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FORCES ON SOLIDS IN MOTION RELATIVE TO THE AIR.

THE INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ATOSPHERE

The atmosphere is the mechanical mixture of gases surrounding the earth.

ATMOSPHERIC CONSTITUENTS

Nitrogen 78.03%

Oxygen 20.99%

Argon 0.94%

Carbon Dioxide 0.03%

Hydrogen 0.01%

Helium 0.004%

Neon 0.0012% and small amount of water vapor

and other gases.

FOUR LAYERS OF EARTH’S ATMOSPHERE

Trophosphere

Stratosphere

Ionosphere

Exosphere

STANDARD VALUES FOR AIR AT SEA LEVEL

Pressure

𝑙𝑏 𝑙𝑏

𝑃0 = 14.7 = 2116.8 = 29.92"𝐻𝑔 = 76𝑐𝑚 𝐻𝑔 = 760𝑚𝑚 𝐻𝑔

𝑖𝑛2 𝑓𝑡 2

= 101325𝑃𝑎 = 1𝑎𝑡𝑚

Density

𝑠𝑙𝑢𝑔 𝑘𝑔

𝜌0 = 0.002377 = 1.225

𝑓𝑡 3 𝑚3

Temperature

𝑇0 = 519°𝑅 = 288𝐾

𝑠𝑙𝑢𝑔 𝑘𝑔

µ0 = 3.7372 𝑥 10−7 = 1.7894 𝑥 10−5

𝑓𝑡. 𝑠𝑒𝑐 𝑚. 𝑠𝑒𝑐

REGIONS OF THE EARTH’S ATMOSPHERE

Tropopause: Going upward from the surface, it is the point where air ceases to cool

with height, and becomes almost completely dry.

Sea Level: is a measure of the average height of the ocean's surface (such as the

halfway point between the mean high tide and the mean low tide)

SEA LEVEL UP TO TROPOPAUSE (11 Km, 36,080 ft)

𝑇 = 𝑇0 + 𝑎ℎ

𝑇

θ=

𝑇0

Where:

𝑇

θ= = 𝑇𝑒𝑚𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑒 𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜

𝑇0

𝑇 = 𝑡𝑒𝑚𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑒 𝑎𝑡 𝑎𝑛𝑦 𝑎𝑙𝑡𝑖𝑡𝑢𝑑𝑒 𝑎𝑏𝑜𝑣𝑒 𝑠𝑒𝑎 𝑙𝑒𝑣𝑒𝑙 𝑢𝑝 𝑡𝑜 𝑇𝑟𝑜𝑝𝑜𝑝𝑎𝑢𝑠𝑒 𝑖𝑛 °𝑅 𝑜𝑟 𝐾

𝑇0 = 519°𝑅 𝑜𝑟 288𝐾

𝑎 = 𝑡𝑒𝑚𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑒 𝑔𝑟𝑎𝑑𝑖𝑒𝑛𝑡 𝑜𝑟 𝑙𝑎𝑝𝑠𝑒 𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑒

°𝑅 𝐾 𝐾𝑚

= −0.003566 𝑜𝑟 − 0.00651 𝑜𝑟 − 6.51

𝑓𝑡 𝑚 𝑚

ℎ = 𝑎𝑛𝑦 𝑎𝑙𝑡𝑖𝑡𝑢𝑑𝑒 𝑎𝑏𝑜𝑣𝑒 𝑠𝑒𝑎 𝑙𝑒𝑣𝑒𝑙 𝑢𝑝 𝑡𝑜 𝑡𝑟𝑜𝑝𝑜𝑝𝑎𝑢𝑠𝑒 𝑖𝑛 𝑓𝑡 𝑜𝑟 𝑚 𝑜𝑟 𝑘𝑚

2. PRESSURE VARIATION UP TO TROPOPAUSE

5.26

𝑃 𝑎ℎ

δ= = 1+

𝑃0 𝑇0

Where:

δ = 𝑃𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑒 𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜

𝑙𝑏

𝑃 = 𝑃𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑒 𝑎𝑡 𝑎𝑛𝑦 𝑎𝑙𝑡𝑖𝑡𝑢𝑑𝑒 𝑎𝑏𝑜𝑣𝑒 𝑠𝑒𝑎 𝑙𝑒𝑣𝑒𝑙 𝑢𝑝 𝑡𝑜 𝑇𝑟𝑜𝑝𝑜𝑝𝑎𝑢𝑠𝑒 𝑖𝑛 2 𝑜𝑟 𝑖𝑛 𝑃𝑎

𝑓𝑡

𝑙𝑏 𝑁

𝑃0 = 2116.8 2 𝑜𝑟101325 2

𝑓𝑡 𝑚

°𝑅 𝐾 𝐾𝑚

𝑎 = −0.003566 𝑜𝑟 − 0.00651 𝑜𝑟 − 6.51

𝑓𝑡 𝑚 𝑚

ℎ = 𝑎𝑛𝑦 𝑎𝑙𝑡𝑖𝑡𝑢𝑑𝑒 𝑎𝑏𝑜𝑣𝑒 𝑠𝑒𝑎 𝑙𝑒𝑣𝑒𝑙 𝑢𝑝 𝑡𝑜 𝑡𝑟𝑜𝑝𝑜𝑝𝑎𝑢𝑠𝑒 𝑖𝑛 𝑓𝑡 𝑜𝑟 𝑚 𝑜𝑟 𝑘𝑚

3.DENSITY VARIATION UP TO TROPOPAUSE

4.26

ρ 𝑎ℎ

σ= = 1+

ρ0 𝑇0

Where:

σ = 𝐷𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜

𝑠𝑙𝑢𝑔 𝑘𝑔

ρ= 𝐷𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑎𝑡 𝑎𝑛𝑦 𝑎𝑙𝑡𝑖𝑡𝑢𝑑𝑒 𝑎𝑏𝑜𝑣𝑒 𝑠𝑒𝑎 𝑙𝑒𝑣𝑒𝑙 𝑢𝑝 𝑡𝑜 𝑇𝑟𝑜𝑝𝑜𝑝𝑎𝑢𝑠𝑒 𝑖𝑛 𝑜𝑟

