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PLASTICS

 A substance which has a molecular structure


built up chiefly or completely from a large
number of similar units (MONOMERS)bonded
together, e.g. many synthetic organic materials
used as plastics and resins.
 In polymer chemistry, polymerization is a process
of reacting monomer molecules together in a
chemical reaction to form polymer chains or three-
dimensional networks.
 Thermosetting plastics are polymer materials
which are liquid or malleable at low temperatures,
but which change irreversibly to become hard at
high temperatures.
 Thermosetting materials are generally
stronger than thermoplastic materials due to
the three-dimensional network of bonds
(cross-linking).
 They are more brittle. Since their shape is
permanent, they tend not to be recyclable as
a source for newly made plastic.
 Polyester fibre glass systems: sheet molding
compounds and bulk molding compounds
 Polyurethanes: insulating foams, mattresses,
coatings, adhesives, car parts, print rollers,
shoe soles, flooring, synthetic fibers, etc.
Polyurethane polymers are formed by
combining two bi- or higher functional
monomers/oligomers.
 Vulcanized rubber :tyres, stoppers.
 Bakelite, a phenol-formaldehyde resin used in
electrical insulators and plastic ware.
EXAMPLES
Vulcanized rubber
Polyurethanes

Polyester

Bakelite
 A thermoplastic, or thermosoftening plastic,
is a plastic material, polymer, that becomes
pliable or moldable above a specific
temperature and solidifies upon cooling.
Most thermoplastics have a high molecular
weight.
Thermoplastics have the simplest molecular
structure, with chemically independent
macromolecules • By heating, they are
softened or melted, then shaped, formed ,
welded, and solidified when cooled.
 Acrylic : A polymer called poly(methyl
methacrylate) (PMMA),It serves as a sturdy
substitute for glass for such items as aquariums,
motorcycle helmet visors, aircraft windows, viewing
ports of submersibles, and lenses of exterior lights
of automobiles.
 Nylon: Belonging to a class of polymers called
polyamides, has served as a substitute for silk in
products such as parachutes, flak vests and
women's stockings. Nylon fibers are useful in
making fabrics, rope, carpets and strings for
musical instruments.
 Polyethylene (or polyethene, polythene, PE): It is a
family of materials categorized according to their
density and molecular structure.
 Polypropylene : Polypropylene (PP) is useful for
such diverse products as reusable plastic
containers, diapers, sanitary pads, ropes,
carpets, plastic moldings, piping systems, car
batteries, insulation for electrical cables and
filters for gases and liquids.
Examples
Acrylic

Polyethylene.

Nylon.

Polypropylene.
 THERMOPLASTICS  THEMOSETTINGS

 Softens on heating  Doesn't soften on


 Long chain linear heating.
 By addition  3D,structure.
polymerization  By condensation
 Can be replaced and polymerization.
reused  Cannot be reshaped.
 Soft, weak and less  Hard and strong.
brittle.  Insoluble in organic
 Soluble in organic solvents.
solvents.
 A solid or liquid synthetic organic polymer used as
the basis of plastics, adhesives, varnishes, or other
products.

