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FUNDAMENTALS OF AERODYNAMICS

AERODYNAMICS IS THE STUDY OF THE MOTION OF AIR AND OF THE


FORCES ON SOLIDS IN MOTION RELATIVE TO THE AIR.
THE INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ATOSPHERE
The atmosphere is the mechanical mixture of gases surrounding the earth.

ATMOSPHERIC CONSTITUENTS

Nitrogen 78.03%
Oxygen 20.99%
Argon 0.94%
Carbon Dioxide 0.03%
Hydrogen 0.01%
Helium 0.004%
Neon 0.0012% and small amount of water vapor
and other gases.
FOUR LAYERS OF EARTH’S ATMOSPHERE

Trophosphere

Stratosphere

Ionosphere

Exosphere
STANDARD VALUES FOR AIR AT SEA LEVEL

Pressure
𝑙𝑏 𝑙𝑏
𝑃0 = 14.7 = 2116.8 = 29.92"𝐻𝑔 = 76𝑐𝑚 𝐻𝑔 = 760𝑚𝑚 𝐻𝑔
𝑖𝑛2 𝑓𝑡 2
= 101325𝑃𝑎 = 1𝑎𝑡𝑚

Density
𝑠𝑙𝑢𝑔 𝑘𝑔
𝜌0 = 0.002377 = 1.225
𝑓𝑡 3 𝑚3

Temperature

𝑇0 = 519°𝑅 = 288𝐾

Coefficient of Dynamic Viscosity


𝑠𝑙𝑢𝑔 𝑘𝑔
µ0 = 3.7372 𝑥 10−7 = 1.7894 𝑥 10−5
𝑓𝑡. 𝑠𝑒𝑐 𝑚. 𝑠𝑒𝑐
REGIONS OF THE EARTH’S ATMOSPHERE

Tropopause: Going upward from the surface, it is the point where air ceases to cool
with height, and becomes almost completely dry.

Sea Level: is a measure of the average height of the ocean's surface (such as the
halfway point between the mean high tide and the mean low tide)
SEA LEVEL UP TO TROPOPAUSE (11 Km, 36,080 ft)

1. TEMPERATURE VARIATION UP TO TROPOPAUSE

𝑇 = 𝑇0 + 𝑎ℎ

𝑇
θ=
𝑇0

Where:
𝑇
θ= = 𝑇𝑒𝑚𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑒 𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜
𝑇0
𝑇 = 𝑡𝑒𝑚𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑒 𝑎𝑡 𝑎𝑛𝑦 𝑎𝑙𝑡𝑖𝑡𝑢𝑑𝑒 𝑎𝑏𝑜𝑣𝑒 𝑠𝑒𝑎 𝑙𝑒𝑣𝑒𝑙 𝑢𝑝 𝑡𝑜 𝑇𝑟𝑜𝑝𝑜𝑝𝑎𝑢𝑠𝑒 𝑖𝑛 °𝑅 𝑜𝑟 𝐾

𝑇0 = 519°𝑅 𝑜𝑟 288𝐾
𝑎 = 𝑡𝑒𝑚𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑒 𝑔𝑟𝑎𝑑𝑖𝑒𝑛𝑡 𝑜𝑟 𝑙𝑎𝑝𝑠𝑒 𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑒
°𝑅 𝐾 𝐾𝑚
= −0.003566 𝑜𝑟 − 0.00651 𝑜𝑟 − 6.51
𝑓𝑡 𝑚 𝑚
ℎ = 𝑎𝑛𝑦 𝑎𝑙𝑡𝑖𝑡𝑢𝑑𝑒 𝑎𝑏𝑜𝑣𝑒 𝑠𝑒𝑎 𝑙𝑒𝑣𝑒𝑙 𝑢𝑝 𝑡𝑜 𝑡𝑟𝑜𝑝𝑜𝑝𝑎𝑢𝑠𝑒 𝑖𝑛 𝑓𝑡 𝑜𝑟 𝑚 𝑜𝑟 𝑘𝑚
2. PRESSURE VARIATION UP TO TROPOPAUSE

5.26
𝑃 𝑎ℎ
δ= = 1+
𝑃0 𝑇0

Where:
δ = 𝑃𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑒 𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜
𝑙𝑏
𝑃 = 𝑃𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑒 𝑎𝑡 𝑎𝑛𝑦 𝑎𝑙𝑡𝑖𝑡𝑢𝑑𝑒 𝑎𝑏𝑜𝑣𝑒 𝑠𝑒𝑎 𝑙𝑒𝑣𝑒𝑙 𝑢𝑝 𝑡𝑜 𝑇𝑟𝑜𝑝𝑜𝑝𝑎𝑢𝑠𝑒 𝑖𝑛 2 𝑜𝑟 𝑖𝑛 𝑃𝑎
𝑓𝑡
𝑙𝑏 𝑁
𝑃0 = 2116.8 2 𝑜𝑟101325 2
𝑓𝑡 𝑚
°𝑅 𝐾 𝐾𝑚
𝑎 = −0.003566 𝑜𝑟 − 0.00651 𝑜𝑟 − 6.51
𝑓𝑡 𝑚 𝑚
ℎ = 𝑎𝑛𝑦 𝑎𝑙𝑡𝑖𝑡𝑢𝑑𝑒 𝑎𝑏𝑜𝑣𝑒 𝑠𝑒𝑎 𝑙𝑒𝑣𝑒𝑙 𝑢𝑝 𝑡𝑜 𝑡𝑟𝑜𝑝𝑜𝑝𝑎𝑢𝑠𝑒 𝑖𝑛 𝑓𝑡 𝑜𝑟 𝑚 𝑜𝑟 𝑘𝑚
3.DENSITY VARIATION UP TO TROPOPAUSE

4.26
ρ 𝑎ℎ
σ= = 1+
ρ0 𝑇0

Where:
σ = 𝐷𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜
𝑠𝑙𝑢𝑔 𝑘𝑔
ρ= 𝐷𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑎𝑡 𝑎𝑛𝑦 𝑎𝑙𝑡𝑖𝑡𝑢𝑑𝑒 𝑎𝑏𝑜𝑣𝑒 𝑠𝑒𝑎 𝑙𝑒𝑣𝑒𝑙 𝑢𝑝 𝑡𝑜 𝑇𝑟𝑜𝑝𝑜𝑝𝑎𝑢𝑠𝑒 𝑖𝑛 𝑜𝑟
𝑓𝑡 3 𝑚3
𝑠𝑙𝑢𝑔 𝑘𝑔
ρ0 = 0.002377 3 𝑜𝑟 1.225 3
𝑓𝑡 𝑚
°𝑅 𝐾 𝐾𝑚
𝑎 = −0.003566 𝑜𝑟 − 0.00651 𝑜𝑟 − 6.51
𝑓𝑡 𝑚 𝑚
ℎ = 𝑎𝑛𝑦 𝑎𝑙𝑡𝑖𝑡𝑢𝑑𝑒 𝑎𝑏𝑜𝑣𝑒 𝑠𝑒𝑎 𝑙𝑒𝑣𝑒𝑙 𝑢𝑝 𝑡𝑜 𝑡𝑟𝑜𝑝𝑜𝑝𝑎𝑢𝑠𝑒 𝑖𝑛 𝑓𝑡 𝑜𝑟 𝑚 𝑜𝑟 𝑘𝑚
ABOVE TROPOPAUSE (11Km) up to STRATOPAUSE (32Km, 104960 ft)