𝑓𝑡 3 𝑚3

𝑠𝑙𝑢𝑔 𝑘𝑔

ρ0 = 0.002377 3 𝑜𝑟 1.225 3

𝑓𝑡 𝑚

°𝑅 𝐾 𝐾𝑚

𝑎 = −0.003566 𝑜𝑟 − 0.00651 𝑜𝑟 − 6.51

𝑓𝑡 𝑚 𝑚

ℎ = 𝑎𝑛𝑦 𝑎𝑙𝑡𝑖𝑡𝑢𝑑𝑒 𝑎𝑏𝑜𝑣𝑒 𝑠𝑒𝑎 𝑙𝑒𝑣𝑒𝑙 𝑢𝑝 𝑡𝑜 𝑡𝑟𝑜𝑝𝑜𝑝𝑎𝑢𝑠𝑒 𝑖𝑛 𝑓𝑡 𝑜𝑟 𝑚 𝑜𝑟 𝑘𝑚

ABOVE TROPOPAUSE (11Km) up to STRATOPAUSE (32Km, 104960 ft)

104960 ft)

2. PRESSURE VARIATION ABOVE TROPOPAUSE (11Km) up to STRATOPAUSE (32Km, 104960 ft)

English System

𝑃 1.26

δ= = 4.805 𝑥 10−5ℎ

𝑃0 𝑒

Where:

𝑙𝑏

𝑃 = 𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑒 𝑎𝑡 𝑎𝑛𝑦 𝑎𝑙𝑡𝑖𝑡𝑢𝑑𝑒 𝑎𝑏𝑜𝑣𝑒 𝑡𝑟𝑜𝑝𝑜𝑝𝑎𝑢𝑠𝑒 𝑢𝑝 𝑡𝑜 𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑜𝑝𝑎𝑢𝑠𝑒 𝑖𝑛

𝑓𝑡 2

𝑙𝑏

𝑃0 = 2116.8 2

𝑓𝑡

2. PRESSURE VARIATION ABOVE TROPOPAUSE (11Km) up to STRATOPAUSE (32Km, 104960 ft)

Metric System

𝑃 1.26

δ= = 1.578 𝑥 10−4ℎ

𝑃0 𝑒

Where:

𝑁

𝑃 = 𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑒 𝑎𝑡 𝑎𝑛𝑦 𝑎𝑙𝑡𝑖𝑡𝑢𝑑𝑒 𝑎𝑏𝑜𝑣𝑒 𝑡𝑟𝑜𝑝𝑜𝑝𝑎𝑢𝑠𝑒 𝑢𝑝 𝑡𝑜 𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑜𝑝𝑎𝑢𝑠𝑒 𝑖𝑛

𝑚2

𝑁

𝑃0 = 101325 2

𝑚

3. DENSITY VARIATION ABOVE TROPOPAUSE (11Km) up to STRATOPAUSE (32Km, 104960 ft)

English System

ρ 1.68

σ= = 4.805 𝑥 10−5ℎ

ρ0 𝑒

Where:

𝑠𝑙𝑢𝑔

ρ= 𝑑𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑎𝑡 𝑎𝑛𝑦 𝑎𝑙𝑡𝑖𝑡𝑢𝑑𝑒 𝑎𝑏𝑜𝑣𝑒 𝑡𝑟𝑜𝑝𝑜𝑝𝑎𝑢𝑠𝑒 𝑢𝑝 𝑡𝑜 𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑜𝑝𝑎𝑢𝑠𝑒 𝑖𝑛 𝑓𝑡 3

𝑠𝑙𝑢𝑔

ρ0 = 0.003277 3

𝑓𝑡

3. DENSITY VARIATION ABOVE TROPOPAUSE (11Km) up to STRATOPAUSE (32Km, 104960 ft)

Metric System

ρ 1.68

σ= = 1.578 𝑥 10−4ℎ

ρ0 𝑒

Where:

𝑘𝑔

ρ= 𝑑𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑎𝑡 𝑎𝑛𝑦 𝑎𝑙𝑡𝑖𝑡𝑢𝑑𝑒 𝑎𝑏𝑜𝑣𝑒 𝑡𝑟𝑜𝑝𝑜𝑝𝑎𝑢𝑠𝑒 𝑢𝑝 𝑡𝑜 𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑜𝑝𝑎𝑢𝑠𝑒 𝑖𝑛 𝑚3

𝑘𝑔

ρ0 = 1.225 3

𝑚

ALTEMETERS

to the measured pressure.

Pressure altitude,𝒉𝒑

Is the altitude given by an altimeter set to 29.92”Hg

Density altitude,𝒉𝒅

Temperature altitude,𝒉𝒕

Example # 1-Calculate the pressure, density and temperature at 11km and 15km altitudes in the

standard atmosphere.

For 11km

𝑇 = 𝑇0 + 𝑎ℎ

𝐾

𝑇 = 288𝐾 + −6.51 11𝑘𝑚

𝑘𝑚

𝑇 = 216.4𝐾

5.26

𝑎ℎ

𝑃 = 𝑃0 1+

𝑇0

5.26

𝐾

−6.51 11𝑘𝑚

𝑃 = 101325𝑃𝑎 1 + 𝑘𝑚

288𝐾

𝑃 = 22524.74𝑃𝑎

𝑎ℎ 4.26

ρ= ρ0 1 + 𝑇0

4.26

𝐾

𝑘𝑔 −6.51 11𝑘𝑚

ρ = 1.225 3 1 + 𝑘𝑚

𝑚 288𝐾

𝑘𝑔

ρ = 0.362 3

𝑚

For 15 km

1.68ρ0

𝑇 = 216.5𝐾 ρ= −4 ℎ

𝑒 1.578 𝑥

1.26𝑃0 𝑘𝑔

1.68 1.225

𝑃= −4 ℎ 𝑚3

𝑒 1.578 𝑥 10 ρ= −4

𝑒 1.578 𝑥 10 15,000

1.26 101325𝑃𝑎

𝑃= −4

𝑒 1.578 𝑥 10 15,000

𝑘𝑔

ρ = 0.193 3

𝑚

𝑃 = 11970.50𝑃𝑎

𝑘𝑔

Example # 2:Find the pressure and Temperature at an altitude where the density is 0.168 𝑚3 in

Standard atmosphere.

