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1 10/30/2018

Five types of Logic

Type of knowledge

Type of logic Reference to real world

known by Agent

Probability Theory Facts

(certainty factor)

Truth values Confidence level [0, 1]

Fuzzy Logic

(degree of truth) (certainty factor)

2 10/30/2018

Representation, reasoning, and logic

The object of knowledge representation is to express

knowledge in a computer-tractable form, so that agents can

perform well.

– its syntax, which defines all possible sequences of symbols that

constitute sentences of the language.

– its semantics, which determines the facts in the world to which

the sentences refer.

3 10/30/2018

Sentences and Facts

• The property of one fact following from another is mirrored by the

property of one sentence being entailed by another.

4 10/30/2018

First Order Logic

First-Order Logic

Propositional logic represents facts

– Useful --- but has Limited Expressive Power

– Objects

(people, houses, colors, …)

– Relations: how objects relate to each other

(brother of, bigger than, part of, ...)

– Properties: features of an object

(red, circle, …)

– Functions: output an object, given others

(father of, best friend, …)

7 10/30/2018

Sentence AtomicSentence

| Sentence Connective Sentence

| Quantifier Variable, … Sentence

| Sentence

| (Sentence)

Term Function(Term,…)

| Constant

| Variable

Connective | | |

Quantifier |

Constant A | X1 | John | …

Variable a | x | s | …

Predicate Before | HasColor | Raining | …

Function MotherOf | LeftLegOf | …

8 10/30/2018

Syntax and Semantics: Term

Constant Symbols

𝐵𝑜𝑜𝑘, 𝐹𝑟𝑒𝑑, 𝐴𝑙𝑖, etc.

Variables Symbols:

𝑥, 𝑦, 𝑎, etc.

Predicate Symbols :

𝐵𝑟𝑜𝑡ℎ𝑒𝑟 𝐹𝑎ℎ𝑚𝑖, 𝐺𝑎𝑙𝑖ℎ ; 𝑀𝑜𝑡ℎ𝑒𝑟(𝐴𝑛𝑛, 𝑆𝑢𝑒) ;

𝐹𝑎𝑡ℎ𝑒𝑟 𝐿𝑢𝑘𝑒, 𝐷𝑎𝑟𝑡ℎ𝑉𝑎𝑑𝑒𝑟 ; etc.

Function Symbols:

𝑆ℎ𝑜𝑒𝑠𝑂𝑓 𝐶𝑎𝑐𝑎 ; 𝐿𝑒𝑓𝑡𝐿𝑒𝑔𝑂𝑓 𝐽𝑜ℎ𝑛 ; etc.

9 10/30/2018

Syntax and Semantics: Sentences

Atomic Sentences

𝐺𝑖𝑣𝑒𝑠 𝐸𝑘𝑜, 𝐷𝑎𝑛𝑢, 𝐶ℎ𝑜𝑐𝑜𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑒𝐶𝑎𝑘𝑒

𝐵𝑟𝑜𝑡ℎ𝑒𝑟𝑂𝑓 𝐹𝑎ℎ𝑚𝑖 = 𝐵𝑢𝑑𝑖

𝑆𝑖𝑏𝑙𝑖𝑛𝑔𝑠 𝑆𝑜𝑛𝑂𝑓 𝐹𝑟𝑒𝑑 , 𝐷𝑎𝑢𝑔ℎ𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑂𝑓 𝐹𝑟𝑒𝑑

Complex Sentences

𝐵𝑟𝑜𝑡ℎ𝑒𝑟𝑠 𝐹𝑎ℎ𝑚𝑖, 𝐺𝑎𝑙𝑖ℎ 𝐺𝑖𝑣𝑒𝑠 𝐹𝑎ℎ𝑚𝑖, 𝐺𝑎𝑙𝑖ℎ, 𝐶ℎ𝑜𝑐𝑜𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑒

¬𝐼𝑡𝑠𝑅𝑎𝑛𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑇𝑜𝑑𝑎𝑦

𝑇𝑜𝑑𝑎𝑦 𝑀𝑜𝑛𝑑𝑎𝑦 ∨ 𝑇𝑜𝑑𝑎𝑦 𝑇𝑢𝑒𝑠𝑑𝑎𝑦

10 10/30/2018

Universal Quantifiers

“For all, For Every” : ∀

– ∀𝑥 𝐶𝑎𝑡 𝑥 ⇒ 𝑀𝑎𝑚𝑚𝑎𝑙 𝑥

– ∀𝑥 𝐶ℎ𝑖𝑙𝑑 𝑥 ⇒ 𝐿𝑖𝑘𝑒𝑠 𝑥, 𝐶𝑎𝑛𝑑𝑦

This sentence is true iff all these sentence is true

– 𝐶ℎ𝑖𝑙𝑑 𝐴𝑛𝑑𝑖 ⇒ 𝐿𝑖𝑘𝑒𝑠 𝐴𝑛𝑑𝑖, 𝐶𝑎𝑛𝑑𝑦 ∧ 𝐶ℎ𝑖𝑙𝑑 𝐴𝑛𝑡𝑜 ⇒

𝐿𝑖𝑘𝑒𝑠 𝐴𝑛𝑡𝑜, 𝐶𝑎𝑛𝑑𝑦 ∧ 𝐶ℎ𝑖𝑙𝑑 𝐵𝑢𝑑𝑖 ⇒ 𝐿𝑖𝑘𝑒𝑠 𝐵𝑢𝑑𝑖, 𝐶𝑎𝑛𝑑𝑦 ∧ ⋯

– Common mistake to use ∧

∀𝑥 𝑆𝑡𝑢𝑑𝑒𝑛𝑡 𝑥, 𝑇𝑒𝑙𝑘𝑜𝑚 ∧ 𝑆𝑚𝑎𝑟𝑡(𝑥)

11 10/30/2018

Existential Quantifiers

“There Exists”: ∃

– ∃𝑥 𝑆𝑡𝑢𝑑𝑒𝑛𝑡 𝑥, 𝑇𝑒𝑙𝑘𝑜𝑚 ∧ 𝑆𝑚𝑎𝑟𝑡 𝑥

– ∃𝑥 𝑀𝑎𝑚𝑚𝑎𝑙 𝑥 ∧ 𝐶𝑎𝑟𝑛𝑖𝑣𝑜𝑟𝑒 𝑥

– Common mistake to use ⇒

∃𝑥 𝐶ℎ𝑖𝑙𝑑 𝑥 ⇒ 𝐿𝑖𝑘𝑒𝑠(𝑥, 𝐶𝑎𝑛𝑑𝑦)

12 10/30/2018

Properties of quantifiers

∀𝑥 ∀𝑦 same as ∀𝑦 ∀𝑥

∃𝑥 ∃𝑦 same as ∃𝑦 ∃𝑥

– ∀𝑦 ∃𝑥 𝐹𝑎𝑣𝑜𝑟𝑖𝑡𝑒𝐹𝑜𝑜𝑑(𝑦, 𝑥)

– ∃𝑥 ∀𝑦 𝐹𝑎𝑣𝑜𝑟𝑖𝑡𝑒𝐹𝑜𝑜𝑑 𝑦, 𝑥

13 10/30/2018

Connections between ∀ and ∃

∀𝑥 ¬𝐿𝑖𝑘𝑒𝑠(𝑥, 𝐼𝑐𝑒𝐶𝑟𝑒𝑎𝑚) is equivalent to

¬∃𝑥 𝐿𝑖𝑘𝑒𝑠(𝑥, 𝐼𝑐𝑒𝐶𝑟𝑒𝑎𝑚)

De Morgan Rule

– ∀𝑥 ¬𝑃 ≡ ¬∃𝑥 𝑃 ¬ 𝑃∨𝑄 ≡ ¬𝑃 ∧ ¬𝑄

– ∀𝑥 𝑃 ≡ ∃𝑥 ¬𝑃 ¬ 𝑃∧𝑄 ≡ ¬𝑃 ∨ ¬𝑄

– ∀𝑥 𝑃 ≡ ¬∃𝑥 ¬𝑃 𝑃∧𝑄 ≡ ¬ ¬𝑃 ∨ ¬𝑄

– ∃𝑥 𝑃 ≡ ¬∀𝑥 ¬𝑃 𝑃∨𝑄 ≡ ¬ ¬𝑃 ∧ ¬𝑄

14 10/30/2018

Inference in First-Order Logic

Uses 7 rules from Propositional Logic

With three additional rules for more complex case

regarding to the quantifier

– Universal Instantiation or Universal Elimination

– Existential Instantiation or Existential Elimination

– Existential Introduction or Existential Generalization

15 10/30/2018

Example: Avunculate marriage

Avunculate marriage is illegal and prohibited

– marriage between an uncle and a niece or between an

aunt and a nephew (second-degree relative).

