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HEAT TRANSFER

HEAT EXCHANGER DESIGN


Introduction
Heat transfer is applied in the following processes in
industries
Chemical reactions
Exothermic reactions require removal of energy to increase
rate of reaction
Endothermic reactions require supply of energy to increase
rate of reaction
Increased rate of reactions lead into smaller reactor size.
Examples : Combustion, gasification, pyrolysis,
polymerisation, synthesis, smelting of ores and alloying of
metals.

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Introduction
Air conditioning and space heating
Maintenance of environmental conditions for products and
for human comfort

Waste heat recovery


Industrial processes create a lot of waste heat, much of
which can be used effectively by the application of
appropriate heat transfer system

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Introduction

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Introduction
Physical changes
Heat transfer plays a role in the production of
materials in a specific physical state and form, in
their purification.
Examples : Evaporation, condensation,
crystallisation, drying, powder and fibre
production.
Power generation
Heat transfer is crucial to the generation of electrical
power and to the provision of cooling water for
power plant.
Examples : Thermal power plants, steam boilers.
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Introduction
Biological reactions
Microbial activity might lead into consumption
or release of energy
Microbial growth is best at certain temperature.
Thus, supply or removal of heat in the system is
necessary to maintain temperature that either
inhibits or enhances biological activity
Examples : fermentation, brewing, baking,
pasteurisation, purification, cooling and freezing
of foodstuff.

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Heat Exchangers

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Heat Exchanger Classifications

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Heat Exchanger Classifications

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Double Pipe Heat Exchanger
The industrial counterpart of a double pipe system is the
Double Pipe Heat Exchanger, as shown below

Principal parts are two sets of concentric pipes, two


connecting tees, and a return bend.
The inner pipe is supported within the outer pipe by packing
glands

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Double Pipe Heat Exchanger
The design process requires determination of
fluid placement - which fluid should pass
through the annulus and which should pass
through the inner pipe.
The Rules are:
Fluid with highest fouling characteristics should be
placed in the inner pipe for easier mechanical
cleaning
For equal allowable pressure drop on both streams,
ensure that there is nearly equal mass velocities and
pressure drops.
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Double Pipe Heat Exchanger
If the calculated pressure drop exceeds the allowable
value, the following might be done to transfer the heat
load.
Use a by-pass
Reverse the location of the streams.
Use Parallel-Series connection

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TYPES OF HEAT EXCHANGERS

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Compact heat exchanger: It has a large heat transfer
surface area per unit volume (e.g., car radiator, human
lung). A heat exchanger with the area density  > 700
m2/m3 is classified as being compact.

Cross-flow In compact heat exchangers, the two fluids


usually move perpendicular to each other. The cross-flow
is further classified as unmixed and mixed flow.

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Shell-and-tube heat exchanger: The most common type of heat exchanger in
industrial applications.
They contain a large number of tubes (sometimes several hundred) packed in a shell
with their axes parallel to that of the shell. Heat transfer takes place as one fluid flows
inside the tubes while the other fluid flows outside the tubes through the shell.
Shell-and-tube heat exchangers are further classified according to the number of shell
and tube passes involved.

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Regenerative heat exchanger: Involves
the alternate passage of the hot and cold
fluid streams through the same flow area.
Dynamic-type regenerator: Involves a
rotating drum and continuous flow of the
hot and cold fluid through different
portions of the drum so that any portion of
the drum passes periodically through the
hot stream, storing heat, and then through
the cold stream, rejecting this stored heat.
Ccondenser: One of the fluids is cooled
and condenses as it flows through the
heat exchanger.
Boiler: One of the fluids absorbs heat and
vaporizes.

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Plate and frame (or just plate) heat exchanger: Consists of a series of plates with
corrugated flat flow passages. The hot and cold fluids flow in alternate passages, and
thus each cold fluid stream is surrounded by two hot fluid streams, resulting in very
effective heat transfer. Well suited for liquid-to-liquid applications.

A plate-and-frame
liquid-to-liquid heat
exchanger.

