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Seventh Edition

CHAPTER MECHANICS OF
MATERIALS
5 Ferdinand P. Beer
E. Russell Johnston, Jr.
John T. DeWolf Analysis and Design
David F. Mazurek
of Beams for Bending
Lecture Notes:
Brock E. Barry
U.S. Military Academy

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MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

Contents

Introduction
Shear and Bending Moment Diagrams
Sample Problem 5.1
Sample Problem 5.2
Relations Among Load, Shear, and Bending Moment
Sample Problem 5.3
Sample Problem 5.5
Design of Prismatic Beams for Bending
Sample Problem 5.8

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Introduction
• Goal - Analysis and design of beams

• Beams - structural members supporting loads at


various points along the member

• Transverse loadings of beams are classified as


concentrated loads or distributed loads

• Applied loads result in internal forces consisting


of a shear force (from the shear stress
distribution) and a bending couple (from the
normal stress distribution)

• Normal stress is often the critical design criteria


My Mc M
x   m  
I I S
Requires determination of the location and
Fig. 5.4 Analysis of a
simply supported beam.
magnitude of maximum bending moment

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Introduction

Classification of Beam Supports

Fig. 5.2 Common beam


support configurations.

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Shear and Bending Moment Diagrams


• Determination of maximum normal and
shearing stresses requires identification
of maximum internal shear force and
bending couple.

• Shear force and bending couple at a point


are determined by passing a section
through the beam and applying an
equilibrium analysis on the beam portions
on either side of the section.

Fig. 5.5 Determination of shear force, V


and bending moment, M, at a given section.
(a) Loaded beam with section indicated at
arbitrary positions S. (b) Free-body
diagrams of left and right sections at C.

Fig. 5.6 Sign convention for shear and


bending moment.

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Sample Problem 5.1


SOLUTION:
• Treating the entire beam as a rigid
body, determine the reaction forces

• Section the beam at points near


supports and load application points.
Apply equilibrium analyses on
resulting free-bodies to determine
For the timber beam and loading internal shear forces and bending
shown, draw the shear and bend- couples
moment diagrams and determine the
maximum normal stress due to • Identify the maximum shear and
bending. bending-moment from plots of their
distributions.

• Apply the elastic flexure formulas to


determine the corresponding
maximum normal stress.
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Sample Problem 5.1


SOLUTION:
• Treating the entire beam as a rigid body, determine
the reaction forces
F y  0   M B : RB  46 kN RD  14 kN
• Section the beam and apply equilibrium analyses
on resulting free-bodies
 Fy  0  20 kN  V1  0 V1  20 kN
 M1  0 20 kN0 m   M1  0 M1  0

 Fy  0  20 kN  V2  0 V2  20 kN
 M2  0 20 kN2.5 m   M 2  0 M 2  50 kN  m

V3  26 kN M 3  50 kN  m
V4  26 kN M 4  28 kN  m
V5  14 kN M 5  28 kN  m
Fig. 1 Six sections identified for analysis, and the V6  14 kN M 6  0
free body diagram for each section.

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Sample Problem 5.1


• Identify the maximum shear and bending-
moment from plots of their distributions.
Vm  26 kN M m  M B  50 kN  m

• Apply the elastic flexure formulas to


determine the corresponding
maximum normal stress.
S  16 b h 2  16 0.080 m 0.250 m 2

 833.33 10  6 m3

MB 50 103 N  m
m  
S 833.33 10  6 m3

 m  60.0 106 Pa

Fig. 1 Shear and bending moment diagrams


result from the analysis of each section.
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Sample Problem 5.2


SOLUTION:
• Replace the 10 kip load with an
equivalent force-couple system at D.
Find the reactions at B by considering
the beam as a rigid body.

• Section the beam at points near the


support and load application points.
The structure shown is constructed of a Apply equilibrium analyses on
W10x112 rolled-steel beam. (a) Draw resulting free-bodies to determine
the shear and bending-moment internal shear forces and bending
diagrams for the beam and the given couples.
loading. (b) determine maximum
normal stress in sections just to the • Apply the elastic flexure formulas to
right and left of point D. determine the maximum normal
stress to the left and right of point D.

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Sample Problem 5.2


SOLUTION:
• Replace the 10 kip load with equivalent force-
couple system at D. Find reactions at B.
• Section the beam and apply equilibrium
analyses on resulting free-bodies.
From A to C :
 Fy  0  3x  V  0 V  3x kips
 M1  0 3x 12 x  M  0 M  1.5 x 2 kip  ft

From C to D :
 Fy  0  24  V  0 V  24 kips
 M 2  0 24 x  4  M  0 M  96  24 x  kip  ft

From D to B :
V  34 kips M  226  34 x  kip  ft

Fig. 1 Three sections identified for analysis, and


the free-body diagram for each section.

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Sample Problem 5.2


• Apply the elastic flexure formulas to
determine the maximum normal stress to
the left and right of point D.
From Appendix C for a W10x112 rolled
steel shape, S = 126 in3 about the X-X axis.
To the left of D :
M 2016 kip  in
m    m  16.0 ksi
S 126 in 3
To the right of D :
M 1776 kip  in  m  14.1 ksi
m  
S 126 in 3

Fig. 1 Shear and bending-moment diagrams


result from the analysis of each section

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MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

Relations Among Load, Shear, and Bending Moment


• Relationship between load and shear:
 Fy  0 : V  V  V   w x  0
V   w x
dV
 w
dx
xD

VD  VC    w dx
xC

 (area under load curve between C and D)


• Relationship between shear and bending
moment:
 M C  0 : M  M   M  V x  wx x  0
2
M  V x  12 w x  2

dM
V
dx
xD
Fig. 5.9 (a) Simply supported beam subjected to a
distributed load, with a small element between C
M D  MC   V dx
xC
and C’, (b) Free-body diagram of the element.
 area under shear curve between C and D

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MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

Sample Problem 5.3


SOLUTION:
• Taking the entire beam as a free body,
determine the reactions at A and D.