1. TEMPERATURE VARIATION ABOVE TROPOPAUSE (11Km) up to STRATOPAUSE (32Km,


104960 ft)

𝑇 = 390.15°𝑅 𝑜𝑟 216.5𝐾 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑡 𝑎𝑏𝑜𝑣𝑒 11𝑘𝑚 𝑢𝑝 𝑡𝑜 32𝑘𝑚


2. PRESSURE VARIATION ABOVE TROPOPAUSE (11Km) up to STRATOPAUSE (32Km, 104960 ft)

English System

𝑃 1.26
δ= = 4.805 𝑥 10−5ℎ
𝑃0 𝑒

Where:
𝑙𝑏
𝑃 = 𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑒 𝑎𝑡 𝑎𝑛𝑦 𝑎𝑙𝑡𝑖𝑡𝑢𝑑𝑒 𝑎𝑏𝑜𝑣𝑒 𝑡𝑟𝑜𝑝𝑜𝑝𝑎𝑢𝑠𝑒 𝑢𝑝 𝑡𝑜 𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑜𝑝𝑎𝑢𝑠𝑒 𝑖𝑛
𝑓𝑡 2
𝑙𝑏
𝑃0 = 2116.8 2
𝑓𝑡

ℎ = 𝑎𝑛𝑦 𝑎𝑙𝑡𝑖𝑡𝑢𝑑𝑒 𝑎𝑏𝑜𝑣𝑒 𝑡𝑟𝑜𝑝𝑜𝑝𝑎𝑢𝑠𝑒 𝑢𝑝 𝑡𝑜 𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑜𝑝𝑎𝑢𝑠𝑒 𝑖𝑛 𝑓𝑒𝑒𝑡


2. PRESSURE VARIATION ABOVE TROPOPAUSE (11Km) up to STRATOPAUSE (32Km, 104960 ft)

Metric System

𝑃 1.26
δ= = 1.578 𝑥 10−4ℎ
𝑃0 𝑒

Where:
𝑁
𝑃 = 𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑒 𝑎𝑡 𝑎𝑛𝑦 𝑎𝑙𝑡𝑖𝑡𝑢𝑑𝑒 𝑎𝑏𝑜𝑣𝑒 𝑡𝑟𝑜𝑝𝑜𝑝𝑎𝑢𝑠𝑒 𝑢𝑝 𝑡𝑜 𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑜𝑝𝑎𝑢𝑠𝑒 𝑖𝑛
𝑚2
𝑁
𝑃0 = 101325 2
𝑚

ℎ = 𝑎𝑛𝑦 𝑎𝑙𝑡𝑖𝑡𝑢𝑑𝑒 𝑎𝑏𝑜𝑣𝑒 𝑡𝑟𝑜𝑝𝑜𝑝𝑎𝑢𝑠𝑒 𝑢𝑝 𝑡𝑜 𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑜𝑝𝑎𝑢𝑠𝑒 in meters


3. DENSITY VARIATION ABOVE TROPOPAUSE (11Km) up to STRATOPAUSE (32Km, 104960 ft)

English System

ρ 1.68
σ= = 4.805 𝑥 10−5ℎ
ρ0 𝑒

Where:
𝑠𝑙𝑢𝑔
ρ= 𝑑𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑎𝑡 𝑎𝑛𝑦 𝑎𝑙𝑡𝑖𝑡𝑢𝑑𝑒 𝑎𝑏𝑜𝑣𝑒 𝑡𝑟𝑜𝑝𝑜𝑝𝑎𝑢𝑠𝑒 𝑢𝑝 𝑡𝑜 𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑜𝑝𝑎𝑢𝑠𝑒 𝑖𝑛 𝑓𝑡 3
𝑠𝑙𝑢𝑔
ρ0 = 0.003277 3
𝑓𝑡

ℎ = 𝑎𝑛𝑦 𝑎𝑙𝑡𝑖𝑡𝑢𝑑𝑒 𝑎𝑏𝑜𝑣𝑒 𝑡𝑟𝑜𝑝𝑜𝑝𝑎𝑢𝑠𝑒 𝑢𝑝 𝑡𝑜 𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑜𝑝𝑎𝑢𝑠𝑒 𝑖𝑛 𝑓𝑒𝑒𝑡


3. DENSITY VARIATION ABOVE TROPOPAUSE (11Km) up to STRATOPAUSE (32Km, 104960 ft)

Metric System

ρ 1.68
σ= = 1.578 𝑥 10−4ℎ
ρ0 𝑒

Where:
𝑘𝑔
ρ= 𝑑𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑎𝑡 𝑎𝑛𝑦 𝑎𝑙𝑡𝑖𝑡𝑢𝑑𝑒 𝑎𝑏𝑜𝑣𝑒 𝑡𝑟𝑜𝑝𝑜𝑝𝑎𝑢𝑠𝑒 𝑢𝑝 𝑡𝑜 𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑜𝑝𝑎𝑢𝑠𝑒 𝑖𝑛 𝑚3
𝑘𝑔
ρ0 = 1.225 3
𝑚

ℎ = 𝑎𝑛𝑦 𝑎𝑙𝑡𝑖𝑡𝑢𝑑𝑒 𝑎𝑏𝑜𝑣𝑒 𝑡𝑟𝑜𝑝𝑜𝑝𝑎𝑢𝑠𝑒 𝑢𝑝 𝑡𝑜 𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑜𝑝𝑎𝑢𝑠𝑒 𝑖𝑛 𝑚𝑒𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑠


ALTEMETERS

Is a pressure gauge which indicates an altitude in the standard atmosphere corresponding


to the measured pressure.

Pressure altitude,𝒉𝒑
Is the altitude given by an altimeter set to 29.92”Hg

Density altitude,𝒉𝒅

Is the altitude corresponding to a given density in the standard atmosphere.

