 2

Heat Transfer by Convection

If the fluid is moving past the solid surface

because of an external driving force, like a

pump or blower, then it is called forced

convection.

due to density differences, caused by

temperature variation in fluid.

12/2/2018 PE 311 3

Newton’s Law of Cooling

The rate of convection heat transfer is

expressed by Newton’s Law of cooling as

Surface geometry

Nature of fluid motion

Properties of the fluid

12/2/2018 PE 311 4

Example

A 2-m long, 0.3 cm diameter electrical wire extends

across a room at 15˚C, heat is generated in the wire as

a result of resistance heating, and the surface

temperature of the wire is measured to be 152 ˚C in as

steady operation. Also, the voltage drop and electric

current through the wire are measured to be 60V and

1.5A, respectively. Disregarding any heat transfer by

radiation, determine the convection heat transfer

coefficient.

12/2/2018 PE 311 5

Boundary Layer

Viscous interaction of the fluid and surface give

rise to boundary layer flow.

Fluid dynamics in the boundary layer is

governed by the Reynolds number and the free

stream turbulence.

Boundary layer is dependent on the flow

geometry – internal, external, parallel, or cross

flow

12/2/2018 PE 311 6

Effect of Boundary layer

Fluid in the boundary layer is almost stagnant.

In this layer, heat transfer is by thermal conduction

Because the thermal conductivity of most fluids is

low, the main resistance to heat and mass transfer

lies there

Increase in fluid velocity reduces the thickness of

the boundary layer thus giving rise to improved

heat and mass transfer

The film coefficient increases as (fluid velocity)n,

where 0.6 < n< 0.8, depending upon the geometry

12/2/2018 PE 311 7

Heat transfer in boundary layer

Heat transfer in the boundary layer could be

given by:

A

Q Ts ,1 Ts , 2 .......................(1)

L

known but is approximately proportional to

Re-0.2 and the equation is usually written as

Q A T1 T2 ...................(2)

where is the heat transfer coefficient of the film

12/2/2018 PE 311 8

Dimensionless Numbers for

Convective Heat Transfer

Value of convective heat transfer coefficient

depends upon:

Physical configuration

Properties of fluid involved

Empirical correlations are available to estimate heat

transfer coefficients for a variety of natural and

forced convection heat transfer configurations.

These correlations are typically expressed in terms of

dimensionless number

12/2/2018 PE 311 9

Application of Dimensional Analysis to

Heat Transfer by Convection

A lot of factors influence the value of thus it is

not possible to determine their individual

effects by direct experimental methods

Q

q f u, l , C p , T , , g , , , ..........(3)

A

Using π-theorem for solution of the equation:

Recurring set: l, ∆T ,, ,

Non-recurring set: u, (g), Cp, q

12/2/2018 PE 311 10

Application of Dimensional Analysis

to Heat Transfer by Convection

Equation (3) becomes

q l l l u C p g T l 3 2

f , ,

T 2

Nusselt Reynolds Prandtl Grashof

12/2/2018 PE 311 11

Dimensional Analysis

Natural convection:

Velocity depends only on the buoyancy effect

(Gr)

Magnitude of velocity is very small hence Re can

be omitted

Thus Nu = f(Pr, Gr)

Dimensionless number typically used are

Prandtl number

Rayleigh number

Grashof number

Ra = (Pr)(Gr)

12/2/2018 PE 311 12

Dimensional Analysis

Forced convection:

Magnitude of velocity is large hence Re cannot be

neglected

Buoyancy effect is usually negligible and Gr may be

omitted.

Thus: Nu = f( Re, Pr)

12/2/2018 PE 311 13

Forced Convection Heat Transfer

Configurations

Forced convection takes place when a flow is

pumped or blown past a solid surface that is at

a different temperature than the fluid

Heat transfer correlations to be discussed

Laminar flow inside a circular pipe

Turbulent flow inside circular pipes

Turbulent flow through non- circular ducts

Flow across single circular cylinder

Flow parallel to flat plate

12/2/2018 PE 311 14

Laminar Flow inside pipe

The velocity distribution across the diameter is

parabolic

Boundary

layer

conduction.

Velocity of fluid near the wall is greater in the heated

section, and correspondingly less at the centre.

12/2/2018 PE 311 15

Laminar Flow inside pipe

The temperature distribution across the diameter is

also parabolic

Boundary

layer

in gases, the variation in velocity profile becomes

slightly different. The heat transfer problem is

therefore complex.

12/2/2018 PE 311 16

Laminar Flow inside pipe

Before reaching stead state conditions, the velocity

and temperature profiles will be varying

hydrodynamic and thermal entry lengths,

respectively.