• Apply the relationship between shear and


load to develop the shear diagram.

Draw the shear and bending • Apply the relationship between bending
moment diagrams for the beam moment and shear to develop the bending
and loading shown. moment diagram.

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MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

Sample Problem 5.3


SOLUTION:
• Taking the entire beam as a free body, determine the
reactions at A and D.
M A 0
0  D24 ft   20 kips 6 ft   12 kips 14 ft   12 kips 28 ft 
D  26 kips 
F y 0
0  Ay  20 kips  12 kips  26 kips  12 kips
Ay  18 kips 
• Apply the relationship between shear and load to
develop the shear diagram.
dV
 w dV   w dx
dx
- zero slope between concentrated loads
Fig. 1 Free-body diagrams for finding
the reactions as well as the shear - linear variation over uniform load segment
diagram.

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MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

Sample Problem 5.3


• Apply the relationship between bending
moment and shear to develop the bending
moment diagram.
dM
V dM  V dx
dx
- bending moment at A and E is zero
- bending moment variation between A, B,
C and D is linear
- bending moment variation between D
and E is quadratic
- net change in bending moment is equal to
areas under shear distribution segments
- total of all bending moment changes across
the beam should be zero
Fig. 1 Free-body diagram for finding the
reactions as well as the shear and bending-
moment diagrams.
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MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

Sample Problem 5.5


SOLUTION:
• Taking the entire beam as a free body,
determine the reactions at C.

• Apply the relationship between shear


and load to develop the shear diagram.

Draw the shear and bending moment • Apply the relationship between
diagrams for the beam and loading bending moment and shear to develop
shown. the bending moment diagram.

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MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

Sample Problem 5.5


SOLUTION:
• Taking the entire beam as a free body,
determine the reactions at C.
 Fy  0   12 w0 a  RC RC  12 w0 a
 a  a
 M C  0  12 w0 a L    M C M C   12 w0 a L  
 3  3
Results from integration of the load and shear
distributions should be equivalent.
• Apply the relationship between shear and load
to develop the shear diagram.
a
a
 x   x 2 
VB  V A    w0 1   dx    w0  x  
 2a 
0  a   0
Fig. 1 Cantilevered beam having
distributed loading and the resulting VB   12 w0 a    area under load curve
the shear diagram.
- No change in shear between B and C.
- Compatible with free body analysis
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MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

Sample Problem 5.5


• Apply the relationship between bending moment
and shear to develop the bending moment
diagram.
a
a  x 2    x 2 x3 
 
M B  M A    w0  x   dx   w0   
  2a    2 6a 
0     0
M B   13 w0 a 2

 
L
M B  M C    12 w0 a dx   12 w0 aL  a 
a
a w0  a
M C   16 w0 a3L  a   L 
2  3

Results at C are compatible with free-body


analysis

Fig. 1 Cantilevered beam having


distributed loading and the resulting the
shear and bending-moment diagrams.
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MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

Design of Prismatic Beams for Bending


• The largest normal stress is found at the surface where the
maximum bending moment occurs.
M max c M max
m  
I S

• A safe design requires that the maximum normal stress be


less than the allowable stress for the material used. This
criteria leads to the determination of the minimum
acceptable section modulus.
 m   all
M max
S min 
 all

• Among beam section choices which have an acceptable


section modulus, the one with the smallest weight per unit
length or cross sectional area will be the least expensive
and the best choice.
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MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

Sample Problem 5.8

SOLUTION:
• Considering the entire beam as a free-
body, determine the reactions at A and
D.

• Develop the shear diagram for the


A 5-m-long simply supported steel beam and load distribution. From the
beam AD is to carry the distributed diagram, determine the maximum
and concentrated loads shown. bending moment.
Knowing that the allowable normal
stress for the grade of steel to be used • Determine the minimum acceptable
is 160 MPa, select the wide-flange beam section modulus. Choose the
shape that should be used. best standard section which meets this
criteria.

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MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

Sample Problem 5.8


• Considering the entire beam as a free-body,
determine the reactions at A and D.
M A  0  D5 m   60 kN 1.5 m   50 kN 4 m 
D  58.0 kN 
F y  0  Ay  58.0 kN  60 kN  50 kN
Ay  52.0 kN 

• Develop the shear diagram and determine the


maximum bending moment.
VA  Ay  52.0 kN
VB  VA  area under load curve  60 kN
VB  8 kN

• Maximum bending moment occurs at


V = 0 or x = 2.6 m.
M max  area under shear curve, A to E 
Fig. 1 A beam free-body diagram and
associated shear diagram.  67.6 kN

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MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

Sample Problem 5.8


• Determine the minimum acceptable beam
section modulus.
M max 67.6 kN  m
Smin  
 all 160 MPa
 422.5 10 6 m3  422.5 103 mm3

• Choose the best standard section which meets


Shape S  103 mm 3
this criteria.
W410  38.8 637
W360  32.9 474 W 360 32.9
W310  38.7 549
W250  44.8 535
W200  46.1 448

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