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Plate Heat Exchangers
Plate heat exchangers are characterised by:
heat transfer efficiency up to five times that of other
types of heat exchanger
compact dimensions which fit in a small space and
are low weight
low investment and operating costs
flexible construction which can be extended or
rearranged to meet new process conditions
low fouling as a result of turbulence created by the
plate patter
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Spiral Heat Exchangers
Features of spiral heat exchanger are:
All stainless steel wetted surface is standard on the tube side
Least expensive construction for higher pressures and
temperatures
True counter-current flow and spiral pattern provide high
efficiency
Compact and lightweight
Rugged construction and spiral design allow for high initial
temperature difference between fluids, and protects against
hydraulic and thermal shock
Easy to clean, easy to install

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Spiral Heat Exchangers

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Heat Transfer Calculation
Heat transfer is described by

Q  U  A  T ..............(1)
where
U is the overall heat transfer coefficient,
A is the heat transfer area, and
T is the temperature difference.
Calculation of the value of U is a key requirement in
any design problem in which heating or cooling is
involved.
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Heat Transfer Calculation
If heat is transmitted through a number of media in
series, the overall heat transfer coefficient is broken
into individual coefficients
Suppose heat is being transferred through three
media, each of area A, the individual coefficients
being 1, 2, and 3 and the corresponding
temperature changes are T1, T2 and T3.
Q1  1  A  T1 

Q    A  T
2 2 2 .......................( 2)
 
Q3   3  A  T3 
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Heat Transfer Calculation

But Q    Q  Q
Q
1 2 3

From Equation (2)


Q 
T1  
1  A 
Q  
T2  ..............(3)
2  A
Q 
T3  
 3  A 
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Heat Transfer Calculation
From Equation (3), the total temperature difference
is given by:
T  T1  T2  T3
Q 1 Q 1 Q 1
  
A 1 A  2 A  3
Q  1 1 1 
 T      .............(4)
A  1  2  3 
But from Equation (1)
Q 1
T  
A U
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Heat Transfer Calculation
Therefore:
1 1 1 1 
    ............(5)
U  1  2  3 
The reciprocal of the heat transfer coefficients are the
resistances
Equation (5) illustrates that the resistances are
additive

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Heat Transfer Calculation
In some cases, for example, for radial flow of heat
through a thick pipe or cylinder, the area for heat
transfer is a function of position.
Thus the area for transfer applicable to each of the
three media could differ and may be A1, A2, and A3
Equation (2) then becomes
zAS2W2s1233`

Q1  1  A1  T1 

Q    A  T
2 2 2 2 .......................(6)
 
Q3   3  A3  T3 
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Heat Transfer Calculation
Since
Q1  Q 2  Q 3  Q

Then

T  T1  T2  T3


1 1 1
 Q  
Q 
Q
A1  1 A2   2 A3   3
 1 1 1 
 T  Q     ..............(7)
 A1  1 A2   2 A3   3 
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Heat Transfer Calculation
Equation (7) must then be written in terms of
one of the areas or sometimes in terms of a mean
area
Since Q and T must be independent of the
particular area considered, the value of U will
vary according to which area is used as the basis
Thus Equation (7) can be written, for example as:

Q  U1  A1  T ..............(8)

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Heat Transfer Calculation
Then
1 A1
   T
U1 Q
A1    1 1 1 
   Q     
Q   A1  1 A2   2 A3   3 
• Giving

1  1 A1 1 A1 1 
      .........(9)
U1  1 A2  2 A3   3 

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HEAT TRANSFER CALCULATION
• A heat exchanger typically involves two
flowing fluids separated by a solid wall.
• Heat is first transferred from the hot fluid to
the wall by convection, through the wall by
conduction, and from the wall to the cold
fluid again by convection.

