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impact of jets

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dp/dt =m x dv/dt =m/dt x dv

m/dt= mass of fluid per unit time =m

m =ρ x Q ; ρ- mass density (kg/m3) & Q-

quantity of water striking (m3/sec)

ρ= (w/g) ; ρ = 1000 kg/m3 (for water at 40C)

w =sp. Weight = 9810 N/m3 for water

IMPACT ON FIXED FLAT PLATE

after striking the plate the jet V

deflects by 90 degrees, so the

V

component of the velocity of

the jet leaving the plate in the

V

original direction of striking

jet will be zero.

F = m (V-0) = m V = ρAV2

IMPACT ON INCLINED FIXED PLATE

normal to the plate = V sinθ

Jet leaves the plate V sinθ

tangentially after impact,

velocity normal to plate V Fx

after impact = 0 θ 90-θ

Fn = ρAV(V sinθ – 0) or Fn

Fn = ρAV2 sinθ

Fx = Fn sinθ ; Fy = Fn cosθ Fy

IMPACT ON MOVING FLAT PLATE

strikes the plate = (V-u) V u

F=ρA(V-u)[(V-u)-0] or F

= ρA(V-u)2

V

Work done by the jet on the

plate /sec = F x d/t =F x u

Work done = ρA(V-u)2 u or

wa/g(V-u)2u

V

IMPACT ON MOVING INCLINED PLATE

Fn =ρA(V-u)[(V-u)sinθ – 0]

u

Fx = Fn sinθ ; Fy = Fn cosθ

Work done by the jet on the (V-u) sinθ

plate/sec = Fx. u or

W= ρA(V-u)2 sin2θ u V Fx

θ 90-θ

Fn

Fy

IMPACT ON STATIONARY CURVED VANE

deflected through an angle

(180-θ)

Component of the velocity 180-θ

V

θ

leaving the jet in the direction of θ

the incoming jet = V cos (180-θ)

or –V cosθ

Fx= ρAV[V-(-Vcosθ)] or

Fx = ρAV2(1+cosθ)

TANGENTIAL IMPACT ON CURVED VANE

V V sinφ

Jet after striking gets deflected

φ

through an angle 180- (θ+ φ) V cosφ

Component of the velocity at

inlet in x direction = V cosθ 180- (θ+ φ)

+ve X

Component of the velocity at φ

θ

outlet in x direction = -V cosφ

Fx= ρAV[V cosθ – (-V cosφ)] or

Fx= ρAV2[cos θ + cos φ)] V cosθ

θ

Fy= ρAV [sin θ – sin φ)]

2

V

V sinθ

IMPACT ON UNSYMMETRICAL CURVED VANE

Vr1 = V1 – u φ β

V2 OUTLET VEL. TRIANGLE

Vr2

Relative velocity of jet at outlet

Vr2 = V2 – u

Absolute velocity of the jet V1

is resolved into two φ

u

θ

components Vw1 & Vf1

If the vane is smooth V1=V2 ,

hence Vr1= Vr2

Fx = m * change in velocity in

V1

x –direction Vf1

Vr1

or m * [Vw1 (+-) Vw2] INLET VEL. TRIANGLE

α θ

Work Done = Fx * u u

Vw1

IMPACT ON RADIAL VANES

inlet u1 =ω R1

Tangential velocity of the blade tip at R1

outlet u2 =ω R2 where ω = 2πN/60 ; OUTLET VEL. TRIANGLE

R2

Vw2

N – speed of wheel in rpm u2

φ β

Mass of water striking per sec Vr2 V2

Vf2

m = ρAV1

Tangential momentum imparted at

inlet =m * Vw1

Tangential momentum at outlet

= - m * Vw2

Angular Momentum at inlet =

m * Vw1 * R1

V1

Angular Momentum at outlet = Vf1

- m * Vw2 * R2 Vr1

α θ

u1 INLET VEL. TRIANGLE

Vw1

EULER’S EQUATION

[m*Vw1R1 – (-mVw2R2)]

Work Done on the wheel per second W = τ * ω =

[m*Vw1R1 + mVw2R2] * ω

If β> 90 , then Vw2 is +ve

W=m*[Vw1u1 (+-) Vw2u2]

For unit inflow of mass E = [Vw1u1 (+-) Vw2u2]

In turbomachines work is either done by the system (pumps) or the work

is done on the system (turbines)

If Vw1u1 > Vw2u2, work is done on the system (energy transfer +ve)

If Vw1u1 < Vw2u2, work is done by the system (energy transfer -ve)

E=[Vw1u1 - Vw2u2] FOR TURBINE & E= -[Vw1u1 - Vw2u2] or

E=[Vw2u2 – Vw1u1] FOR PUMP

EULER’S EQUATION

Also Vf12 + (Vw1-u1)2 = Vr12 or Vf12 = Vr12 - (Vw1-u1)2

CHANGE OF STATIC HEAD

V12 - Vw12 = Vr12 - (Vw1-u1)2 or Vw1u1 =1/2 * (V12+u12-Vf12)

Similarly from outlet Δ : Vw2u2 =1/2 * (Vr22 – V22 –u22)

Since E=[Vw1u1 - Vw2u2] ROTATION OF FLUID MASS: CENTRIFUGAL EFFECT

CHANGE OF RELATIVE VEL. W.R.T WHEEL (ACCEL OR RETARDATION)

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