Given:

𝑘𝑔

ρ = 0.168

𝑚3

Standard atmosphere

Required:

P and T

@ρ𝑟𝑒𝑓 = 11km

𝐾 4.26

−6.51𝑘𝑚 11𝑘𝑚

ρ𝑟𝑒𝑓 =ρ0 1 +

288𝐾

𝑘𝑔

ρ𝑟𝑒𝑓 =0.362𝑚3

Note: Density must be lower than 0.362 for us to use the formula of Pressure and

Density variation with altitude above Tropopause up to Stratopause

Solution:

= 1.578 𝑥 −4 ℎ

ρ0 𝑒

1.26𝑃0

𝑃= −4 ℎ

1.578 𝑥 10−4 ℎ

ρ0 𝑒 1.578 𝑥 10

𝑒 = 1.68

ρ

1.26 101325𝑃𝑎

ln 𝑒 1.578 𝑥 10−4 ℎ

=ln

ρ

1.68 0 𝑃= −4

ρ 𝑒 1.578 𝑥 10 15,877.86𝑚

ρ0

1.578 𝑥 10−4 h = ln 1.68 𝑃 = 10422.0 𝑃𝑎

ρ

𝜌0

𝑙𝑛 1.68 For Temperature

𝜌

ℎ=

1.578 𝑥 10−4

𝑇 = 216.5𝐾

𝑘𝑔

1.225 3

𝑙𝑛 1.68 𝑚

𝑘𝑔

0.168 3

ℎ= 𝑚

1.578 𝑥 10 −4

ℎ = 15,877.86𝑚

Example # 3:On a hot day, the measured temperature and pressure are 38°C and 29.0 in Hg,

respectively. Calculate the density and the density ratio.

Given:

𝑇 = 38°𝐶 + 273 = 311𝐾

101325𝑃𝑎

𝑃 = 29𝑖𝑛 𝐻𝑔 = 98,209.39 𝑃𝑎

29.92𝑖𝑛 𝐻𝑔

Required:

ρ 𝑎𝑛𝑑 σ

Solution:

𝑘𝑔

𝑃 = ρ𝑅𝑇 ρ 1.225

σ= = 𝑚3

𝑃 ρ0 𝑘𝑔

ρ= 1.100 3

𝑚

𝑅𝑇

𝑁

98,209.39

ρ= 𝑚2 σ = 0.898

𝐽

287.08 311𝐾

𝑘𝑔. 𝐾

𝑘𝑔

ρ = 1.100

𝑚3

Example # 4: An altimeter reads 11,200 ft when the temperature is 39°F. What is the air

density and what is the standard altitude?

𝐺𝑖𝑣𝑒𝑛:

ℎ𝑝 = 11,200𝑓𝑡

𝑅𝑒𝑞𝑢𝑖𝑟𝑒𝑑:

ρ

ℎ𝑑

𝑆𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛:

5.26 𝑙𝑏

𝑃 𝑎ℎ𝑝 𝑃 = 1,389.17

= 1+ 𝑓𝑡 2

𝑃0 𝑇𝑜

5.26

𝑎ℎ𝑝

𝑃 = 𝑃0 1+

𝑇𝑜

5.26

°𝑅

𝑙𝑏 −0.003566 11,200𝑓𝑡

𝑓𝑡

𝑃 = 2116.8 2 1 +

𝑓𝑡 519°𝑅

𝐹𝑜𝑟 ρ 1

𝑎ℎ𝑑 ρ 4.26

𝑃 = ρ𝑔𝑅𝑇 = −1

𝑇0 ρ0

𝑃 1

ρ= 𝑇0 ρ 4.26

𝑔𝑅𝑇

𝑙𝑏 ℎ𝑑 = −1

1,389.17 2 𝑎 ρ0

𝑓𝑡

ρ=

𝑓𝑡 𝑓𝑡. 𝑙𝑏 1

32.174 2 53.342 499°𝑅 𝑠𝑙𝑢𝑔 4.26

𝑠 𝑙𝑏. °𝑅 0.001622 3

519°𝑅 𝑓𝑡

𝑙𝑏. 𝑠 2 ℎ𝑑 = −1

°𝑅 𝑠𝑙𝑢𝑔

𝑓𝑡 −0.003566 0.002377 3

ρ = 0.001622 𝑓𝑡 𝑓𝑡

𝑓𝑡 3

𝑠𝑙𝑢𝑔 ℎ𝑑 = 12,488.44𝑓𝑡

ρ = 0.001622

𝑓𝑡 3

4.26

ρ 𝑎ℎ𝑑

= 1+

ρ0 𝑇0

1

ρ 4.26 𝑎ℎ𝑑

=1+

ρ0 𝑇0

BASIC AERODYNAMICS PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATION

Continuity Equation Conservation of mass along a stream tube, such air in a wind tunnel.

Where:

𝑠𝑙𝑢𝑔 𝑘𝑔

ṁ = 𝑚𝑎𝑠𝑠 𝑓𝑙𝑜𝑤 𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑓𝑙𝑢𝑖𝑑 𝑖𝑛 𝑜𝑟

𝑠𝑒𝑐 𝑠𝑒𝑐

𝑠𝑙𝑢𝑔 𝑘𝑔

𝜌 = 𝑑𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑜𝑓 𝑓𝑙𝑢𝑖𝑑 𝑖𝑛 3 𝑜𝑟 3

𝑓𝑡 𝑚

𝐴 = 𝑐𝑟𝑜𝑠𝑠 𝑠𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛𝑎𝑙 𝑎𝑟𝑒𝑎 𝑜𝑓 𝑡𝑢𝑏𝑒 𝑖𝑛𝑓𝑡 2 𝑜𝑟 𝑚2

𝑓𝑡 𝑚

𝑉 = 𝑣𝑒𝑙𝑜𝑐𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑜𝑓 𝑓𝑙𝑢𝑖𝑑 𝑖𝑛 𝑜𝑟

𝑠𝑒𝑐 𝑠𝑒𝑐

PRINCIPLE OF MASS CONSERVATION (LAW OF CONTINUITY)

The mass of fluids passing one section in one sec must be the same as the mass of fluid

passing any other section in one second.