Thermal resistance network


associated with heat transfer in
a double-pipe heat exchanger.
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U the overall heat transfer
coefficient, W/m2C

When

The overall heat transfer coefficient U is dominated by the smaller convection


coefficient. When one of the convection coefficients is much smaller than the other
(say, hi << ho), we have 1/hi >> 1/ho, and thus U  hi. This situation arises frequently
when one of the fluids is a gas and the other is a liquid. In such cases, fins are
commonly used on the gas side to enhance the product UA and thus the heat
transfer on that side.
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The overall heat transfer coefficient When the tube is finned on one
ranges from about 10 W/m2C for side to enhance heat transfer, the
gas-to-gas heat exchangers to about total heat transfer surface area on
10,000 W/m2C for heat exchangers the finned side is
that involve phase changes.

For short fins of high


thermal conductivity, we
can use this total area in
the convection
resistance relation
Rconv = 1/hAs

To account for fin efficiency

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Heat Exchanger Fouling
• Fouling is the formation of deposits on heat
transfer surface
• It impedes heat transfer
• It increases the resistance to fluid flow
• Fouling occurs in almost all heat transfer
processes
• Fouling increases costs of operating heat
exchangers
• The following Figure shows a set-up for a
fouled wall

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Heat Exchanger Fouling
T

f = Thickness of the fouling


layer
Heat Tw
f = Thermal conductivity of
transfer f
wall fouling layer
f

Thermal resistance in the fouling layer is given by:


f
Rf   f  fluid , geometry, temperature, time, velocity, etc....(1)
f

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Fouling Factor
The performance of heat exchangers usually deteriorates with time as a result of
accumulation of deposits on heat transfer surfaces. The layer of deposits represents
additional resistance to heat transfer. This is represented by a fouling factor Rf.

The fouling factor increases with the operating temperature and the length of
service and decreases with the velocity of the fluids.

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Economic Effect of Fouling
 Major costs include:
◦ Increased capital cost (over-designed exchangers,
use of switchable exchangers)
◦ Loss of energy (due to increased heat transfer
resistance)
◦ Loss of throughput (due to downtime)
◦ Increased pressure drop (hence pumping costs)
◦ Maintenance costs (cleaning and disposing waste,
chemical additives, replacement of parts, etc.)
◦ Increased safety hazards
◦ Reduced flow

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Types of Fouling
• Fouling can be classified according to
mechanism, process type, or by industry
• Most common classification is based on the
principal process that causes fouling:
– Particulate fouling
– Chemical reaction fouling
– Corrosion fouling
– Biological fouling
– Freezing fouling
– Precipitation fouling
• In most cases a combination of the above
mechanisms occurs together

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Fouling in Industry
Industry group Type of fouling that occurs Usual extent of
problem
Food and kindred Chemical reaction Major
products Precipitation (milk processing) Major
Biofouling Medium
Particulate (gas side) – spray drying Minor/Major
Corrosion Minor
Textile mill products Particulate (cooling water) Medium/Minor
Biofouling Medium
Chemical and Allied Chemical reaction (process side) Minor/major
Precipitation (process side, cooling water) Medium
Biofouling (cooling water) Medium
Particulate (cooling water, gas side) Minor/Medium
Corrosion Medium
Petroleum refining and Chemical reaction (process side) Major
related industries Precipitation (cooling water) Medium
Biofouling (cooling water) Medium
Particulate (cooling water, gas side) Minor/Medium
Corrosion (process side) Medium
Stone, clay, glass products Particulate (heat recovery, gas side) Minor/Major

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Fouling Process
• Fouling process involves four stages, namely:
– Transport of the deposits to the surface
– Attachment of the deposits to the surface
– Removal of part of the deposits from the surface
– Ageing of the deposit on the surface
• Net deposition (fouling) depends on:
– Time
– Geometry of the heat exchanger
– Type of foulant material
– Type of surface material
– Wall and bulk temperatures
– Stream velocity
– Heat exchange mechanism

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Example- 1
A double-pipe heat exchanger is constructed of a stainless
steel (𝜆 = 15.1𝑊/𝑚℃ ) inner tube of diameter 𝐷𝑖 =
1.5𝑐𝑚 and outer diameter of 𝐷𝑜 = 1.9𝑐𝑚 and outer shell
of inner diameter 3.2𝑐𝑚. The convection heat transfer
coefficient is given to be ℎ𝑖 = 800𝑊/𝑚2 ℃ on the inner
surface of the tube and ℎ𝑜 = 1200𝑊/𝑚2 ℃ on the outer
surface. For a fouling factor of 𝑅𝑓,𝑖 = 0.0004𝑚2 ℃/𝑊 on
the tube side and 𝑅𝑓,0 = 0.0001𝑚2 ℃/𝑊 on the shell
side, determine the thermal resistance of the heat
exchanger per unit length and overall heat transfer
coefficients, 𝑈𝑖 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑈𝑜 .