12/2/2018 PE 311 17

Laminar Flow inside pipe

For thermally developing, hydrodynamically

developed laminar flows:

Uniform Wall Temperature:

0.8

D

0.19 Re Pr

Nu 3.657 L

..................(5)

0.467

D

1 0.117 Re Pr

L

Uniform Heat Flux:

D 3

1

D

1.953 Re Pr Re Pr 33.3

L L

Nu ..............(6)

D D

4.364 0.0722 Re Pr Re Pr 33.3

L L

12/2/2018 PE 311 18

Laminar Flow inside pipe

For thermally and hydrodynamically

developing flows

Uniform Wall Temperature

1/ 3

D

0.0677 Re Pr

Nu 3.657 L

...................(7)

0.3

D

1 0.1 Pr Re

L

part

12/2/2018 PE 311 19

Laminar Flow inside pipe

For thermally and hydrodynamically

developing flows :

Uniform Heat Flux

1/ 3

D

0.086 Re Pr

Nu 4.364 L

..................(8)

0.83

D

1 0.1 Pr Re

L

Equation (14), otherwise the structure is slightly

different

12/2/2018 PE 311 20

Laminar Flow inside pipe

For infinitely long pipe, the system will be

thermally developed giving:

~0

Uniform Wall Temperature:

0.8

D

0.19 Re Pr

Nu 3.657 L L

3.657..............(9)

0.467

D

1 0.117 Re Pr

L L

Uniform Heat Flux: ~0

1

3

1.953 Re Pr D D

0 Re Pr 33.3

L L L

Nu .......(10)

D D

4.364 0.0722 Re Pr L 4.364 Re Pr 33.3

L L

~0

12/2/2018 PE 311 21

Laminar Flow inside pipe

For infinitely long pipe, the system will be

thermally and hydrodynamically developed

giving:

Uniform Wall Temperature:

Same as Equation (9)

Same as Equation (10)

12/2/2018 PE 311 22

Laminar Flow inside pipe

Physical properties of the fluid are likely to vary with

temperature

This might affect the heat transfer calculated.

For Gases the effect on Nusselt numbers is negligible,

thus the same correlations could be used.

For liquids viscosities are affected most by

temperature variations hence need for correction of

the Nusselt numbers:

0.14

Nuo Nu ........................(11)

s

where Nuo is the actual (corrected) Nusselt number.

12/2/2018 PE 311 23

Turbulent flow in Pipes

Variety of fluids led to the following general

correlation:

Nu C Re Pr ........(12)

m n

All the correlations presented here were developed

for Uniform Heat Flux

However, for fluids with Pr > 0.7 these correlations

apply for Uniform Wall Temperatures with

negligible error

12/2/2018 PE 311 24

Turbulent flow in Pipes

The simplest in the series of such equations is

the one by Dittus and Boelter, which is

expressed as:

Nu 0.023 Re Pr ......(13)

0.8 n

cooling (i.e. Ts<Tm).

Physical properties are evaluated at the mean bulk

temperature of the fluid T: T Tin Tout ......(14)

2

Equation (14) is valid for: L

10

Re > 10000; 0.7 < Pr < 160 and D

12/2/2018 PE 311 25

Turbulent flow in Pipes

Viscous liquids will have a marked difference between

the viscosity of the fluid adjacent to the surface and at

the centre of the pipe

Sieder and Tate proposed a modified equation to cater

for this:

0.14

Nu 0.027 Re Pr

0.8 0.33

................(15)

s

viscosity at the wall or surface temperature

12/2/2018 PE 311 26

Turbulent flow in Pipes

Disagreement between practise and Equations (13)

and (15) is as large as 25%

Both equations are not valid in the transition region

(2300 < Re < 10000)

Petukhov and later Gnielinsk proposed a more

suitable expression:

Re 1000 Pr

D 23

Nu 8 1 ............(16)

2 3 L

1 12.7 Pr 1

8

1

1.82 log Re 1.642 is friction factor

12/2/2018 PE 311 27

Turbulent flow in Pipes

Variation of fluid properties with temperature affect

the calculated heat transfer

To cater for the effects Equation (16) is multiplied by a

viscosity correction factor

For Liquids:

Re 1000 Pr

D 2 3 0.14

Nu 8 1 ........(17)

2 3 L s

1 12.7 Pr 1

8

For Gases:

Re 1000 Pr D 2 3 T 0.36

Nu 8 1 m ........(18)

2 3 L Ts

1 12.7 Pr 1

8

12/2/2018 PE 311 28

Turbulent Flow in Non-Circular sections

Fluids flow and heat transfer can occur in non-circular

ducts

D1 D2

Pipe material

12/2/2018 PE 311 29

Turbulent Flow in Non-Circular sections

Equations developed for turbulent flow inside circular

pipe are valid

Pipe diameter, D has to be replaced by equivalent or

hydraulic mean diameter, Dh

Hydraulic mean diameter is calculated as

Dh ..........(19)