Temperature altitude,𝒉𝒕

Is the altitude corresponding to a given temperature in the standard atmosphere.


Example # 1-Calculate the pressure, density and temperature at 11km and 15km altitudes in the
standard atmosphere.
For 11km
𝑇 = 𝑇0 + 𝑎ℎ
𝐾
𝑇 = 288𝐾 + −6.51 11𝑘𝑚
𝑘𝑚

𝑇 = 216.4𝐾

5.26
𝑎ℎ
𝑃 = 𝑃0 1+
𝑇0
5.26
𝐾
−6.51 11𝑘𝑚
𝑃 = 101325𝑃𝑎 1 + 𝑘𝑚
288𝐾

𝑃 = 22524.74𝑃𝑎
𝑎ℎ 4.26
ρ= ρ0 1 + 𝑇0

4.26
𝐾
𝑘𝑔 −6.51 11𝑘𝑚
ρ = 1.225 3 1 + 𝑘𝑚
𝑚 288𝐾

𝑘𝑔
ρ = 0.362 3
𝑚

For 15 km
1.68ρ0
𝑇 = 216.5𝐾 ρ= −4 ℎ
𝑒 1.578 𝑥

1.26𝑃0 𝑘𝑔
1.68 1.225
𝑃= −4 ℎ 𝑚3
𝑒 1.578 𝑥 10 ρ= −4
𝑒 1.578 𝑥 10 15,000
1.26 101325𝑃𝑎
𝑃= −4
𝑒 1.578 𝑥 10 15,000
𝑘𝑔
ρ = 0.193 3
𝑚
𝑃 = 11970.50𝑃𝑎
𝑘𝑔
Example # 2:Find the pressure and Temperature at an altitude where the density is 0.168 𝑚3 in
Standard atmosphere.
Given:
𝑘𝑔
ρ = 0.168
𝑚3
Standard atmosphere
Required:
P and T

To checked if the density is at any level between Tropopause up to Stratopause

@ρ𝑟𝑒𝑓 = 11km
𝐾 4.26
−6.51𝑘𝑚 11𝑘𝑚
ρ𝑟𝑒𝑓 =ρ0 1 +
288𝐾

𝑘𝑔
ρ𝑟𝑒𝑓 =0.362𝑚3

Note: Density must be lower than 0.362 for us to use the formula of Pressure and
Density variation with altitude above Tropopause up to Stratopause
Solution:

ρ 1.68 To get the Pressure


= 1.578 𝑥 −4 ℎ
ρ0 𝑒
1.26𝑃0
𝑃= −4 ℎ
1.578 𝑥 10−4 ℎ
ρ0 𝑒 1.578 𝑥 10
𝑒 = 1.68
ρ
1.26 101325𝑃𝑎
ln 𝑒 1.578 𝑥 10−4 ℎ
=ln
ρ
1.68 0 𝑃= −4
ρ 𝑒 1.578 𝑥 10 15,877.86𝑚

ρ0
1.578 𝑥 10−4 h = ln 1.68 𝑃 = 10422.0 𝑃𝑎
ρ
𝜌0
𝑙𝑛 1.68 For Temperature
𝜌
ℎ=
1.578 𝑥 10−4
𝑇 = 216.5𝐾
𝑘𝑔
1.225 3
𝑙𝑛 1.68 𝑚
𝑘𝑔
0.168 3
ℎ= 𝑚
1.578 𝑥 10 −4

ℎ = 15,877.86𝑚
Example # 3:On a hot day, the measured temperature and pressure are 38°C and 29.0 in Hg,
respectively. Calculate the density and the density ratio.

Given:
𝑇 = 38°𝐶 + 273 = 311𝐾
101325𝑃𝑎
𝑃 = 29𝑖𝑛 𝐻𝑔 = 98,209.39 𝑃𝑎
29.92𝑖𝑛 𝐻𝑔

Required:

ρ 𝑎𝑛𝑑 σ
Solution:
𝑘𝑔
𝑃 = ρ𝑅𝑇 ρ 1.225
σ= = 𝑚3
𝑃 ρ0 𝑘𝑔
ρ= 1.100 3
𝑚
𝑅𝑇
𝑁
98,209.39
ρ= 𝑚2 σ = 0.898
𝐽
287.08 311𝐾
𝑘𝑔. 𝐾

𝑘𝑔
ρ = 1.100
𝑚3
Example # 4: An altimeter reads 11,200 ft when the temperature is 39°F. What is the air
density and what is the standard altitude?
𝐺𝑖𝑣𝑒𝑛:
ℎ𝑝 = 11,200𝑓𝑡

𝑇 = 39°𝐹 + 460 = 499°𝑅


𝑅𝑒𝑞𝑢𝑖𝑟𝑒𝑑:
ρ
ℎ𝑑
𝑆𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛:
5.26 𝑙𝑏
𝑃 𝑎ℎ𝑝 𝑃 = 1,389.17
= 1+ 𝑓𝑡 2
𝑃0 𝑇𝑜

5.26
𝑎ℎ𝑝
𝑃 = 𝑃0 1+
𝑇𝑜
5.26
°𝑅
𝑙𝑏 −0.003566 11,200𝑓𝑡
𝑓𝑡
𝑃 = 2116.8 2 1 +
𝑓𝑡 519°𝑅
𝐹𝑜𝑟 ρ 1
𝑎ℎ𝑑 ρ 4.26
𝑃 = ρ𝑔𝑅𝑇 = −1
𝑇0 ρ0
𝑃 1
ρ= 𝑇0 ρ 4.26
𝑔𝑅𝑇
𝑙𝑏 ℎ𝑑 = −1
1,389.17 2 𝑎 ρ0
𝑓𝑡
ρ=
𝑓𝑡 𝑓𝑡. 𝑙𝑏 1
32.174 2 53.342 499°𝑅 𝑠𝑙𝑢𝑔 4.26
𝑠 𝑙𝑏. °𝑅 0.001622 3
519°𝑅 𝑓𝑡
𝑙𝑏. 𝑠 2 ℎ𝑑 = −1
°𝑅 𝑠𝑙𝑢𝑔
𝑓𝑡 −0.003566 0.002377 3
ρ = 0.001622 𝑓𝑡 𝑓𝑡
𝑓𝑡 3

𝑠𝑙𝑢𝑔 ℎ𝑑 = 12,488.44𝑓𝑡
ρ = 0.001622
𝑓𝑡 3

𝐹𝑜𝑟 𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑢𝑎𝑙 𝑎𝑙𝑡𝑖𝑡𝑢𝑑𝑒


4.26
ρ 𝑎ℎ𝑑
= 1+
ρ0 𝑇0
1
ρ 4.26 𝑎ℎ𝑑
=1+
ρ0 𝑇0
BASIC AERODYNAMICS PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATION

Continuity Equation Conservation of mass along a stream tube, such air in a wind tunnel.

