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Speech Act

By :
1. AYU EKA ANALIA (1510302085)
2. AYU OKTAVIANI AZIZAH
(1510302086)
3. SITI ULFA ZA’IN (1510302087)
Speech Act
• Speech Act is a functional unit in
communication. It is an act that the speaker
performs when he makes an utterance (Austin’s
theory 1962)
Types of Speech Act
• Locutionary
• Illocutionary
• Perlocutionary
Locutionary
• Is the act of saying or writing something in a
language. It is the actual words spoken.
• What is said/act of saying.

• Example :

• It’s hot in here.


Illocutionary
• Is related to the social function that the
utterence or the writing text has.

• Example :
It’s hot in here.

 Could be : an inderect request for someone to


open the window.
 An inderect refusal to close the window.
Perlocutionary
• Is the result or effect that is produced by the
utterance in the given context.

• Example :
It’s hot in here

Could result in someone opening the window.


Direct and Indirect Speech
• Direct Speech
As shown in (20) there is a relationship between
the three structural forms (Declarative,
interrogative, imperative) and the three general
communicative functions.
e.g
You eat bread ( declarative)
Do you eat bread ? ( interrogative)
Eat bread ! ( imperative)
Indirect
• Whenever there is an inderect relationship
between a structure and function.

e.g
It’s cold here.
I hereby request that you close the window.
Searle’s classification of speech acts
• Representative
• Directive
• Commissive
• Expressive
• Declaration
Representatives
• Stating or describing,saying what the speaker
believes to be true.
• Assert, state, swear, guess, deny, inform, notify.

• E.g
I guess that he has come.
I think that the film is moving.
Directives
• Directive are attemps by the speaker to get the
hearer to do something.
• Request, advise, order, urge, tell, etc.

• E.g
Open the door !
Commissives
• Commissive are those illocutionary acts whose
point is to commit the speaker to some future
course of action.
• Commit, promise, pledge

• E.g
I promise to love you.
I will call you tonight.
Expressive
• The illocutionary point of expressive to express
the psychological state specified in the
propositional content such as apoloqizing,
thanking, congratulating, welcoming.

• E.g
I’m sorry to hear that.
Congratulation for your ......
Declaration
• The point of this declaration is to bringing about
immediate changes by saying something.
• Declare, appoint, nominate, name.

• E.g
I declare the meeting open.