Wetted Perimeter

12/2/2018 PE 311 30

Turbulent Flow in Non-Circular sections

Applying Equation (20) in Figure 3

4 Flow Cross Sectional Area

Dh

Wetted Perimeter

4 Cross Sectional Area of Outer Pipe Cross Sectional Area of Inner Pipe

Wetted Perimeter of Outer Pipe Wetted Perimeter of Inner Pipe

4

4

D2 D1

2 2

Dh D2 D1...........(20)

D1 D2

12/2/2018 PE 311 31

Turbulent Flow in Non-Circular sections

Fluid flowing through the annulus is unique:

Heat transfer at the inner wall while the outer wall is

insulated 0.16

Nu D1

0.86 ...........(21)

Nuinner pipe D2

Heat transfer at the outer wall while the inner wall is

insulated

0.6

Nu D

1 0.14 1 ...............(22)

Nuinner pipe D2

Heat transfer at both walls and the walls are at the same

temperature 0.84

0.6

D1 D1

0.86 1 0.14

Nu D2 D2

...(23)

Nuinner pipe D1

1

12/2/2018 PE 311 D2 32

Forced Convection outside Tubes

Fluid flow at right angle across a single tube gives

non-uniform velocity distribution.

uniform but is a maximum at the front and back and a

minimum at the sides.

12/2/2018 PE 311 33

Forced Convection outside Tubes

For design purposes reference is made to the average

value

The general empirical correlation for turbulent flow

becomes as given by Hilpert:

1

Nu C Re Pr 3 .............(25)

m

Table 1: Values of C and m

Re C m

0.4 – 4 0.989 0.330

4 – 40 0.911 0.385

40 – 4,000 0.683 0.466

4,000 – 40,000 0.193 0.618

40,000 – 400,000 0.027 0.805

12/2/2018 PE 311 34

Forced Convection outside Tubes

Constants for other non-circular cross sections

Table 2: Values of C and m for non-circular sections

Geometry Re C m

Square 5,000 – 100,000 0.246 0.588

D

u

u D

u D

D

u

u D

19,500 – 100,000 0.153 0.782

12/2/2018 PE 311 35

Forced Convection outside Tubes

Zukauskas ‘ correlation for the circular cylinder in

cross flow.

1

Pr 4

Nu C Re Pr

m n

.............(26)

Prs

is valid for 0.7 < Pr < 500 and 1 < Re < 106

The values of where C and m are given in Table 3

12/2/2018 PE 311 36

Forced Convection outside Tubes

Table 3: Values of C and m for Eq. (26)

Re C m

1 – 40 0.75 0.4

40 – 1,000 0.51 0.5

1,000 – 2x105 0.26 0.6

2x105– 106 0.076 0.7

Physical properties are evaluated at free

stream temperature (upstream of the obstacle)

of the fluid, except Prs which is evaluated at

the surface temperature

12/2/2018 PE 311 37

Forced Convection outside tubes

Churchill and Bernstein proposed the

following correlation for a circular cylinder

in cross flow.

4

1

0.62 Re 2 Pr

1

3 Re 5

8 5

Nu 0.3 1 .....(27)

282,000

1

0.4 2

3 4

1

Pr

temperature

12/2/2018 PE 311 38

Example

A metallic cylinder 12.7 mm in diameter and 94 mm

long is heated internally by an electric heater and is

subjected to a cross flow of air. Under a specific set of

operating conditions for which upstream air velocity

and temperature were 10 m/s and 26.2 oC,

respectively the heater power dissipation was 46 W,

while the average cylinder surface temperature was

128.4 oC. Assuming 15 % of the power dissipation is

lost through surface radiation and conduction

through the end pieces:

a) Determine the convective heat transfer coefficient

b) Compare the result with the convection coefficient

computed from appropriate correlation.

12/2/2018 PE 311 39

Example – Solution 1

V=10m/s

Air

T=26.2oC

D=12.7mm Ts=128.4oC

L=94mm

P=46W

12/2/2018 PE 311 40

Example – Solution 2

Convective heat transfer is given by:

Q A Ts T

Giving

Q

A Ts T

But

A D L

12/2/2018 PE 311 41

Example – Solution 3

Thus

Q

exp

D L Ts T

0.85 x 46

102 W m 2 K

0.0127 x0.094 128.4 26.2

12/2/2018 PE 311 42

Example – Solution 4

Using Zukauskas correlation, Equation (33)

Physical properties of air:

at T = 273+26.2=299.2 K:

Pr = 0.707

= 15.89 x 10-6 m2/s

= 26.3 x 10-3 W/mK

at Ts = 273 + 128.4 = 401 K: Prs = 0.69

• Giving

uD 10 x0.0127

Re 7,992

12/2/2018

15

PE 311

. 89 x10 6

43

Example – Solution 5

From Table 3, C = 0.26 and m = 0.6. Since Pr <10, n =

0.37

Therefore

1

0.707 4

Nu Z 0.26 x7,992 x0.707 x 50.5

0.6 0.37

0.69

Nu Z 50.5 x26.3x10 3

Z 105 W mK

D 0.0127

Giving

Z exp 105 102

Error 100 100 2.94 %

102

exp

12/2/2018 PE 311 44

Example – Solution 6

Using Hilpert correlation Equation (31)

Properties evaluated at bulk mean temperature

T Ts 128.4 26.2

T 273 350 K

2 2

Gives

Pr = 0.700

= 20.92 x 10-6 m2/s

= 30 x 10-3 W/mK

• Thus

uD 10 x0.0127

Re 6,071

20.92 x10 6

12/2/2018 PE 311 45

Example – Solution 7

From Table 1, C = 0.193 and m = 0.618

Therefore

Nu H 0.193 x6,071

1

37.3

0.618 3

x0.700

H 88.2 W m 2 K

D 0.0127

Giving

H exp

Error 100 100 88.2 102 13.56 %

102

exp

12/2/2018 PE 311 46

Example – Solution 8

Using Churchill and Bernstein equation Equation (34)

T Ts 128.4 26.2

T 273 350 K

Gives 2 2

Pr = 0.700

= 20.92 x 10-6 m2/s

= 30 x 10-3 W/mK

• Thus

uD 10 x0.0127

Re 6,071

20.92 x10 6

12/2/2018 PE 311 47

Example – Solution 9

Therefore

NuC

C 96 W / m 2 K

D

Giving

C exp

Error 100 100 96 102 5.88 %

102

exp

12/2/2018 PE 311 48

Forced Convection for Flow over Flat

Plates

temperature we use equation by Pohlhausen, Equation

(28)

1 1

Nu lam 0.664 Re 2 Pr 3 .............(28)

valid for ReL < 2x105 and 0.6 < Pr < 10

12/2/2018 PE 311 49

Forced Convection for Flow over Flat

Plates

For a turbulent boundary layer along the whole plate

and constant wall temperature we use equation (29)

by Petukhov: Nu turb 0.037 Re 0.8 Pr

..........(29)

Pr 3 1

2

0.1

1 2.443 Re

Gnielinski’s equation is more suitable. This is

expressed as:

2 2

Nu Nu lam Nu turb ............(30)

12/2/2018 PE 311 50

Convective Heat Transfer to Spherical Particles

Relative motion between fluid and particle or droplet

causes an increase in heat transfer due to convection,

expressed generally as:

Nu 2 Re Pr ........(31)

m n

are found experimentally.

The characteristic length for computation of Re and

Nu is the diameter of the sphere.

12/2/2018 PE 311 51

Convective Heat Transfer to Spherical

Particles

The Reynolds number is calculated using the

relative velocity between the particle and the

fluid:

u f u p Dp

Re p ..........(32)

velocity and Dp is the mean particle diameter.

As u u 0 , Re 0

f p

and Eq. (31) reduces to Nu=2, representing pure

conduction

12/2/2018 PE 311 52

Convective Heat Transfer to Spherical

Particles

For particle Reynolds numbers in the range

20 to 2000, Equation (31) can be written as

Nu 2 Re Pr

0.5 0.33

..........(33)

value of 0.69 for air and 0.79 for water.

12/2/2018 PE 311 53

Natural Convection

In the same way air in contact with a hot plate will

be heated by natural convection currents.

There is no external agency forcing the fluid to

move.

Transfer of heat is relatively low since the natural

convection currents move rather slowly.

12/2/2018 PE 311 54

Natural Convection to Air

For a special case of convection from a hot body to air

the Equation (34) may be simplified.

For streamline flow Equation (34) becomes:

1

x g T x C p 4

3 2

Nu C ........(34)

2

On rearrangement becomes

1

g T x 3 2 C p 4

4

C

x

2 4

1 1

T 4 g C p 4

2

C

x x

4

12/2/2018 PE 311 55

Natural Convection to air

Over a wide range of temperature:

1

g C p 2 4

C2 CONSTANT ..........(35)

The heat transfer coefficient may thus be

obtained from the relation:

1 1 1

T g C p

4 2

T 4 4

C C C2

x x x

4

1

T 4

C 2.45 ...........................................................(36)

x

12/2/2018 PE 311 56

Natural Convection to air

Churchill and Thelen proposed the following

correlation for heat transfer by natural convection

1

6

Ra

Nu Nuo 300 .......(37)

16

9

0.5

9

16

1 Pr

Valid for 104 Ra 4 1014 and 0.022 Pr 7640

Nuo Characteristic length

Vertical wall 0.67 Height

Horizontal cylinder 0.36 Diameter

Sphere 2.00 Diameter

12/2/2018 PE 311 57

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