Where:
𝑠𝑙𝑢𝑔 𝑘𝑔
ṁ = 𝑚𝑎𝑠𝑠 𝑓𝑙𝑜𝑤 𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑓𝑙𝑢𝑖𝑑 𝑖𝑛 𝑜𝑟
𝑠𝑒𝑐 𝑠𝑒𝑐
𝑠𝑙𝑢𝑔 𝑘𝑔
𝜌 = 𝑑𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑜𝑓 𝑓𝑙𝑢𝑖𝑑 𝑖𝑛 3 𝑜𝑟 3
𝑓𝑡 𝑚
𝐴 = 𝑐𝑟𝑜𝑠𝑠 𝑠𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛𝑎𝑙 𝑎𝑟𝑒𝑎 𝑜𝑓 𝑡𝑢𝑏𝑒 𝑖𝑛𝑓𝑡 2 𝑜𝑟 𝑚2
𝑓𝑡 𝑚
𝑉 = 𝑣𝑒𝑙𝑜𝑐𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑜𝑓 𝑓𝑙𝑢𝑖𝑑 𝑖𝑛 𝑜𝑟
𝑠𝑒𝑐 𝑠𝑒𝑐
PRINCIPLE OF MASS CONSERVATION (LAW OF CONTINUITY)

The mass of fluids passing one section in one sec must be the same as the mass of fluid
passing any other section in one second.

For incompressible fluid, ρ=constant (M<0.3 approximately)

𝐴1 𝑉1 = 𝐴2 𝑉2
𝐴𝑉 = 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑡

Differential form:
𝑑𝑉 𝑑𝐴
=−
𝑉 𝐴
For compressible fluid, ρ≠constant (M≥0.3 approximately)

𝜌1 𝐴1 𝑉1 = 𝜌2 𝐴2 𝑉2
𝜌𝐴𝑉 = 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑡

Differential form:

𝑑𝑉 𝑑𝐴 𝑑𝜌
+ + =0
𝑉 𝐴 𝜌
Example # 1: A pipe is tapering in size, diminishing by 0.1 square ft per foot run. What is
the change in velocity per meter run where the pipe is 4 square ft in cross section? If the
velocity there is 90 ft per second, is the velocity increasing or decreasing?

Given: 𝑑𝑉 𝑉
To get , multiply both sides by
𝑑𝑠 𝑑𝑠
𝑑𝐴 𝑓𝑡 2
= −0.1 𝑑𝑉 𝑑𝐴 𝑉
𝑑𝑆 𝑓𝑡 =−
𝑉 𝐴 𝑑𝑠
𝐴 = 4 𝑓𝑡 2
𝑓𝑡 𝑑𝑉 𝑉 𝑑𝐴
𝑉 = 90 =−
𝑠 𝑑𝑠 𝐴 𝑑𝑠
Required:
𝑓𝑡
𝑑𝑉 90 𝑓𝑡 2
𝑑𝑉 = − 𝑠 −0.1
𝑑𝑠 𝑑𝑠 4𝑓𝑡 2 𝑓𝑡

Solution:
𝑑𝑉
= 2.25 𝑓𝑒𝑒𝑡 𝑝𝑒𝑟 sec 𝑝𝑒𝑟 𝑓𝑒𝑒𝑡
𝑑𝑉 𝑑𝐴 𝑑𝑠
+ =0
𝑉 𝐴
𝑑𝑉 𝑑𝐴 Velocity is increasing
=−
𝑉 𝐴
Example # 2: A circular pipe, 30 meters long, gradually tapers from 0.9 m diameter at one
end to 0.6 meter in diameter at the other. Fluid is flowing from the bigger toward the
smaller. What is the rate of increase in velocity at the entrance if the velocity there is 25
meter per second?

Given:
Solution:
𝑑𝑉 𝑉 𝑑𝐴
=−
𝑑𝑠 𝐴 𝑑𝑠

𝑑𝑉 𝑉 𝐴𝑏 − 𝐴𝑎
=−
𝑑𝑠 𝐴 𝑆𝑏 − 𝑆𝑎

π𝑑𝑏 2 π𝑑𝑎 2
𝑑𝑉 𝑉 −
=− 4 4
𝑑𝑠 π𝑑𝑎 2 𝑆𝑏 − 𝑆𝑎
4

𝑑𝑉 4𝑉 π 𝑑𝑏 2 − 𝑑𝑎 2
=−
𝑑𝑠 π𝑑𝑎 2 4 𝑆𝑏 − 𝑆𝑎

𝑑𝑉 𝑉 𝑑𝑏 2 − 𝑑𝑎 2
=− 2
𝑑𝑠 𝑑𝑎 𝑆𝑏 − 𝑆𝑎

𝑚 𝑚
𝑑𝑉 25 0.6𝑚 2 − 0.9𝑚 2
𝑠 𝑑𝑉
𝑑𝑠
=−
0.9𝑚2 30𝑚 − 0 = 0.46 𝑠
𝑑𝑠 𝑚
Example # 3: Air having the standard sea level density has a velocity of 100 fps at a
section of a wind tunnel, at another section having an area half as great at that at the first
section the flow velocity is 400mph. What is the density at the second section?

Given:
𝑠𝑙𝑢𝑔
ρ1 = 0.002377 3
𝑓𝑡
𝑓𝑡
𝑉1 = 100
𝑠
1
𝐴2 = 𝐴1
2
𝑚𝑖𝑙𝑒𝑠 5280 𝑓𝑡 ℎ𝑜𝑢𝑟 𝑓𝑡
𝑉2 = 400 = 586.67
ℎ𝑜𝑢𝑟 𝑚𝑖𝑙𝑒 3600 𝑠𝑒𝑐 𝑠

Required:
ρ2
Solution:

ρ1 𝐴1 𝑉1 = ρ2 𝐴2 𝑉2

1
ρ1 𝐴1 𝑉1 = ρ2 𝐴1 𝑉2
2
ρ1 𝑉1
ρ2 = 2
𝑉2

𝑠𝑙𝑢𝑔 𝑓𝑡
2 0.002377 100
𝑓𝑡 3 𝑠
ρ2 =
𝑓𝑡
586.67
𝑠

𝑘𝑔
𝑠𝑙𝑢𝑔 1.225
ρ2 = 0.000810 3 𝑥 𝑚3
𝑓𝑡 𝑠𝑙𝑢𝑔
0.003277 3
𝑓𝑡

𝑘𝑔
ρ2 = 0.417
𝑚3
Example # 4:Water is flowing through a smooth pipe whose diameter is decreasing. At
one location, the diameter is 12 cm. If the velocity there is 10 meter per second. Find the
mass flow rate. At a station further down the pipe, the diameter is 4cm. Find the velocity at
this section.