Case:

– W married to A

– W is biological daughter of B, where A and B is a twin

– Using FOL

16 10/30/2018

Example: Avunculate marriage

∀𝑥, 𝑦 𝑁𝑖𝑒𝑐𝑒𝑂𝑓 𝑥, 𝑦 ∧ 𝑀𝑎𝑟𝑟𝑖𝑒𝑑 𝑥, 𝑦 ⇒ ¬𝑉𝑎𝑙𝑖𝑑 𝑀𝑎𝑟𝑟𝑖𝑒𝑑 𝑥, 𝑦 (1)

𝑀𝑎𝑟𝑟𝑖𝑒𝑑 𝑊, 𝐴 (2)

𝐷𝑎𝑢𝑔ℎ𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑂𝑓 𝑊, 𝐵 (3)

𝑇𝑤𝑖𝑛𝑠 𝐵, 𝐴 (4)

17 10/30/2018

Example: Avunculate marriage

𝑀𝑎𝑟𝑟𝑖𝑒𝑑 𝑊, 𝐴 ∧ 𝐷𝑎𝑢𝑔ℎ𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑂𝑓 𝑊, 𝐵 ∧ 𝑇𝑤𝑖𝑛𝑠 𝐵, 𝐴

• ∀𝑥, 𝑦 𝑇𝑤𝑖𝑛𝑠 𝑥, 𝑦 ⇒ 𝑆𝑖𝑏𝑙𝑖𝑛𝑔𝑠 𝑥, 𝑦

• 𝑇𝑤𝑖𝑛𝑠 𝐵, 𝐴 ⇒ 𝑆𝑖𝑏𝑙𝑖𝑛𝑔𝑠 𝐵, 𝐴 (7)

• 𝑆𝑖𝑏𝑙𝑖𝑛𝑔𝑠 𝐵, 𝐴 (8)

18 10/30/2018

Example: Avunculate marriage

𝑀𝑎𝑟𝑟𝑖𝑒𝑑 𝑊, 𝐴 ∧ 𝐷𝑎𝑢𝑔ℎ𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑂𝑓 𝑊, 𝐵 ∧ 𝑇𝑤𝑖𝑛𝑠 𝐵, 𝐴 ∧ 𝑆𝑖𝑏𝑙𝑖𝑛𝑔𝑠 𝐵, 𝐴

• ∀𝑥, 𝑦, 𝑧 𝐷𝑎𝑢𝑔ℎ𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑂𝑓 𝑥, 𝑦 ∧ 𝑆𝑖𝑏𝑙𝑖𝑛𝑔𝑠 𝑦, 𝑧 ⇒ 𝑁𝑖𝑒𝑐𝑒𝑂𝑓(𝑥, 𝑧)

• 𝐷𝑎𝑢𝑔ℎ𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑂𝑓 𝑊, 𝐵 ∧ 𝑆𝑖𝑏𝑙𝑖𝑛𝑔𝑠 𝐵, 𝐴 ⇒ 𝑁𝑖𝑒𝑐𝑒𝑂𝑓(𝑊, 𝐴) (9)

• 𝐷𝑎𝑢𝑔ℎ𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑂𝑓 𝑊, 𝐵 ∧ 𝑆𝑖𝑏𝑙𝑖𝑛𝑔𝑠 𝐵, 𝐴 (10)

• 𝑁𝑖𝑒𝑐𝑒𝑂𝑓(𝑊, 𝐴) (11)

19 10/30/2018

Example: Avunculate marriage

𝑀𝑎𝑟𝑟𝑖𝑒𝑑 𝑊, 𝐴 ∧ 𝐷𝑎𝑢𝑔ℎ𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑂𝑓 𝑊, 𝐵 ∧ 𝑇𝑤𝑖𝑛𝑠 𝐵, 𝐴 ∧ 𝑆𝑖𝑏𝑙𝑖𝑛𝑔𝑠 𝐵, 𝐴 ∧

𝑁𝑖𝑒𝑐𝑒𝑂𝑓(𝑊, 𝐴)

• ∀𝑥, 𝑦 𝑁𝑖𝑒𝑐𝑒𝑂𝑓 𝑥, 𝑦 ∧ 𝑀𝑎𝑟𝑟𝑖𝑒𝑑 𝑥, 𝑦 ⇒ ¬𝑉𝑎𝑙𝑖𝑑 𝑀𝑎𝑟𝑟𝑖𝑒𝑑 𝑥, 𝑦

• 𝑁𝑖𝑒𝑐𝑒𝑂𝑓 𝑊, 𝐴 ∧ 𝑀𝑎𝑟𝑟𝑖𝑒𝑑 𝑊, 𝐴 ⇒ ¬𝑉𝑎𝑙𝑖𝑑 𝑀𝑎𝑟𝑟𝑖𝑒𝑑 𝑊, 𝐴 (12)

• 𝑁𝑖𝑒𝑐𝑒𝑂𝑓 𝑊, 𝐴 ∧ 𝑀𝑎𝑟𝑟𝑖𝑒𝑑 𝑊, 𝐴 (13)

• ¬𝑉𝑎𝑙𝑖𝑑 𝑀𝑎𝑟𝑟𝑖𝑒𝑑 𝑊, 𝐴 (14)

20 10/30/2018

THANK YOU

10/30/2018

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