𝐴1 𝑉1 = 𝐴2 𝑉2

𝐴𝑉 = 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑡

Differential form:

𝑑𝑉 𝑑𝐴

=−

𝑉 𝐴

For compressible fluid, ρ≠constant (M≥0.3 approximately)

𝜌1 𝐴1 𝑉1 = 𝜌2 𝐴2 𝑉2

𝜌𝐴𝑉 = 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑡

Differential form:

𝑑𝑉 𝑑𝐴 𝑑𝜌

+ + =0

𝑉 𝐴 𝜌

Example # 1: A pipe is tapering in size, diminishing by 0.1 square ft per foot run. What is

the change in velocity per meter run where the pipe is 4 square ft in cross section? If the

velocity there is 90 ft per second, is the velocity increasing or decreasing?

Given: 𝑑𝑉 𝑉

To get , multiply both sides by

𝑑𝑠 𝑑𝑠

𝑑𝐴 𝑓𝑡 2

= −0.1 𝑑𝑉 𝑑𝐴 𝑉

𝑑𝑆 𝑓𝑡 =−

𝑉 𝐴 𝑑𝑠

𝐴 = 4 𝑓𝑡 2

𝑓𝑡 𝑑𝑉 𝑉 𝑑𝐴

𝑉 = 90 =−

𝑠 𝑑𝑠 𝐴 𝑑𝑠

Required:

𝑓𝑡

𝑑𝑉 90 𝑓𝑡 2

𝑑𝑉 = − 𝑠 −0.1

𝑑𝑠 𝑑𝑠 4𝑓𝑡 2 𝑓𝑡

Solution:

𝑑𝑉

= 2.25 𝑓𝑒𝑒𝑡 𝑝𝑒𝑟 sec 𝑝𝑒𝑟 𝑓𝑒𝑒𝑡

𝑑𝑉 𝑑𝐴 𝑑𝑠

+ =0

𝑉 𝐴

𝑑𝑉 𝑑𝐴 Velocity is increasing

=−

𝑉 𝐴

Example # 2: A circular pipe, 30 meters long, gradually tapers from 0.9 m diameter at one

end to 0.6 meter in diameter at the other. Fluid is flowing from the bigger toward the

smaller. What is the rate of increase in velocity at the entrance if the velocity there is 25

meter per second?

Given:

Solution:

𝑑𝑉 𝑉 𝑑𝐴

=−

𝑑𝑠 𝐴 𝑑𝑠

𝑑𝑉 𝑉 𝐴𝑏 − 𝐴𝑎

=−

𝑑𝑠 𝐴 𝑆𝑏 − 𝑆𝑎

π𝑑𝑏 2 π𝑑𝑎 2

𝑑𝑉 𝑉 −

=− 4 4

𝑑𝑠 π𝑑𝑎 2 𝑆𝑏 − 𝑆𝑎

4

𝑑𝑉 4𝑉 π 𝑑𝑏 2 − 𝑑𝑎 2

=−

𝑑𝑠 π𝑑𝑎 2 4 𝑆𝑏 − 𝑆𝑎

𝑑𝑉 𝑉 𝑑𝑏 2 − 𝑑𝑎 2

=− 2

𝑑𝑠 𝑑𝑎 𝑆𝑏 − 𝑆𝑎

𝑚 𝑚

𝑑𝑉 25 0.6𝑚 2 − 0.9𝑚 2

𝑠 𝑑𝑉

𝑑𝑠

=−

0.9𝑚2 30𝑚 − 0 = 0.46 𝑠

𝑑𝑠 𝑚

Example # 3: Air having the standard sea level density has a velocity of 100 fps at a

section of a wind tunnel, at another section having an area half as great at that at the first

section the flow velocity is 400mph. What is the density at the second section?

Given:

𝑠𝑙𝑢𝑔

ρ1 = 0.002377 3

𝑓𝑡

𝑓𝑡

𝑉1 = 100

𝑠

1

𝐴2 = 𝐴1

2

𝑚𝑖𝑙𝑒𝑠 5280 𝑓𝑡 ℎ𝑜𝑢𝑟 𝑓𝑡

𝑉2 = 400 = 586.67

ℎ𝑜𝑢𝑟 𝑚𝑖𝑙𝑒 3600 𝑠𝑒𝑐 𝑠

Required:

ρ2

Solution:

ρ1 𝐴1 𝑉1 = ρ2 𝐴2 𝑉2

1

ρ1 𝐴1 𝑉1 = ρ2 𝐴1 𝑉2

2

ρ1 𝑉1

ρ2 = 2

𝑉2

𝑠𝑙𝑢𝑔 𝑓𝑡

2 0.002377 100

𝑓𝑡 3 𝑠

ρ2 =

𝑓𝑡

586.67

𝑠

𝑘𝑔

𝑠𝑙𝑢𝑔 1.225

ρ2 = 0.000810 3 𝑥 𝑚3

𝑓𝑡 𝑠𝑙𝑢𝑔

0.003277 3

𝑓𝑡

𝑘𝑔

ρ2 = 0.417

𝑚3

Example # 4:Water is flowing through a smooth pipe whose diameter is decreasing. At

one location, the diameter is 12 cm. If the velocity there is 10 meter per second. Find the

mass flow rate. At a station further down the pipe, the diameter is 4cm. Find the velocity at

this section.

Given: ṁ1 = ṁ2

𝑚

𝑑1 = 12𝑐𝑚 = 0.12𝑚 ṁ2 = ρ𝐻2 𝑂 𝐴2 𝑉2

100𝑐𝑚

𝑚

𝑉1 = 10 ṁ2

𝑠 𝑉2 =

𝑚 𝐴2 ρ𝐻2 𝑂

𝑑2 = 4𝑐𝑚 = 0.04𝑚

100𝑐𝑚 𝑘𝑔

113.1

𝑉2 = 𝑠

Required: π 0.04𝑚 2 𝑘𝑔

1000

ṁ 4 𝑚3

𝑉2

𝑚

Solution: 𝑉2 = 90

𝑠

ṁ = ρ𝐻2 𝑂 𝐴1 𝑉1

2

𝑘𝑔 0.12𝑚 𝑚

ṁ = 1000 3 π 10

𝑚 4 𝑠

𝑘𝑔

ṁ = 113.1

𝑠

BERNOULLI EQUATION

Conservation of energy along a streamline

BERNOULLI’S PRINCIPLE

State that as the air velocity increases, the pressure decreases; as the air velocity

decreases the pressure increases.

