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Program Nam

Lean Six Sigm

<Project Title
(State From ... To)>
< Last Name, First Name >
DefineMeasure
AnalyzeImproveControl
Wave No: <xx>
Review Date: <xx/xx/xxxx>

LEAN
SIX SIGMA
Program Nam
Lean Six Sigm

DefineMeasure
AnalyzeImproveControl

LEAN
SIX SIGMA
Measure Phase Road
Map
Measure

Define Measure Analyze Improve Control

Activities Tools
• Identify Key Input, Process and Output •
High/Low level process Maps
Metrics •
Value Stream Map
• Develop Operational Definitions •
Operational Definitions

Data Collection Plan
• Develop Data Collection Plan

Statistical Sampling
• Validate Measurement System •
Measurement System Analysis (MSA), Gage
• Collect Baseline Data R&R
• Constraint Identification
• Determine Process Performance/Capability
• Setup Reduction
• Validate Business Opportunity • Generic Pull
• Value Stream Map for deeper understanding & • Kaizen
focus • TPM
• Control Charts
• Quick Wins (Control Plans)
• Process Capability, Cp & Cpk
• Measure Gate Review
Bonacorsi Consulting 3
Project Charter Measure

Problem/Goal Financial Impact


Statement
Problem: Describe problem in non-technical terms
 Statement should explain why project is important;  State financial impact of project
why working on it is a priority  Expenses
Goal: Goals communicate “before” and “after”  Investments (inventory, capital, A/R)
conditions  Revenues
 Shift mean, variance, or both?
 Should impact cost, time, quality dimensions  Separate “hard” from “soft” dollars
 Express goals using SMART criteria
 Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Resource  State financial impact of leverage opportunities
Requirements, Time Boundaries (future projects)
 Explain leverage and strategic implications (if any)

Team Tollgate Review


 PES Name Project Executive Sponsor (if different from
Schedule
Tollgate Scheduled Revised Complete
PS)
Define: XX/XX/XX - XX/XX/XX
 PS Name Project Sponsor/Process Owner
 DC Name Deployment Champion Measure: XX/XX/XX XX/XX/XX XX/XX/XX
 GB/BB Name Green Belt/Black Belt Analyze: XX/XX/XX XX/XX/XX XX/XX/XX
 MBB Name Master Black Belt Improve: XX/XX/XX XX/XX/XX XX/XX/XX
Core Team Role % Contrib. LSS Control: XX/XX/XX XX/XX/XX XX/XX/XX
Training
 Team Member 1 SME XX YB  Review high-level schedule milestones
 Team Member 2 TM XX GB here:
 Team Member 3 SME XX PS  Phase Completions
 Team Member 4 SME XX YB
 Tollgate Reviews
Extended Team
 Team Member 1 BFM XX Not Trained  Trials
Bonacorsi Consulting
 Team Member 2 IT XX Not Trained 4
Attitude Charting & Key Measure
Constituency Map

“Critical mass
must be won-over”

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Measure
Sample Size: Continuous Data

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Sample Size - Discrete Data
Measure

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Measure
Data Collection Plan
Performanc Operation Data Source How Will Who Will When Will Data Sample Stratificatio How will
e Measure al and Location Data Be Collect Data Be Collected Size n Factors data be
Definition Collected used?
VOC
MSA
Process
VSM
Financials
Others

 For each performance measure (Y), update a data collection plan


 Include MSA measure plan (Gantt chart, MS project plan is Optional)
 Add Financial measure plan if separate from performance Y
 Add any Time Study or other data collection plans for Value Stream Map
 Sample Size Calculation
 Use additional slides if needed

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Bonacorsi Consulting 8
Measure
Operational Definitions
 Y – Continuous data (Process start/stop and cycle time
boundaries (such as the unit of measure (ex minutes), the
unit (the thing you are measuring), will you include weekends,
holidays, non-business hours?)
 Y – Discrete data (Define Success/Defect or other attribute
values you will measure
 X – The subgroups values or X-factor groupings you will use
on your project data collection
 Other unique terms that apply to your project that require
clear operational definitions
 Use additional slides as needed to complete your operational
definitions
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Bonacorsi Consulting 9
Measurement Systems Analysis Reported by:
Gage
Tolerance:
name:
Measure
(MSA) Date
Misc:
of study:

Gage R&R
Gage R&R (ANOVA) for Response
Components of Variation Response by Part
%Contribution 100 % Contribution
Source VarComp (of % Study Var
10.00
VarComp)