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ANALYSIS OF HEAT EXCHANGERS
An engineer often finds himself or herself in a position
1. to select a heat exchanger that will achieve a specified temperature
change in a fluid stream of known mass flow rate - the log mean
temperature difference (or LMTD) method.
2. to predict the outlet temperatures of the hot and cold fluid streams in
a specified heat exchanger - the effectiveness–NTU method.
The rate of heat transfer in heat
exchanger (HE is insulated): Two fluid
streams that
have the same
capacity rates
experience the
same
temperature
change in a well-
insulated heat
exchanger.

heat capacity rate

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THE LOG MEAN TEMPERATURE
DIFFERENCE METHOD

Consider a counter-current flow case; with


the following assumptions:
U is constant everywhere in the heat exchanger.
Specific heat capacity is constant
There are negligible heat losses
There are no partial phase changes
The flow is steady

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Mean Temperature Difference
For a small element of the length of the heat
exchanger, dL:
dQ  U  Th  Tc   A  dL...........(10)
is the surface area per unit length
A
dA  A  dL
d   M  Cp  dT  ..........(11a)
Q
But h h h

dQ  M c  Cpc  dT c ..........(11b)


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Mean Temperature Difference
Taking heat balance from L=0 to L=x measured
from the cold end
M h  C p,h  Th  Th, 2   M c  C p,c  Tc  Tc,1 ......(12)
From Equation (12)
M c  C p ,c
Th  Th, 2   Tc  Tc,1 ..........(13)
M  Ch p ,h

Substituting this in Equation ((10) gives

  C 
 Tc  Tc ,1   Tc   A  dL......(14)
 M
dQ  U  Th , 2 
c p ,c

 M h  C p ,h 
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Mean Temperature Difference
• Equating Equation (14) with (11b) gives
 M c  C p ,c 
dQ  U  Th , 2   Tc  Tc ,1   Tc   A  dL  M c  C p ,c  dTc ...(15)
 M h  C p ,h 

• Rearranging Equation (15) and integrating


U  A
L Tc , 2
1
0 M c  C p,c  dL  T1 M c  C p , c
 dTc
c,
Th , 2   Tc  Tc ,1   Tc
M  C h p,h

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Mean Temperature Difference
Resulting into
 M c  C p ,c  M c  C p ,c  
 Th, 2    Tc ,1     1  Tc , 2 
UA M h  C p ,h  M C 
1    
   ln 
h p ,h
...(16)
M c  C p ,c M c  C p ,c 
M  C  M c  C p ,c
 
 1  Th , 2  c p , c
 T    1  Tc ,1 
M h  C p ,h  M C c ,1  M  C  
 h p , h  h p , h  
But from energy balance:

M c  C p ,c
Th, 2  Th,1   Tc , 2  Tc ,1 ..........(17)
M  C h p ,h

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Mean Temperature Difference
Substituting Th,2 in the numerator of
Equation (16) and simplifying gives
UA 1  Th ,1  Tc , 2 
  ln   ........(18)
M c  C p ,c M c  C p ,c  Th , 2  Tc ,1 
1

M h  C p ,h
But from equation (17), i.e. energy balance:

M c  C p , c Th,1  Th, 2

M h  C p , h Tc , 2  Tc ,1
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Mean Temperature Difference
Proposed Substitution in Equation (18) gives

UA Tc , 2  Tc ,1  Th ,1  Tc , 2 
  ln  
M c  C p ,c Th ,1  Tc , 2   Th , 2  Tc ,1   Th , 2  Tc ,1 

