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Malaysian Studies

MPW 1133

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WHAT DO YOU KNOW
ABOUT MALAYSIA?

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CHAPTER 1

PRE-HISTORICAL PERIOD OF
MALAYSIA
Ancient Malaysia Early Hindu Kingdoms Islam and the Colonial Malaysia Independence and
35,000 BC - 100 BC 100 BC - 1400 AD Golden Age of Malacca 1511 - 1957 Onwards
1400 - 1511 AD 1957 - Present Day

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Ancient Malaysia:
35,000 BC - 100 BC

•Historians - Malaysia's ancient past as something "shrouded


in mystery," a kind of black hole in Asian history.
- The truth is - not much archeological evidence
or written records from ancient Malaysia.
(will take time to find them)

•35,000 years BC(Before Christ)


- homo sapiens have been in Malaysia
- oldest known evidence of human habitation
Niah Caves in Sarawak. (next)

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Hindu Kingdoms:
100 BC - 1400 AD

Malay Peninsula -
• Savarnadvipa (the Land of Gold - in early writings
from India).
• Indian traders called mystical, fantastically wealthily In the Bujang Valley in Kedah is Malaysia's
most extensive archeological site -- the
kingdom - gold, aromatic wood, and spices. sprawling ruins of an ancient Hindu kingdom
• Indian also brought a pervasive culture & religions. dating back to 300 AD. Over 50 tomb temples
dot the site, and hundreds of relics are on
(Hinduism and Buddhism). display in the nearby Bujang Valley
• the most visible example of the early Indian influence is: Archaeological Museum

The Malay Wedding Ceremony:


a lasting legacy of early Indian influence.
(next)

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Islam and the Golden Age of
Malacca:
1400 AD - 1511 AD
•13th century
-Srivijaya's influence declined Tome Pries, a Portuguese apothecary
-There were need for secure, well-equipped port in the region.who visited Malacca in the early 16th
century, said that the city was "of such
importance and profit that it seems to me
•Malacca it has no equal in the world."

-founded in 1400 by Palembang prince named Parameswara.


-Perfectly located for trade
-most influential port in Southeast Asia

•With these traders came Islam


Portuguese settlement
-rulers now referred to themselves as
“sultans,“ (heads of a highly organized
municipal government)

Chinese influence
(next)
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Highly Organized Municipal Government.

Syahbandars Bendahara Temenggung Laksamana


( harbor master) (chief minister) (customs official) (marine captain)

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REASON for MALACCA’S
SUCCESS
• Natural port & safety of its sea lanes.
- “Orang Laut”
• Commercial facilities:
- security within the town
- protection of foreign merchants & goods
e.x: underground warehouse – fire & theft
• Efficient legal & Administrative machinery
a. Undang-undang Melaka – ( Malaccan Law)
b. Undang-undang laut Melaka – ( Malaccan Meritime Law)
c. 4 Syahbandars (Harbour Masters) – Gujarati, Indian, Jawa & China.

• Centre for spread the religion.

• Good relation with big empires .

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THE FALL of MALACCA
No good ruler. After the death of Tun Perak - sultan Mahmud
became weak.

• Portuguese too strong for Malaccan people.

• Traders start to look for other centres – tax become too high.

• After the collapse of Melaka the Sultane of Brunei in


Kalimantan rose to become the principal agent for the
propagation of Islam in that area.

Malacca marked the classical age of Malay Culture.

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REASON for MALACCA’S
SUCCESS
• Natural port & safety of its sea lanes.
• - “Orang Laut”
• Commercial facilities:
• - security within the town
• - protection of foreign merchants & goods
• e.x: underground warehouse – fire & theft
• Efficient legal & Administrative machinery
• a. Undang-undang Melaka – ( Malaccan Law)
• b. Undang-undang laut Melaka – ( Malaccan Meritime Law)
• c. 4 Syahbandars (Harbour Masters) – Gujarati, Indian, Jawa & China.

• Centre for spread the religion.

• Good relation with big empires .

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EUROPEAN PENETRTION &
COLONIALISM
• Reason for them to come to Malaya
• to conquer & get the natural resource (Raw material).
• spread Christianity in this regions.
• They ruled our country for 446 years.
• Malacca falls to: Portuguese 1511
• Dutch 1641
• British 1791/1824
• Japanese 1941
• British 1945
• (British & Japanese left very deep scares )
• - aspect : Social, Politic, Economy (Cont’d)

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EUROPEAN PENETRTION &
COLONIALISM (Cont’d)
• 1511 – Malacca conquered by Portuguese. Malay Sultanate re-
established in Johore.

• 1641 – Portuguese rule in Malacca overthrown by Dutch.

• 1699 – Sultan Mahmud murdered, ending Malaccan dynasty.

• 1786 – Francis Light founds British trading settlement on


Penang.

• 1824 – British acquired Malacca from the Dutch in exchange


for Bencoolen in Sumatra.

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BRITISH INTERVENTION in
THE MALAY STATES

• -From 1824 – 1873, the British in Malaya had tried to refrain


from interfering in the affairs of the Malay states.

- When the Straits Settlements were transferred from the control


of the Indian government to the Colonial Office in 1867, the
traits community thought that there would be intervention.

- Sir Andrew Clarke 1874, who changed the policy of non-


intervention to one of intervention.

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REASONS FOR THE CHANGE
OF POLICY

1. The increase in demand for tin and other raw materials.

2. Need for markets to buy British Goods.

3. Need for New Fields of investment.

4. Anarchy in the Malay state.

5. Change in British Policy of Non-intervention.

6. Fear of European rivals

7. Opening of the Suez Canal.

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THE RESIDENTAL SYSTEM IN
MALAY STATE

 During the last three decades of the nineteenth century, Britain


became increasingly involved in the internal affair of the
Malay State.