𝑉2 𝑃

+ = 𝐶𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑡

2 𝜌

𝑉1 2 𝑃1 𝑉2 2 𝑃2

+ = +

2 𝜌1 2 𝜌2

The simplified form of Bernoulli's equation can be summarised in the following

memorable word equation.

Where:

1 2

𝑞= 𝜌𝑉 = 𝐷𝑦𝑛𝑎𝑚𝑖𝑐 𝑃𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑒

2

2 𝑃𝑡 − 𝑃

𝑉𝑒 =

𝜌0

Where:

𝑃𝑡 = 𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑒 𝑜𝑟 𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑔𝑛𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑒

𝑃 = 𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑐 𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑒

𝜌0 = 𝑑𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑎𝑡 𝑠𝑒𝑎 𝑙𝑒𝑣𝑒𝑙

For True Airspeed

𝑉𝑒

𝑉=

𝜎

Where:

𝜌

𝜎= = 𝑑𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜

𝜌0

For Compressible fluid, ρ ≠ constant (M≥0.3 approximately)

𝑉2 𝛾 𝑃

+ = 𝐶𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑡

2 𝛾−1𝜌

𝑉1 2 𝛾 𝑃1 𝑉2 2 𝛾 𝑃2

+ = +

2 𝛾 − 1 𝜌1 2 𝛾 − 1 𝜌2

OR 𝛾−1 γ−1

2

2 𝑃𝑡 − 𝑃 𝛾 2𝑉𝑎 𝑃1 γ

𝑀2 =

𝛾−1 𝑃

+1 −1 𝑉1 2 = 𝑉0 2 + 1−

γ−1 𝑃0

The Isentropic of State can be used

Isentropic Process-A process which is both Adiabatic and Reversible.

Adiabatic Process-A process which no heat added or taken away.

Reversible Process- A process in which no frictional or other dissipative effects occur.

𝛾

𝛾 𝛾 𝛾

𝑃2 ѵ1 𝜌2 𝑇2 𝛾1 𝑤2

= = = =

𝑃1 ѵ2 𝜌1 𝑇1 𝑤1

Where:

ѵ = 𝑆𝑝𝑒𝑐𝑖𝑓𝑖𝑐 𝑉𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒

𝑤 = 𝑆𝑝𝑒𝑐𝑖𝑓𝑖𝑐 𝑤𝑒𝑖𝑔ℎ𝑡

The speed of sound is given by:

𝛾𝑃

𝑉𝑎 =

𝜌

𝑊ℎ𝑒𝑟𝑒:

𝛾 = 1.4 𝑓𝑜𝑟 𝑑𝑟𝑦 𝑎𝑖𝑟

𝑙𝑏 𝑁

𝑃 = 2 𝑜𝑟 2

𝑓𝑡 𝑚

𝑠𝑙𝑢𝑔 𝑘𝑔

𝜌= 𝑜𝑟 3

𝑓𝑡 3 𝑚

𝑓𝑡 𝑚

𝑉𝑎 = 𝑜𝑟

𝑠 𝑠

𝑉𝑎 = 49.02 𝑇 𝑉𝑎 = 20.05 𝑇

𝑊ℎ𝑒𝑟𝑒: 𝑊ℎ𝑒𝑟𝑒:

𝑇 = 𝑎𝑏𝑠𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑡𝑒 𝑡𝑒𝑚𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑒 𝑖𝑛°𝑅 𝑇 = 𝑎𝑏𝑠𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑡𝑒 𝑡𝑒𝑚𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑒 𝑖𝑛 𝐾

𝑓𝑡 𝑚

𝑉𝑎 = 𝑠𝑝𝑒𝑒𝑑 𝑜𝑓 𝑠𝑜𝑢𝑛𝑑 𝑜𝑓 𝑎𝑖𝑟 𝑖𝑛 𝑉𝑎 = 𝑠𝑝𝑒𝑒𝑑 𝑜𝑓 𝑠𝑜𝑢𝑛𝑑 𝑜𝑓 𝑎𝑖𝑟 𝑖𝑛

𝑠 𝑠

Example # 1: A horizontal pipe, 1ft in diameter, tapers gradually to 8 in. in diameter. If the

flow is 500 cu ft of water per minute, what is the difference between the pressures at the

two sections?

Given:

𝑑1 = 1 𝑓𝑡

𝑓𝑡

𝑑2 = 8 𝑖𝑛 = 0.667𝑓𝑡

12 𝑖𝑛

𝑓𝑡 3 𝑚𝑖𝑛 𝑓𝑡 3

ṁ = 𝑄 = 500 = 8.33

𝑚𝑖𝑛 60 𝑠𝑒𝑐 𝑠𝑒𝑐

Required:

𝑃1 − 𝑃2

Solution:

𝑉1 2 𝑃1 𝑉2 2 𝑃2

+ = +

2 𝜌𝐻2 𝑂 2 𝜌𝐻2 𝑂

1 1

𝑃1 − 𝑃2 = 𝑉2 2 − 𝑉1 2

ρ 2

ρ𝐻2 𝑂

𝑃1 − 𝑃2 = 𝑉2 2 − 𝑉1 2

2

𝐹𝑜𝑟 𝑉1

𝐹𝑜𝑟 𝑉2

𝑄 = 𝐴1 𝑉1

𝑄 = 𝐴2 𝑉2

𝑄

𝑉1 = 𝑄

𝐴1 𝑉2 =

𝑓𝑡 3 𝐴2

8.33

𝑠 𝑓𝑡 3

𝑉1 = 8.33

1𝑓𝑡 2 𝑉2 = 𝑠

π 0.667𝑓𝑡 2

4 π

4

𝑓𝑡

𝑉1 = 10.61 𝑓𝑡

𝑠 𝑉2 = 23.83

𝑠

𝐹𝑜𝑟 ρ𝐻2 𝑂

𝑙𝑏𝑚 𝑠𝑙𝑢𝑔 𝑠𝑙𝑢𝑔

ρ𝐻2 𝑂 = 62.4 = 1.939454

𝑓𝑡 3 32.174𝑙𝑏𝑚 𝑓𝑡 3

ρ𝐻2 𝑂

𝑃1 − 𝑃2 = 𝑉2 2 − 𝑉1 2

2

𝑠𝑙𝑢𝑔

1.939454 3 𝑓𝑡

2

𝑓𝑡

2

𝑓𝑡

𝑃1 − 𝑃2 = 23.83 − 10.61

2 𝑠 𝑠

𝑠𝑙𝑢𝑔. 𝑓𝑡 1 𝑙𝑏

𝑃1 − 𝑃2 = 441.51 𝑃1 − 𝑃2 = 441.51

𝑠2 𝑓𝑡 2 𝑓𝑡 2

Example # 2: Water flows through a horizontal pipe at a velocity of 50 ft per second. Owing

to the pipe gradually expanding to a larger size, the velocity decreases to 35 ft per sec. What

is the difference between the pressures at two points?

Given:

𝑓𝑡

𝑉1 = 50

𝑠

𝑓𝑡

𝑉2 = 35

𝑠

𝑠𝑙𝑢𝑔

ρ𝐻2 𝑂 = 1.939454

𝑓𝑡 3

Required:

𝑃1 − 𝑃2

Solution:

𝑉1 2 𝑃1 𝑉2 2 𝑃2

+ = +

2 𝜌𝐻2 𝑂 2 𝜌𝐻2 𝑂

1 1

𝑃2 − 𝑃1 = 𝑉1 2 − 𝑉2 2

ρ 2

ρ𝐻2 𝑂

𝑃2 − 𝑃1 = 𝑉1 2 − 𝑉2 2

2

𝑠𝑙𝑢𝑔

1.939454 𝑓𝑡

2

𝑓𝑡

2

𝑓𝑡 3

𝑃1 − 𝑃2 = 50 − 35

2 𝑠 𝑠

𝑙𝑏

𝑃1 − 𝑃2 = 1,236.40

𝑓𝑡 2

Example # 3: The diameter of a horizontal tube is 4 in., in which tetrabromoethane (spec.

grav.=3) is flowing at the rate of 0.50 cu ft per sec. The pressure is 30 lb per sq in(gage). If

the tube gradually decreases to 3 in. in diameter, what is the pressure there?

Given:

𝑓𝑡

𝑑1 = 4 𝑖𝑛 = 0.333𝑓𝑡

12𝑖𝑛

𝑆𝑝𝑒𝑐𝑖𝑓𝑖𝑐 𝐺𝑟𝑎𝑣𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑜𝑓 𝑡𝑒𝑡𝑟𝑎𝑏𝑟𝑜𝑚𝑜𝑒𝑡ℎ𝑎𝑛𝑒 = 3

𝑓𝑡 3

𝑄 = 0.50

𝑠

𝑙𝑏 12𝑖𝑛 2 𝑙𝑏

𝑃1 = 30 2 = 4,320

𝑖𝑛 𝑓𝑡 2 𝑓𝑡 2

𝑓𝑡

𝑑2 = 3𝑖𝑛 = 0.25𝑓𝑡

12𝑖𝑛

Required:

𝑃2

Solution:

𝑉1 2 𝑃1 𝑉2 2 𝑃2 ρ𝑠𝑢𝑏𝑠

+ = + 𝑃2 − 𝑃1 = 𝑉1 2 − 𝑉2 2

2 𝜌𝑠𝑢𝑏𝑠 2 𝜌𝑠𝑢𝑏𝑠 2

1 1 ρ𝑠𝑢𝑏𝑠

𝑃2 − 𝑃1 = 𝑉1 2 − 𝑉2 2 𝑃2 = 𝑃1 + 𝑉1 2 − 𝑉2 2

ρ 2 2

𝐹𝑜𝑟 ρ𝑠𝑢𝑏𝑠

ρ𝑠𝑢𝑏𝑠 = 𝑠. 𝑔. (ρ𝐻2 𝑂 )

𝑠𝑙𝑢𝑔

ρ𝑠𝑢𝑏𝑠 = 3 1.939454

𝑓𝑡 3

𝑠𝑙𝑢𝑔

ρ𝑠𝑢𝑏𝑠 = 5.818362

𝑓𝑡 3

𝐹𝑜𝑟 𝑉1

𝐹𝑜𝑟 𝑉2

𝑄 = 𝐴1 𝑉1

𝑄 = 𝐴2 𝑉2

𝑄

𝑉1 = 𝑄

𝐴1 𝑉2 =

𝑓𝑡 3 𝐴2

0.50

𝑠 𝑓𝑡 3

𝑉1 = 0.50

0.333𝑓𝑡 2

𝑉2 = 𝑠

π 0.25𝑓𝑡 2

4 π

4

𝑓𝑡

𝑉1 = 5.74 𝑓𝑡

𝑠 𝑉2 = 10.19

𝑠

ρ𝑠𝑢𝑏𝑠

𝑃2 = 𝑃1 + 𝑉1 2 − 𝑉2 2

2

𝑠𝑙𝑢𝑔

𝑙𝑏 5.818362 𝑓𝑡

2

𝑓𝑡

2

𝑓𝑡 3

𝑃2 = 4320 2 + 5.74 − 10.19

𝑓𝑡 2 𝑠 𝑠

𝑠𝑙𝑢𝑔 𝑓𝑡 1

𝑃2 = 4113.77

𝑠𝑒𝑐 2 𝑓𝑡 2

𝑙𝑏

𝑃2 = 4113.77

𝑓𝑡 2

Example # 4:Alcohol (s.g.=0.80) is flowing through a horizontal pipe, which is 0.254m in

diameter with a velocity of 12.2 meter per second. At a smaller section of the pipe, there is

41.5KPa less pressure. Assuming that the flow is smooth. What is the diameter there?