Given: ṁ1 = ṁ2
𝑚
𝑑1 = 12𝑐𝑚 = 0.12𝑚 ṁ2 = ρ𝐻2 𝑂 𝐴2 𝑉2
100𝑐𝑚
𝑚
𝑉1 = 10 ṁ2
𝑠 𝑉2 =
𝑚 𝐴2 ρ𝐻2 𝑂
𝑑2 = 4𝑐𝑚 = 0.04𝑚
100𝑐𝑚 𝑘𝑔
113.1
𝑉2 = 𝑠
Required: π 0.04𝑚 2 𝑘𝑔
1000
ṁ 4 𝑚3
𝑉2
𝑚
Solution: 𝑉2 = 90
𝑠
ṁ = ρ𝐻2 𝑂 𝐴1 𝑉1
2
𝑘𝑔 0.12𝑚 𝑚
ṁ = 1000 3 π 10
𝑚 4 𝑠
𝑘𝑔
ṁ = 113.1
𝑠
BERNOULLI EQUATION
Conservation of energy along a streamline

BERNOULLI’S PRINCIPLE

State that as the air velocity increases, the pressure decreases; as the air velocity
decreases the pressure increases.

For Incompressible fluid, ρ=constant (M<0.3 approximately)

𝑉2 𝑃
+ = 𝐶𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑡
2 𝜌

𝑉1 2 𝑃1 𝑉2 2 𝑃2
+ = +
2 𝜌1 2 𝜌2

The isentropic equation of state is not needed


The simplified form of Bernoulli's equation can be summarised in the following
memorable word equation.

𝑇𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝑃𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑒 = 𝑆𝑡𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑐 𝑃𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑒 + 𝐷𝑦𝑛𝑎𝑚𝑖𝑐 𝑃𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑒

Where:
1 2
𝑞= 𝜌𝑉 = 𝐷𝑦𝑛𝑎𝑚𝑖𝑐 𝑃𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑒
2

Application: Definition of equivalent airspeed 𝑉𝑒.

2 𝑃𝑡 − 𝑃
𝑉𝑒 =
𝜌0

Where:
𝑃𝑡 = 𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑒 𝑜𝑟 𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑔𝑛𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑒
𝑃 = 𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑐 𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑒
𝜌0 = 𝑑𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑎𝑡 𝑠𝑒𝑎 𝑙𝑒𝑣𝑒𝑙
For True Airspeed
𝑉𝑒
𝑉=
𝜎

Where:
𝜌
𝜎= = 𝑑𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜
𝜌0
For Compressible fluid, ρ ≠ constant (M≥0.3 approximately)
𝑉2 𝛾 𝑃
+ = 𝐶𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑡
2 𝛾−1𝜌
𝑉1 2 𝛾 𝑃1 𝑉2 2 𝛾 𝑃2
+ = +
2 𝛾 − 1 𝜌1 2 𝛾 − 1 𝜌2
OR 𝛾−1 γ−1
2
2 𝑃𝑡 − 𝑃 𝛾 2𝑉𝑎 𝑃1 γ
𝑀2 =
𝛾−1 𝑃
+1 −1 𝑉1 2 = 𝑉0 2 + 1−
γ−1 𝑃0
The Isentropic of State can be used
Isentropic Process-A process which is both Adiabatic and Reversible.
Adiabatic Process-A process which no heat added or taken away.
Reversible Process- A process in which no frictional or other dissipative effects occur.
𝛾
𝛾 𝛾 𝛾
𝑃2 ѵ1 𝜌2 𝑇2 𝛾1 𝑤2
= = = =
𝑃1 ѵ2 𝜌1 𝑇1 𝑤1

Where:
ѵ = 𝑆𝑝𝑒𝑐𝑖𝑓𝑖𝑐 𝑉𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒
𝑤 = 𝑆𝑝𝑒𝑐𝑖𝑓𝑖𝑐 𝑤𝑒𝑖𝑔ℎ𝑡
The speed of sound is given by:
𝛾𝑃
𝑉𝑎 =
𝜌
𝑊ℎ𝑒𝑟𝑒:
𝛾 = 1.4 𝑓𝑜𝑟 𝑑𝑟𝑦 𝑎𝑖𝑟
𝑙𝑏 𝑁
𝑃 = 2 𝑜𝑟 2
𝑓𝑡 𝑚
𝑠𝑙𝑢𝑔 𝑘𝑔
𝜌= 𝑜𝑟 3
𝑓𝑡 3 𝑚
𝑓𝑡 𝑚
𝑉𝑎 = 𝑜𝑟
𝑠 𝑠

𝐹𝑜𝑟 𝐸𝑛𝑔𝑙𝑖𝑠ℎ 𝑆𝑦𝑠𝑡𝑒𝑚: 𝐹𝑜𝑟 𝑀𝑒𝑡𝑟𝑖𝑐 𝑆𝑦𝑠𝑡𝑒𝑚:


𝑉𝑎 = 49.02 𝑇 𝑉𝑎 = 20.05 𝑇

𝑊ℎ𝑒𝑟𝑒: 𝑊ℎ𝑒𝑟𝑒:
𝑇 = 𝑎𝑏𝑠𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑡𝑒 𝑡𝑒𝑚𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑒 𝑖𝑛°𝑅 𝑇 = 𝑎𝑏𝑠𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑡𝑒 𝑡𝑒𝑚𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑒 𝑖𝑛 𝐾
𝑓𝑡 𝑚
𝑉𝑎 = 𝑠𝑝𝑒𝑒𝑑 𝑜𝑓 𝑠𝑜𝑢𝑛𝑑 𝑜𝑓 𝑎𝑖𝑟 𝑖𝑛 𝑉𝑎 = 𝑠𝑝𝑒𝑒𝑑 𝑜𝑓 𝑠𝑜𝑢𝑛𝑑 𝑜𝑓 𝑎𝑖𝑟 𝑖𝑛
𝑠 𝑠
Example # 1: A horizontal pipe, 1ft in diameter, tapers gradually to 8 in. in diameter. If the
flow is 500 cu ft of water per minute, what is the difference between the pressures at the
two sections?