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Mean Temperature Difference
Which can be rearranged into
 
 
 Th ,1  Tc , 2   Th, 2  Tc ,1 
Q  M c  C p ,c Tc , 2  Tc ,1   U  A  

 ....(19)
 Th,1  Tc , 2 
 ln   
 T  T  
 h, 2 c ,1 

(Th,1-Tc,2)=∆Th

(Th,2-Tc,1)= ∆Tc
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Mean Temperature Difference
The expression in the square bracket in
Equation (19) is the Logarithmic Mean
Temperature Difference (LMTD).
This expression is shortened into
Th  Tc
LMTD  .............(20)
Th
ln
Tc
Q  U  A  LMTD   U  A  Tlm .........(21)
Where Th= temperature difference at the hot
terminal and Tc= temperature difference at the
cold terminal
PE 311 Lecture Series 51
Multipass and Cross-Flow Heat Exchangers:
Use of a Correction Factor

F correction factor depends on the


geometry of the heat exchanger and the
inlet and outlet temperatures of the hot
and cold fluid streams.
F for common cross-flow and shell-and-
tube heat exchanger configurations is
given in the figure versus two
temperature ratios P and R defined as

1 and 2 inlet and outlet


T and t shell- and tube-side temperatures
F = 1 for a condenser or boiler

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Correction factor
F charts for
common shell-
and-tube heat
exchangers.

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Correction
factor F charts
for common
cross-flow heat
exchangers.

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The LMTD method is very suitable for determining the size of a heat
exchanger to realize prescribed outlet temperatures when the
mass flow rates and the inlet and outlet temperatures of the hot
and cold fluids are specified.
With the LMTD method, the task is to select a heat exchanger that
will meet the prescribed heat transfer requirements. The
procedure to be followed by the selection process is:
1. Select the type of heat exchanger suitable for the application.
2. Determine any unknown inlet or outlet temperature and the heat
transfer rate using an energy balance.
3. Calculate the log mean temperature difference Tlm and the
correction factor F, if necessary.
4. Obtain (select or calculate) the value of the overall heat transfer
coefficient U.
5. Calculate the heat transfer surface area As .
The task is completed by selecting a heat exchanger that has a
heat transfer surface area equal to or larger than As.

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Example -2
Steam in the condenser of a power plant is to be
condensed at a temperature of 30℃ with the cooling
water from a nearby lake, which enters the tube of the
condenser at 14℃ and leaves at 22℃ the surface area of
the tubes is 45𝑚2 and the overall heat transfer coefficient
is 2100𝑊/𝑚2 ℃ . Determine the mass flow rate of the
cooling water needed and the rate of condensation of the
steam in the condenser
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THE EFFECTIVENESS–NTU METHOD
A second kind of problem encountered in heat exchanger analysis is the
determination of the heat transfer rate and the outlet temperatures of the hot and
cold fluids for prescribed fluid mass flow rates and inlet temperatures when the
type and size of the heat exchanger are specified.

Heat transfer effectiveness

the maximum possible heat transfer rate


Cmin is the smaller of Ch and Cc

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Actual heat transfer rate

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The effectiveness of a
heat exchanger depends
on the geometry of the
heat exchanger as well
as the flow arrangement.
Therefore, different types
of heat exchangers have
different effectiveness
relations.
We illustrate the
development of the
effectiveness e relation
for the double-pipe
parallel-flow heat
exchanger.

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Effectiveness relations of the heat exchangers typically involve the
dimensionless group UAs /Cmin.
This quantity is called the number of transfer units NTU.

For specified values of U and Cmin, the value


of NTU is a measure of the surface area As.
Thus, the larger the NTU, the larger the heat
exchanger.
capacity
ratio

The effectiveness of a heat exchanger is a function of the


number of transfer units NTU and the capacity ratio c.

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Effectiveness
for heat
exchangers.