Given:

𝑆𝑝𝑒𝑐𝑖𝑓𝑖𝑐 𝐺𝑟𝑎𝑣𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑜𝑓 𝑎𝑙𝑐𝑜ℎ𝑜𝑙 = 0.80

𝑑1 = 0.254𝑚

𝑚

𝑉1 = 12.2

𝑠

𝑃1 − 𝑃2 = 41.5𝐾𝑃𝑎

Required:

𝑑2

Solution:

𝑉1 2 𝑃1 𝑉2 2 𝑃2 1 1

+ = + 𝑉2 2 − 𝑉1 2 = 𝑃 − 𝑃2

2 𝜌𝑠𝑢𝑏𝑠 2 𝜌𝑠𝑢𝑏𝑠 2 ρ𝑠𝑢𝑏𝑠 1

𝑉2 2 𝑉1 2 𝑃1 𝑃2 2

− = − 𝑉2 2 − 𝑉1 2 = 𝑃1 − 𝑃2

2 2 ρ𝑠𝑢𝑏𝑠 ρ𝑠𝑢𝑏𝑠 ρ𝑠𝑢𝑏𝑠

𝐴1

𝐵𝑈𝑇 𝐴1 𝑉1 = 𝐴2 𝑉2 𝐴2 =

2

𝐴1 1+ 𝑃1 − 𝑃2

𝑉2 = 𝑉1 𝑉1 2 ρ𝑠𝑢𝑏𝑠

𝐴2

2 ρ𝑠𝑢𝑏𝑠 = 𝑠. 𝑔. ρ𝐻2 𝑂

𝑉2 2 − 𝑉1 2 = 𝑃1 − 𝑃2

ρ𝑠𝑢𝑏𝑠 𝑘𝑔 𝑘𝑔

ρ𝑠𝑢𝑏𝑠 = 0.80 1000 = 800

2 𝑚3 𝑚3

𝐴1 2

𝑉1 − 𝑉1 2 = 𝑃1 − 𝑃2

𝐴2 ρ𝑠𝑢𝑏𝑠 𝐹𝑜𝑟 𝐴1

2

0.254𝑚

2 𝐴1 = π = 0.051𝑚2

𝐴1 2 4

𝑉1 2 −1 = 𝑃1 − 𝑃2

𝐴2 ρ𝑠𝑢𝑏𝑠 0.051𝑚2

2

𝐴2 =

𝐴1 2 2 𝑁

−1 = 𝑃1 − 𝑃2 1+ 2 41,500

𝑚 𝑘𝑔 𝑚2

𝐴2 𝑉1 2 ρ𝑠𝑢𝑏𝑠 12.2 800

𝑠 𝑚3

2

𝐴1 2

=1+ 2 𝑃1 − 𝑃2 𝐴2 = 0.0391𝑚2

𝐴2 𝑉1 ρ𝑠𝑢𝑏𝑠

𝐴1 2

= 1+ 𝑃1 − 𝑃2

𝐴2 𝑉1 2 ρ𝑠𝑢𝑏𝑠

𝐹𝑜𝑟 𝑑2

2

𝑑2 2

0.0391𝑚 = π

4

4 0.0391𝑚2

𝑑2 =

π

𝑑2 = 0.223𝑚

Example # 5:Air is flowing horizontally at a speed of 100mph through a duct 4 sq ft in cross

section. The duct gradually narrows down to a throat section. If a U tube shows a

difference in pressure between the throat and main section of 7 in of water, what is the

cross sectional area of the throat? (Assume that the air is non-compressible and has a

density of 0.002377 slugs per cu ft.).

Given:

𝑚𝑖𝑙𝑒𝑠 5280𝑓𝑡 ℎ𝑜𝑢𝑟 𝑚𝑖𝑛 𝑓𝑡

𝑉1 = 100 = 146.67

ℎ𝑜𝑢𝑟 𝑚𝑖𝑙𝑒𝑠 60𝑚𝑖𝑛 60𝑠𝑒𝑐 𝑠

𝐴1 = 4𝑓𝑡 2

∆ℎ𝐻2 𝑂 = 7𝑖𝑛

𝑠𝑙𝑢𝑔

ρ𝑎𝑖𝑟 = 0.002377

𝑓𝑡 3

Required:

𝐴2

Solution:

𝑉1 2 𝑃1 𝑉2 2 𝑃2 1 1

+ = + 𝑉2 2 − 𝑉1 2 = 𝑃 − 𝑃2

2 𝜌𝑎𝑖𝑟 2 𝜌𝑎𝑖𝑟 2 ρ𝑎𝑖𝑟 1

𝑉2 2 𝑉1 2 𝑃1 𝑃2 2

− = − 𝑉2 2 − 𝑉1 2 = 𝑃1 − 𝑃2

2 2 ρ𝑎𝑖𝑟 ρ𝑎𝑖𝑟 ρ𝑎𝑖𝑟

𝐴1

𝐵𝑈𝑇 𝐴1 𝑉1 = 𝐴2 𝑉2 𝐴2 =

𝐴1 2

𝑉2 = 𝑉1 1+ 𝑃1 − 𝑃2

𝐴2 𝑉1 2 ρ𝑎𝑖𝑟

𝑆𝑢𝑏𝑠𝑡𝑖𝑡𝑢𝑡𝑒 𝐹𝑜𝑟𝑃1 − 𝑃2

2 𝑃1 − 𝑃2 = ρ𝐻2 𝑂 𝑔∆ℎ𝐻2 𝑂

2 2

𝑉2 − 𝑉1 = 𝑃1 − 𝑃2

ρ𝑎𝑖𝑟 𝑠𝑙𝑢𝑔 𝑓𝑡 𝑓𝑡

𝑃1 − 𝑃2 = 1.939454 32.174 7𝑖𝑛

2 𝑓𝑡 3 𝑠2 12𝑖𝑛

𝐴1 2

𝑉1 − 𝑉1 2 = 𝑃1 − 𝑃2 𝑙𝑏

𝐴2 ρ𝑎𝑖𝑟

𝑃1 − 𝑃2 = 36.4

𝑓𝑡 2

2

𝐴1 2 4𝑓𝑡 2

𝑉1 2 −1 = 𝑃1 − 𝑃2 𝐴2 =

𝐴2 ρ𝑎𝑖𝑟 2 𝑙𝑏

1+ 2 36.4

2 𝑓𝑡 𝑠𝑙𝑢𝑔 𝑓𝑡 2

𝐴1 2 146.47 0.002377

−1 = 𝑃1 − 𝑃2 𝑠 𝑓𝑡 3

𝐴2 𝑉1 2 ρ𝑎𝑖𝑟

2

𝐴1 2

= 1+ 2 𝑃1 − 𝑃2 𝐴2 = 2.57𝑓𝑡 2

𝐴2 𝑉1 ρ𝑎𝑖𝑟

𝐴1 2

= 1+ 𝑃1 − 𝑃2

𝐴2 𝑉1 2 ρ𝑎𝑖𝑟

Example # 6: A horizontal water pipe is reduced in size from 18 in in diameter at point A

to 6 in in diameter at B. The flow in the pipe is 10 cu ft per sec, and the pressure at A is

20 lb per sq in. If it is assumed that there is no loss in energy due to friction, what is the

pressure at B?

Given: ρ 2 2

𝑓𝑡 𝑃𝐵 − 𝑃𝐴 = 𝑉 − 𝑉𝐵

𝑑𝐴 = 18 𝑖𝑛 = 1.5𝑓𝑡 2 𝐴

12𝑖𝑛 ρ 2 2

𝑓𝑡 𝑃𝐵 = 𝑃𝐴 + 𝑉 − 𝑉𝐵

𝑑𝐵 = 6 𝑖𝑛 = 0.5𝑓𝑡 2 𝐴

12𝑖𝑛

𝑓𝑡 3 𝐹𝑜𝑟 𝑉𝐴 𝐹𝑜𝑟 𝑉𝐵

𝑄 = 10

𝑠 𝑄 = 𝐴𝐴 𝑉𝐴 𝑄 = 𝐴𝐵 𝑉𝐵

𝑙𝑏 144𝑖𝑛2 𝑙𝑏

𝑃𝐴 = 20 2 = 2880 𝑄 𝑄

𝑖𝑛 𝑓𝑡 2 𝑓𝑡 2 𝑉𝐴 = 𝑉𝐵 =

𝐴𝐴 𝐴𝐵

Required: 𝑓𝑡 3 𝑓𝑡 3

10 10

𝑃𝐵 𝑉𝐴 = 𝑠 𝑠

1.5𝑓𝑡 2 𝑉𝐵 = 2

Solution: π 0.5𝑓𝑡

4 π

4

𝑉𝐴 2 𝑃𝐴 𝑉𝐵 2 𝑃𝐵 𝑓𝑡 𝑓𝑡

+ = + 𝑉𝐴 = 5.66 𝑉𝐵 = 50.93

2 ρ 2 ρ 𝑠 𝑠

𝑃𝐵 𝑃𝐴 𝑉𝐴 2 𝑉𝐵 2

− = −

ρ ρ 2 2

ρ 2 2

𝑃𝐵 = 𝑃𝐴 + 𝑉 − 𝑉𝐵

2 𝐴

𝑠𝑙𝑢𝑔

𝑙𝑏 1.939454 𝑓𝑡

2

𝑓𝑡

2

𝑓𝑡 3

𝑃𝐵 = 2880 2 + 5.66 − 50.93

𝑓𝑡 2 𝑠 𝑠

𝑙𝑏

𝑃𝐵 = 395.72

𝑓𝑡 2

Example # 7:A horizontal pipe line enlarges from a diameter of 6in at point A to a diameter

of 12in at point B. The flow of water is 20 cu ft per sec, and the pressure at A is 10 lb per sq

in. What is the pressure at B?

Given:

ρ 2 2

𝑓𝑡 𝑃𝐵 − 𝑃𝐴 = 𝑉 − 𝑉𝐵

𝑑𝐴 = 6 𝑖𝑛 = 0.5𝑓𝑡 2 𝐴

12𝑖𝑛 ρ 2 2

𝑓𝑡 𝑃𝐵 = 𝑃𝐴 + 𝑉 − 𝑉𝐵

𝑑𝐵 = 12 𝑖𝑛 = 1𝑓𝑡 2 𝐴

12𝑖𝑛

𝑓𝑡 3 𝐹𝑜𝑟 𝑉𝐴 𝐹𝑜𝑟 𝑉𝐵

𝑄 = 20

𝑠 𝑄 = 𝐴𝐴 𝑉𝐴 𝑄 = 𝐴𝐵 𝑉𝐵

𝑙𝑏 144𝑖𝑛2 𝑙𝑏

𝑃𝐴 = 10 2 = 1440 𝑄 𝑄

𝑖𝑛 𝑓𝑡 2 𝑓𝑡 2 𝑉𝐴 = 𝑉𝐵 =

𝐴𝐴 𝐴𝐵

Required: 𝑓𝑡 3 𝑓𝑡 3

20 20

𝑃𝐵 𝑉𝐴 = 𝑠 𝑠

0.5𝑓𝑡 2 𝑉𝐵 =

π 1𝑓𝑡 2

4 π

𝑉𝐴 2 𝑃𝐴 𝑉𝐵 2 𝑃𝐵 4

+ = + 𝑓𝑡

2 ρ 2 ρ 𝑓𝑡

𝑉𝐴 = 101.86 𝑉𝐵 = 25.46

𝑠 𝑠

𝑃𝐵 𝑃𝐴 𝑉𝐴 2 𝑉𝐵 2

− = −

ρ ρ 2 2

ρ 2 2

𝑃𝐵 = 𝑃𝐴 + 𝑉 − 𝑉𝐵

2 𝐴

𝑠𝑙𝑢𝑔

𝑙𝑏 1.939454 𝑓𝑡

2

𝑓𝑡

2

𝑓𝑡 3

𝑃𝐵 = 1440 2 + 101.86 − 25.46

𝑓𝑡 2 𝑠 𝑠

𝑙𝑏

𝑃𝐵 = 10,872.78

𝑓𝑡 2

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