Given:
𝑑1 = 1 𝑓𝑡
𝑓𝑡
𝑑2 = 8 𝑖𝑛 = 0.667𝑓𝑡
12 𝑖𝑛
𝑓𝑡 3 𝑚𝑖𝑛 𝑓𝑡 3
ṁ = 𝑄 = 500 = 8.33
𝑚𝑖𝑛 60 𝑠𝑒𝑐 𝑠𝑒𝑐

Required:
𝑃1 − 𝑃2

Solution:

𝑉1 2 𝑃1 𝑉2 2 𝑃2
+ = +
2 𝜌𝐻2 𝑂 2 𝜌𝐻2 𝑂
1 1
𝑃1 − 𝑃2 = 𝑉2 2 − 𝑉1 2
ρ 2
ρ𝐻2 𝑂
𝑃1 − 𝑃2 = 𝑉2 2 − 𝑉1 2
2
𝐹𝑜𝑟 𝑉1
𝐹𝑜𝑟 𝑉2
𝑄 = 𝐴1 𝑉1
𝑄 = 𝐴2 𝑉2
𝑄
𝑉1 = 𝑄
𝐴1 𝑉2 =
𝑓𝑡 3 𝐴2
8.33
𝑠 𝑓𝑡 3
𝑉1 = 8.33
1𝑓𝑡 2 𝑉2 = 𝑠
π 0.667𝑓𝑡 2
4 π
4
𝑓𝑡
𝑉1 = 10.61 𝑓𝑡
𝑠 𝑉2 = 23.83
𝑠
𝐹𝑜𝑟 ρ𝐻2 𝑂
𝑙𝑏𝑚 𝑠𝑙𝑢𝑔 𝑠𝑙𝑢𝑔
ρ𝐻2 𝑂 = 62.4 = 1.939454
𝑓𝑡 3 32.174𝑙𝑏𝑚 𝑓𝑡 3
ρ𝐻2 𝑂
𝑃1 − 𝑃2 = 𝑉2 2 − 𝑉1 2
2
𝑠𝑙𝑢𝑔
1.939454 3 𝑓𝑡
2
𝑓𝑡
2
𝑓𝑡
𝑃1 − 𝑃2 = 23.83 − 10.61
2 𝑠 𝑠

𝑠𝑙𝑢𝑔. 𝑓𝑡 1 𝑙𝑏
𝑃1 − 𝑃2 = 441.51 𝑃1 − 𝑃2 = 441.51
𝑠2 𝑓𝑡 2 𝑓𝑡 2
Example # 2: Water flows through a horizontal pipe at a velocity of 50 ft per second. Owing
to the pipe gradually expanding to a larger size, the velocity decreases to 35 ft per sec. What
is the difference between the pressures at two points?

Given:
𝑓𝑡
𝑉1 = 50
𝑠
𝑓𝑡
𝑉2 = 35
𝑠
𝑠𝑙𝑢𝑔
ρ𝐻2 𝑂 = 1.939454
𝑓𝑡 3
Required:
𝑃1 − 𝑃2

Solution:

𝑉1 2 𝑃1 𝑉2 2 𝑃2
+ = +
2 𝜌𝐻2 𝑂 2 𝜌𝐻2 𝑂

1 1
𝑃2 − 𝑃1 = 𝑉1 2 − 𝑉2 2
ρ 2
ρ𝐻2 𝑂
𝑃2 − 𝑃1 = 𝑉1 2 − 𝑉2 2
2
𝑠𝑙𝑢𝑔
1.939454 𝑓𝑡
2
𝑓𝑡
2
𝑓𝑡 3
𝑃1 − 𝑃2 = 50 − 35
2 𝑠 𝑠

𝑙𝑏
𝑃1 − 𝑃2 = 1,236.40
𝑓𝑡 2
Example # 3: The diameter of a horizontal tube is 4 in., in which tetrabromoethane (spec.
grav.=3) is flowing at the rate of 0.50 cu ft per sec. The pressure is 30 lb per sq in(gage). If
the tube gradually decreases to 3 in. in diameter, what is the pressure there?

Given:
𝑓𝑡
𝑑1 = 4 𝑖𝑛 = 0.333𝑓𝑡
12𝑖𝑛
𝑆𝑝𝑒𝑐𝑖𝑓𝑖𝑐 𝐺𝑟𝑎𝑣𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑜𝑓 𝑡𝑒𝑡𝑟𝑎𝑏𝑟𝑜𝑚𝑜𝑒𝑡ℎ𝑎𝑛𝑒 = 3
𝑓𝑡 3
𝑄 = 0.50
𝑠
𝑙𝑏 12𝑖𝑛 2 𝑙𝑏
𝑃1 = 30 2 = 4,320
𝑖𝑛 𝑓𝑡 2 𝑓𝑡 2
𝑓𝑡
𝑑2 = 3𝑖𝑛 = 0.25𝑓𝑡
12𝑖𝑛

Required:
𝑃2
Solution:

𝑉1 2 𝑃1 𝑉2 2 𝑃2 ρ𝑠𝑢𝑏𝑠
+ = + 𝑃2 − 𝑃1 = 𝑉1 2 − 𝑉2 2
2 𝜌𝑠𝑢𝑏𝑠 2 𝜌𝑠𝑢𝑏𝑠 2

1 1 ρ𝑠𝑢𝑏𝑠
𝑃2 − 𝑃1 = 𝑉1 2 − 𝑉2 2 𝑃2 = 𝑃1 + 𝑉1 2 − 𝑉2 2
ρ 2 2
𝐹𝑜𝑟 ρ𝑠𝑢𝑏𝑠
ρ𝑠𝑢𝑏𝑠 = 𝑠. 𝑔. (ρ𝐻2 𝑂 )
𝑠𝑙𝑢𝑔
ρ𝑠𝑢𝑏𝑠 = 3 1.939454
𝑓𝑡 3
𝑠𝑙𝑢𝑔
ρ𝑠𝑢𝑏𝑠 = 5.818362
𝑓𝑡 3
𝐹𝑜𝑟 𝑉1
𝐹𝑜𝑟 𝑉2
𝑄 = 𝐴1 𝑉1
𝑄 = 𝐴2 𝑉2
𝑄
𝑉1 = 𝑄
𝐴1 𝑉2 =
𝑓𝑡 3 𝐴2
0.50
𝑠 𝑓𝑡 3
𝑉1 = 0.50
0.333𝑓𝑡 2
𝑉2 = 𝑠
π 0.25𝑓𝑡 2
4 π
4
𝑓𝑡
𝑉1 = 5.74 𝑓𝑡
𝑠 𝑉2 = 10.19
𝑠
ρ𝑠𝑢𝑏𝑠
𝑃2 = 𝑃1 + 𝑉1 2 − 𝑉2 2
2
𝑠𝑙𝑢𝑔
𝑙𝑏 5.818362 𝑓𝑡
2
𝑓𝑡
2
𝑓𝑡 3
𝑃2 = 4320 2 + 5.74 − 10.19
𝑓𝑡 2 𝑠 𝑠
𝑠𝑙𝑢𝑔 𝑓𝑡 1
𝑃2 = 4113.77
𝑠𝑒𝑐 2 𝑓𝑡 2

𝑙𝑏
𝑃2 = 4113.77
𝑓𝑡 2
Example # 4:Alcohol (s.g.=0.80) is flowing through a horizontal pipe, which is 0.254m in
diameter with a velocity of 12.2 meter per second. At a smaller section of the pipe, there is
41.5KPa less pressure. Assuming that the flow is smooth. What is the diameter there?