 Epoxy bonded.
 It has Strength, durability adhesive and
mechanical properties.
 Products made with chemical resins can include
centrifuge ware, safety shields and filter ware.
 These products are designed to withstand extreme
temperatures and aqueous chemical environments.
 The hard transparent resins, such as the
copal's, dammars, mastic and sandarac, are
principally used for varnishes and adhesives, while
the softer odoriferous oleo-resins.
 Resin, typically applied through a loose-woven
bag, is used by baseball pitchers on the pitching
hand for a better grip on the ball.
EXAMPLES
Resin flooring.
Resin varnish.
 Plastic molding is the process of shaping plastic
using a rigid frame or mould. The technique allows
for the creation of objects of all shapes and sizes
with huge design flexibility for both simple and
highly complex designs.
 Blow molding
 Powder metallurgy plus sintering
 Compression molding
 Extrusion molding
 Injection molding
 Laminating-Reaction injection molding
 Matrix molding
 Rotational molding
 Spin casting
 Transfer molding
 Thermoforming
 Plastic fabrication is the design, manufacture, or
assembly of plastic products through one of a
number of methods. Some manufacturers
prefer plastic fabrication over working with other
materials (such as metal or glass) due to the
process's advantages in certain applications.
 An addition polymer is a polymer which is
formed by an addition reaction, where many
monomers bond together via rearrangement
of bonds without the loss of any atom or
molecule.
 Condensation polymers are any kind of
polymers formed through a condensation
reaction—where molecules join together—
losing small molecules as by-products such
as water or methanol, as opposed to addition
polymers which involve the reaction of
unsaturated monomers.
 It is a coating put on metal that makes it look
like plastic. Its mainly used to protect the
surfaces from corrosion and decaying.
 Powder coating, dip coating, extrusion
coating, anti scratch coating and UV coating
are the general processes used for plastic
coatings.
 A composite material (also called a
composition material or shortened to
composite) is a material made from two or
more constituent materials with significantly
different physical or chemical properties, that
when combined, produce a material with
characteristics different from the individual
components.
 Linoleum is a floor covering made from
materials such as solidified linseed
oil (linoxyn), pinerosin,
ground cork dust, wood flour, and mineral
fillers such as calcium carbonate, most
commonly on a burlap or canvas backing;
pigments are often added to the materials.
 A resilient sheet flooring material.
 Ecologically friendly, made of natural materials .
 Composed of oxidized linseed oil, powdered cork
and wood flour, pressed into sheets with a burlap
(jute) backing.
 water resistant.
 Heat- and sound- insulating.
 Very durable and flexible
 Residential flooring: for kitchens, hallways and
bathrooms.
 Institutional flooring: in schools, showrooms.
 Originally installed over a wood subflooring. Later, a
layer
of felt was sandwiched in between.
 Heavier battleship linoleum was common in offices,
stores,
hospitals, banks, lodge rooms, elevators and
battleship decks.
 Polyethylene (abbreviated PE) or polythene is
the most common plastic.
PROPERTIES
 Polyethylene is
a thermoplastic polymer consisting of long
hydrocarbon chains.
 Depending on the crystallinity and molecular
weight, a melting point and glass
transition may or may not be observable.
 The temperature at which these occur varies
strongly with the type of polyethylene
 Ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE)
 Ultra-low-molecular-weight polyethylene (ULMWPE or
PE-WAX)
 High-molecular-weight polyethylene (HMWPE)
 High-density polyethylene (HDPE)
 High-density cross-linked polyethylene (HDXLPE)
 Cross-linked polyethylene (PEX or XLPE)
 Medium-density polyethylene (MDPE)
 Linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE)
 Low-density polyethylene (LDPE)
 Very-low-density polyethylene (VLDPE)
 Chlorinated polyethylene (CPE)
 Polythene is mostly used for folios or films, pipes,
hoses and household articles.
 It is also used to coat paper, which is then rendered a
waterproof surface.
 It acts as the binder in paints and adhesives, and it
makes up the remaining coating.
 Depending upon its molecular density ,its properties
are distributed.
 Fibre-reinforced plastic (FRP) (also fibre-
reinforced polymer) is a composite material made
of a polymer matrix reinforced with fibers. The
fibers are usually glass, carbon or basalt. Rarely,
other fibers such as paper or wood or asbestos
have been used.
• Moulding to close dimensional tolerances, with
their retention under in-service conditions
• Good impact, compression, fatigue and electrical
properties
• Excellent environmental resistance
• Ability to fabricate massive one-piece mouldings
• Cost-effective manufacturing processes
• Excellent chemical and corrosion resistance
• High ultra-violet radiation stability
 Reinforced plastics find extensive use in many
fields, such as automobiles and corrosion-resistant
equipment like fibre-reinforced plastic (FRP) tanks,
vessels,etc.
 Plastic laminate is a composite building material
made from craft paper, resin, and adhesives.
Multiple layers of craft paper are soaked in resin,
then pressed together at high levels of temperature
and pressure to form a single sheet.
 Laminated plastics are available in sheet, tube, and
rod shapes that are cut and/or machined for
various end uses.
 Other common forms of laminated plastics are
composite sheet laminates that incorporate a third
material bonded to one or both surfaces of the
laminate.
 Plastic laminate is usually available in three
different thicknesses: general purpose, vertical
surface and post forming.
 Plastic laminate is a great material but it is by no
means indestructible. The plastic coating which
acts as the top layer can be damaged. Hot pots and
pans can scorch the material.
 Polyvinyl chloride, more correctly but unusually
poly(vinyl chloride), commonly abbreviated PVC, is
the third-most widely produced
synthetic plastic polymer,
after polyethylene andpolypropylene.
 PVC has high hardness and mechanical properties.
 The heat stability of raw PVC is very poor, so the
addition of a heat stabilizer during the process is
necessary in order to ensure the product's
properties.
 PVC is a polymer with good insulation properties.
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