 Perak, Selangor, Negeri Sembilan and Pahang, the sultans


accepted British officials to help them rule.

 These officials were called Residents, and the system of


governing with assistance from a resident was know as the
Residential System.

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THE ROLE of THE RESIDENTS

1. To advise on the collection and control of


revenue.

2. Encouraging economic growth.

3. To restore and maintain peace in their states.

4. Diplomatic role.

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THE BENEFITS of THE
RESIDENTIAL SYSTEM

1. Political stability and the enforcement of law and order.

2. More effective government.

3. Substantial economic growth.

4. Foreign investment – more effective exploitation of natural resources.

5. Greater revenue – higher standard of living.

6. Multi-cultural society – increase in Malaya’s population.

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THE DIMERITS of THE
RESIDENTIAL SYSTEM

1. No uniformity of government.

2. The lack of co-ordination – increasingly


powerful at the expense of the local Sultans
and chiefs.

3. Varying amounts of economic growth within


their states.
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THE TRANSFER of THE
NORTHERN MALAY STATES
• By the beginning of the twentieth century, British influence in the Malay Peninsula could be
seen in the:
• 1. Straits Settlements (Malacca, Penang and Singapore)
• 2. Federated Malay State (Perak, Selangor, Negeri Sembilan and Pahang)

• There were still five state, however, which remained independent of British influence. These
were Johore, Kedah, Perlis, Kelantan and Terengganu.

• In 1909, the four most northern states came under direct British protection as the
UNFEDERATED MALAY STATES.

• 1909, The Bangkok Treaty.

• Only Johore remained independent, though in 1914 it too appointed a British official to give
advice.

• Although this official did not have status of a Resident, his appointment completed the
establishment of British control in the Malay Peninsula.

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THE RISE OF JAPAN
• In the period up to 1941, Japan emerged as a major power strong enough
to challenge the United States.
• - the growth of Japanese power was demonstrated in the Russo-
Japanese War of 1904 – 1905.
• - during World War One, Japan’s power was further increased.
• - Although Japan developed rapidly as an industrialized nation, its
people faced many problems.
• - Population was growing – rice production could not keep up with
this increase.
• - No raw material – valuable commodities such as oil, rubber and iron
had to be imported.
• - World went to into economic recession after 1929.
• - The answer to Japan’s problems was provided by the army.
• - if more land, more raw materials and alternative markets were
needed, then they should be taken by force. Therefore, in 1931,
Japan went to war.

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JAPAN’S PLAN FOR A “NEW
ORDER”

• In 1938, Japan devised a plan for establishing a “New Order”


in Asia (Greater Asia Co. – Prosperity Plan).

• - this involve setting up an organization under Japan’s
leadership to provide economic growth and political
independence.

• - in reality, it meant Japan gaining control of Asia and
exploiting Asia raw material for its own use.

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THE JAPANESE OCCUPATION of
MALAYA and SINGAPORE (1942 – 1945)

- M & S went through three and half years of Japanese


occupation.

- It was a period of great hardship and suffering for the


population.

- Food was scarce, economic activities came to a standstill and


there was unemployment.

- Japanese rule was cruel and ruthless and the population lived
in fear.

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JAPANESE ADMINISTRATION
- A military government in Malaya & Singapore
- President or Gunseikan as it’s head.
- Singapore was renamed “Syonan-to” means “Light of the South”
- Malaya was renamed “New Malai”.
- It was divided into 8 provinces.
- Japanese Governor was the Chairman.
- Sultan was the V-Chairman.
- Sultans were not given any power to rule.
- Japanese were appointed as heads of the various departments while the actual
running of the administration was carried out by the local people.
- Kedah, Perlis, Kelantan and Terengganu were restored to Siamese as a reward
for Siamese cooperation with the Japanese.
- The Japanese Military Administration demanded absolute cooperation and severely
punished anyone who opposed their rule.
- The Kempeitai or Japanese military police took control of the local police.

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JAPANESE ADMINISTRATION

- The Japanese – Nipponization.


- There were a decline in living condition.
- Tin and rubber industries had close down.
- There were great unemployment and poverty.
- There was shortage of food.
- Uncontrolled issue of paper money by the Japanese
banks – resulted in worthless currency and inflation.
- Public health service were very poor.

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THE RACIAL POLICY of THE
JAPANESE
- Anti – European. However, the local people also
suffered.

- Chinese – the Japanese distrusted them. Tortured and


thousands were sent to work on the “Death Railway”.

- Indians – were treated better.

- Malays – were treated well (to win their support and


cooperation)

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RESISTANCE AGAINTS THE
JAPANESE

- the strict and harsh rule of the Japanese resulted in hatred for
them.

- Many resistance groups were organized against the Japanese.

- Force 136 and the stronger and most popular was MPAJA.

- MPAJA led by MCP (Malayan Communist Party).

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THE IMPACT of THE
JAPANESE OCCUPATION
- Two atomic bombs were dropped on the Japanese cities of
Hiroshima and Nagasaki. On 15 August 1945, Japan
surrendered. 9 Sept. 1945 the formal Japanese surrender.
• 1. Lawlessness and Violence
• 2. Thousands of people dead
• 3. Racial hostilities
• 4. The MCP Strengthened
• 5. Economic problems
• 6. Social and Public Health services in disorder
• 7. British prestige lowered
• 8. Development of Malay Nationalism
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