Given:
𝑆𝑝𝑒𝑐𝑖𝑓𝑖𝑐 𝐺𝑟𝑎𝑣𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑜𝑓 𝑎𝑙𝑐𝑜ℎ𝑜𝑙 = 0.80
𝑑1 = 0.254𝑚
𝑚
𝑉1 = 12.2
𝑠
𝑃1 − 𝑃2 = 41.5𝐾𝑃𝑎

Required:
𝑑2

Solution:

𝑉1 2 𝑃1 𝑉2 2 𝑃2 1 1
+ = + 𝑉2 2 − 𝑉1 2 = 𝑃 − 𝑃2
2 𝜌𝑠𝑢𝑏𝑠 2 𝜌𝑠𝑢𝑏𝑠 2 ρ𝑠𝑢𝑏𝑠 1

𝑉2 2 𝑉1 2 𝑃1 𝑃2 2
− = − 𝑉2 2 − 𝑉1 2 = 𝑃1 − 𝑃2
2 2 ρ𝑠𝑢𝑏𝑠 ρ𝑠𝑢𝑏𝑠 ρ𝑠𝑢𝑏𝑠
𝐴1
𝐵𝑈𝑇 𝐴1 𝑉1 = 𝐴2 𝑉2 𝐴2 =
2
𝐴1 1+ 𝑃1 − 𝑃2
𝑉2 = 𝑉1 𝑉1 2 ρ𝑠𝑢𝑏𝑠
𝐴2

𝑆𝑢𝑏𝑠𝑡𝑖𝑡𝑢𝑡𝑒 𝐹𝑜𝑟 ρ𝑠𝑢𝑏𝑠


2 ρ𝑠𝑢𝑏𝑠 = 𝑠. 𝑔. ρ𝐻2 𝑂
𝑉2 2 − 𝑉1 2 = 𝑃1 − 𝑃2
ρ𝑠𝑢𝑏𝑠 𝑘𝑔 𝑘𝑔
ρ𝑠𝑢𝑏𝑠 = 0.80 1000 = 800
2 𝑚3 𝑚3
𝐴1 2
𝑉1 − 𝑉1 2 = 𝑃1 − 𝑃2
𝐴2 ρ𝑠𝑢𝑏𝑠 𝐹𝑜𝑟 𝐴1
2
0.254𝑚
2 𝐴1 = π = 0.051𝑚2
𝐴1 2 4
𝑉1 2 −1 = 𝑃1 − 𝑃2
𝐴2 ρ𝑠𝑢𝑏𝑠 0.051𝑚2
2
𝐴2 =
𝐴1 2 2 𝑁
−1 = 𝑃1 − 𝑃2 1+ 2 41,500
𝑚 𝑘𝑔 𝑚2
𝐴2 𝑉1 2 ρ𝑠𝑢𝑏𝑠 12.2 800
𝑠 𝑚3
2
𝐴1 2
=1+ 2 𝑃1 − 𝑃2 𝐴2 = 0.0391𝑚2
𝐴2 𝑉1 ρ𝑠𝑢𝑏𝑠

𝐴1 2
= 1+ 𝑃1 − 𝑃2
𝐴2 𝑉1 2 ρ𝑠𝑢𝑏𝑠
𝐹𝑜𝑟 𝑑2

2
𝑑2 2
0.0391𝑚 = π
4
4 0.0391𝑚2
𝑑2 =
π

𝑑2 = 0.223𝑚
Example # 5:Air is flowing horizontally at a speed of 100mph through a duct 4 sq ft in cross
section. The duct gradually narrows down to a throat section. If a U tube shows a
difference in pressure between the throat and main section of 7 in of water, what is the
cross sectional area of the throat? (Assume that the air is non-compressible and has a
density of 0.002377 slugs per cu ft.).

Given:
𝑚𝑖𝑙𝑒𝑠 5280𝑓𝑡 ℎ𝑜𝑢𝑟 𝑚𝑖𝑛 𝑓𝑡
𝑉1 = 100 = 146.67
ℎ𝑜𝑢𝑟 𝑚𝑖𝑙𝑒𝑠 60𝑚𝑖𝑛 60𝑠𝑒𝑐 𝑠
𝐴1 = 4𝑓𝑡 2
∆ℎ𝐻2 𝑂 = 7𝑖𝑛
𝑠𝑙𝑢𝑔
ρ𝑎𝑖𝑟 = 0.002377
𝑓𝑡 3
Required:
𝐴2
Solution:

𝑉1 2 𝑃1 𝑉2 2 𝑃2 1 1
+ = + 𝑉2 2 − 𝑉1 2 = 𝑃 − 𝑃2
2 𝜌𝑎𝑖𝑟 2 𝜌𝑎𝑖𝑟 2 ρ𝑎𝑖𝑟 1

𝑉2 2 𝑉1 2 𝑃1 𝑃2 2
− = − 𝑉2 2 − 𝑉1 2 = 𝑃1 − 𝑃2
2 2 ρ𝑎𝑖𝑟 ρ𝑎𝑖𝑟 ρ𝑎𝑖𝑟
𝐴1
𝐵𝑈𝑇 𝐴1 𝑉1 = 𝐴2 𝑉2 𝐴2 =
𝐴1 2
𝑉2 = 𝑉1 1+ 𝑃1 − 𝑃2
𝐴2 𝑉1 2 ρ𝑎𝑖𝑟