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When all the inlet and outlet temperatures are specified, the size of
the heat exchanger can easily be determined using the LMTD
method. Alternatively, it can be determined from the effectiveness–
NTU method by first evaluating the effectiveness from its definition
and then the NTU from the appropriate NTU relation.
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(e.g., boiler, condenser)

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Observations from the effectiveness relations and charts
• The value of the effectiveness ranges from 0 to 1. It increases
rapidly with NTU for small values (up to about NTU = 1.5) but
rather slowly for larger values. Therefore, the use of a heat
exchanger with a large NTU (usually larger than 3) and thus a
large size cannot be justified economically, since a large
increase in NTU in this case corresponds to a small increase in
effectiveness.
• For a given NTU and capacity ratio c = Cmin /Cmax, the counter-
flow heat exchanger has the highest effectiveness, followed
closely by the cross-flow heat exchangers with both fluids
unmixed. The lowest effectiveness values are encountered in
parallel-flow heat exchangers.
• The effectiveness of a heat exchanger is independent of the
capacity ratio c for NTU values of less than about 0.3.
• The value of the capacity ratio c ranges between 0 and 1. For a
given NTU, the effectiveness becomes a maximum for c = 0
(e.g., boiler, condenser) and a minimum for c = 1 (when the heat
capacity rates of the two fluids are equal).

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SELECTION OF HEAT EXCHANGERS
The uncertainty in the predicted value of U can exceed 30 percent. Thus, it is
natural to tend to overdesign the heat exchangers.
Heat transfer enhancement in heat exchangers is usually accompanied by
increased pressure drop, and thus higher pumping power.
Therefore, any gain from the enhancement in heat transfer should be weighed
against the cost of the accompanying pressure drop.
Usually, the more viscous fluid is more suitable for the shell side (larger
passage area and thus lower pressure drop) and the fluid with the higher
pressure for the tube side.
The proper selection of
a heat exchanger depends The rate of heat transfer in the
on several factors: prospective heat exchanger
• Heat Transfer Rate
• Cost
• Pumping Power
The annual cost of electricity associated with
• Size and Weight the operation of the pumps and fans
• Type
• Materials

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Heat Transfer Enhancement
 Heat Transfer Enhancement is the practice of
modifying a heat transfer surface to increase the
heat transfer in order to have a cost effective and
environmentally friendly heat exchanger

 The main objectives then are:


◦ Reduction of heat transfer surface for fixed heat duty and
pressure drop, leading into better space utilisation, reduced
fluid volume, and reduced capital cost;
◦ Reduced actual mean temperature difference Tm for fixed
heat duty and surface area, leading into increased
thermodynamic process efficiency and reduced operating
costs;
◦ Increased heat duty for fixed surface area; and
◦ Reduced pumping power for fixed heat duty and surface area

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Heat Transfer Enhancement
 Heat transfer enhancement may be achieved by
Passive or Active techniques
 Active techniques require application of external
power.
 Active Techniques used are:
◦ surface vibration,
◦ fluid vibration,
◦ electrostatic fields,
◦ injection,
◦ jet impingement,
◦ suction,
◦ and mechanical aids (e.g. stirrers)..
 Because of the need for external power active
techniques have limited practical applications

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Heat Transfer Enhancement
 Passive techniques involve mainly surface
treatment
 Techniques used are:
◦ extended surfaces (fins),
◦ rough surfaces,
◦ coated surfaces,
◦ coiled tubes,
◦ surface tension devices,
◦ swirl flow devices,
◦ displaced enhancement devices.
 Some of these are shown in Figure 1

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Passive techniques

4.Spaced disk devices

1.Cross section of porous boiling surface

5. Helical vane insert

2. Tube side roughness

6.Helically coiled tube heat exchanger


3.Segmented fins for circular cylinder

 Figure 1: Passive Techniques


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Heat Transfer Enhancement
Increase in heat transfer due to surface treatment can
be brought about by:
Increased turbulence
Increased surface area
Improved mixing or
Flow swirl
Enhancement is industrially important because:
It reduces heat exchanger size and cost;
It increases the heat duty of the exchanger;
It permits closer approach temperatures

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