𝑆𝑢𝑏𝑠𝑡𝑖𝑡𝑢𝑡𝑒 𝐹𝑜𝑟𝑃1 − 𝑃2
2 𝑃1 − 𝑃2 = ρ𝐻2 𝑂 𝑔∆ℎ𝐻2 𝑂
2 2
𝑉2 − 𝑉1 = 𝑃1 − 𝑃2
ρ𝑎𝑖𝑟 𝑠𝑙𝑢𝑔 𝑓𝑡 𝑓𝑡
𝑃1 − 𝑃2 = 1.939454 32.174 7𝑖𝑛
2 𝑓𝑡 3 𝑠2 12𝑖𝑛
𝐴1 2
𝑉1 − 𝑉1 2 = 𝑃1 − 𝑃2 𝑙𝑏
𝐴2 ρ𝑎𝑖𝑟
𝑃1 − 𝑃2 = 36.4
𝑓𝑡 2
2
𝐴1 2 4𝑓𝑡 2
𝑉1 2 −1 = 𝑃1 − 𝑃2 𝐴2 =
𝐴2 ρ𝑎𝑖𝑟 2 𝑙𝑏
1+ 2 36.4
2 𝑓𝑡 𝑠𝑙𝑢𝑔 𝑓𝑡 2
𝐴1 2 146.47 0.002377
−1 = 𝑃1 − 𝑃2 𝑠 𝑓𝑡 3
𝐴2 𝑉1 2 ρ𝑎𝑖𝑟
2
𝐴1 2
= 1+ 2 𝑃1 − 𝑃2 𝐴2 = 2.57𝑓𝑡 2
𝐴2 𝑉1 ρ𝑎𝑖𝑟

𝐴1 2
= 1+ 𝑃1 − 𝑃2
𝐴2 𝑉1 2 ρ𝑎𝑖𝑟
Example # 6: A horizontal water pipe is reduced in size from 18 in in diameter at point A
to 6 in in diameter at B. The flow in the pipe is 10 cu ft per sec, and the pressure at A is
20 lb per sq in. If it is assumed that there is no loss in energy due to friction, what is the
pressure at B?

Given: ρ 2 2
𝑓𝑡 𝑃𝐵 − 𝑃𝐴 = 𝑉 − 𝑉𝐵
𝑑𝐴 = 18 𝑖𝑛 = 1.5𝑓𝑡 2 𝐴
12𝑖𝑛 ρ 2 2
𝑓𝑡 𝑃𝐵 = 𝑃𝐴 + 𝑉 − 𝑉𝐵
𝑑𝐵 = 6 𝑖𝑛 = 0.5𝑓𝑡 2 𝐴
12𝑖𝑛
𝑓𝑡 3 𝐹𝑜𝑟 𝑉𝐴 𝐹𝑜𝑟 𝑉𝐵
𝑄 = 10
𝑠 𝑄 = 𝐴𝐴 𝑉𝐴 𝑄 = 𝐴𝐵 𝑉𝐵
𝑙𝑏 144𝑖𝑛2 𝑙𝑏
𝑃𝐴 = 20 2 = 2880 𝑄 𝑄
𝑖𝑛 𝑓𝑡 2 𝑓𝑡 2 𝑉𝐴 = 𝑉𝐵 =
𝐴𝐴 𝐴𝐵
Required: 𝑓𝑡 3 𝑓𝑡 3
10 10
𝑃𝐵 𝑉𝐴 = 𝑠 𝑠
1.5𝑓𝑡 2 𝑉𝐵 = 2
Solution: π 0.5𝑓𝑡
4 π
4
𝑉𝐴 2 𝑃𝐴 𝑉𝐵 2 𝑃𝐵 𝑓𝑡 𝑓𝑡
+ = + 𝑉𝐴 = 5.66 𝑉𝐵 = 50.93
2 ρ 2 ρ 𝑠 𝑠
𝑃𝐵 𝑃𝐴 𝑉𝐴 2 𝑉𝐵 2
− = −
ρ ρ 2 2
ρ 2 2
𝑃𝐵 = 𝑃𝐴 + 𝑉 − 𝑉𝐵
2 𝐴

𝑠𝑙𝑢𝑔
𝑙𝑏 1.939454 𝑓𝑡
2
𝑓𝑡
2
𝑓𝑡 3
𝑃𝐵 = 2880 2 + 5.66 − 50.93
𝑓𝑡 2 𝑠 𝑠
𝑙𝑏
𝑃𝐵 = 395.72
𝑓𝑡 2
Example # 7:A horizontal pipe line enlarges from a diameter of 6in at point A to a diameter
of 12in at point B. The flow of water is 20 cu ft per sec, and the pressure at A is 10 lb per sq
in. What is the pressure at B?
Given:
ρ 2 2
𝑓𝑡 𝑃𝐵 − 𝑃𝐴 = 𝑉 − 𝑉𝐵
𝑑𝐴 = 6 𝑖𝑛 = 0.5𝑓𝑡 2 𝐴
12𝑖𝑛 ρ 2 2
𝑓𝑡 𝑃𝐵 = 𝑃𝐴 + 𝑉 − 𝑉𝐵
𝑑𝐵 = 12 𝑖𝑛 = 1𝑓𝑡 2 𝐴
12𝑖𝑛
𝑓𝑡 3 𝐹𝑜𝑟 𝑉𝐴 𝐹𝑜𝑟 𝑉𝐵
𝑄 = 20
𝑠 𝑄 = 𝐴𝐴 𝑉𝐴 𝑄 = 𝐴𝐵 𝑉𝐵
𝑙𝑏 144𝑖𝑛2 𝑙𝑏
𝑃𝐴 = 10 2 = 1440 𝑄 𝑄
𝑖𝑛 𝑓𝑡 2 𝑓𝑡 2 𝑉𝐴 = 𝑉𝐵 =
𝐴𝐴 𝐴𝐵
Required: 𝑓𝑡 3 𝑓𝑡 3
20 20
𝑃𝐵 𝑉𝐴 = 𝑠 𝑠
0.5𝑓𝑡 2 𝑉𝐵 =
π 1𝑓𝑡 2
4 π
𝑉𝐴 2 𝑃𝐴 𝑉𝐵 2 𝑃𝐵 4
+ = + 𝑓𝑡
2 ρ 2 ρ 𝑓𝑡
𝑉𝐴 = 101.86 𝑉𝐵 = 25.46
𝑠 𝑠
𝑃𝐵 𝑃𝐴 𝑉𝐴 2 𝑉𝐵 2
− = −
ρ ρ 2 2
ρ 2 2
𝑃𝐵 = 𝑃𝐴 + 𝑉 − 𝑉𝐵
2 𝐴

𝑠𝑙𝑢𝑔
𝑙𝑏 1.939454 𝑓𝑡
2
𝑓𝑡
2
𝑓𝑡 3
𝑃𝐵 = 1440 2 + 101.86 − 25.46
𝑓𝑡 2 𝑠 𝑠
𝑙𝑏
𝑃𝐵 = 10,872.78
𝑓𝑡 2