P erc ent
Total Gage R&R 0.0015896 50 9.75
3.70
9.50
Repeatability 0.0005567
1.29 0
Gage R&R Repeat Reprod Part-to-Part 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Reproducibility 0.0010330 Part
2.40 R Chart by Operator
Operator 0.0003418 1 2 3 Response by Operator
0.79 UCL=0.1073
0.10 10.00
Operator*Part 0.0006912
Sam ple R ange

1.61
_ 9.75
Part-To-Part 0.0414247 0.05
R=0.0417
96.30 9.50
Total Variation 0.0430143
0.00 LCL=0
100.00 1 2 3
Operator
Xbar Chart by Operator
Study Var
%Study Var
1 2 3 Operator * Part Interaction
Source StdDev (SD) (6 10.00 10.00 Operator
UCL=9.8422
Sam ple M ean

1
* SD) (%SV) __
Measurement system

A verage

Total Gage R&R 0.039870 0.23922 X=9.7996 9.75
2
9.75 LCL=9.7569
3
19.22is acceptable with the
Repeatability 0.023594 9.50
Total % Contribution
0.14156 11.38 9.50
Reproducibility 0.032140 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
<10%
0.19284 15.50 Part

Operator 0.018488
0.11093 8.91
Operator*Part Enter Key Slide Take Away (Key Point) Here
0.026290
0.15774 12.68
Part-To-Part 0.203531
1.22118 98.13
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Total Variation 0.207399 10
Measure
MSA Conclusions
 The measurement systems are acceptable. The data is considered to have no
potential for significant error. Need to be careful to appropriately use the data
during the
Type of Analyze Phase.
Measurement Description Considerations to this Project
Error
The ability of the measurement Work hrs can be measured to <.25
Discrimination
system to divide into “data hrs. Tool usage measure to +- 2
(resolution)
categories” min.
The difference between an No bias - Work hours and radar
Bias observed average measurement start-stop times consistent through
result and a reference value population.
No bias of work hrs & radar usage
Stability The change in bias over time
data.
Not an issue. Labor and radar
usage is historical and felt to be
Repeatability The extent variability is consistent
accurate enough for insight and
analysis.
Remarks in usage data deemed
Different appraisers produce not reproducible, therefore were
Reproducibility
consistent results not considered in determining
which radars were used in each op
Variation The difference between parts n/a to this process.

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Bonacorsi Consulting 11
Measure
Probability Plot
Probability Plot of Anderson-Darling Normality
Normal - 95% CI
99.9

Mean 24.74
99
StDev 4.177
95 N 100
90 AD 0.380
80 P-Value 0.397
70
Percent

60
50
40
30
20
10
5

0.1
10 15 20 25 30 35 40
QTY

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Bonacorsi Consulting 12
Measure
Baseline Basic Statistics
 The current process has Summary for Delivery Time Anderson-Darling Normality Test

a non-normal A-Squared
P-Value <
1.95
0.005
distribution with the P- Mean 29.128

Value < 0.05 but does StDev


Variance
2.677
7.169

have a normal bell- Skewness


Kurtosis
0.201075
-0.471714
shape. N 266

Minimum 24.000
1st Quartile 27.000
 Since the mean and Median 29.000
3rd Quartile 31.000
median are the same in 24 26 28 30 32 34 Maximum 35.000

days (29) +/- 0.5 days, 95% Confidence I nterval for Mean
28.805 29.451
we will not transform 95% Confidence I nterval for Median

data. 29.000 29.000


95% Confidence I nterval for StDev
95% Confidence I ntervals
2.468 2.927
 The range is 35 and the Mean

standard deviation is 2.7 Median

days 28.8 28.9 29.0 29.1 29.2 29.3 29.4

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Bonacorsi Consulting 13
Measure
Control Chart
I-MR Chart of Delivery Time
 The current 40
baseline delivery UCL=37.70

I ndiv idual V alue


time is stable over 35

time with both the 30 _


X=29.13

Moving Range (MR) 25

(3.22 days) and 20 LCL=20.56

Individual Average 1 28 55 82 109 136


Observation
163 190 217 244

(29.13 days)
experiencing
UCL=10.53
10.0

common cause
M ov ing R ange

7.5

variation 5.0
__
MR=3.22
2.5
 255 data points
0.0 LCL=0
collected with zero 1 28 55 82 109 136 163 190 217 244

subgroups, thus Observation

the I&MR control


chart selectedEnter Key Slide Take Away (Key Point) Here
Bonacorsi Consulting 14
Measure
Baseline Process Capability
 266 data points Process Capability of Delivery Time Potential (Within) Capability
Cp 1.16
LSL Target USL
collected between CPL 2.22
CPU 0.10
11/1/04 thru Within Cpk 0.10
11/30/04 Overall CCpk 1.16
O verall Capability
 Mean 29 days, St. Pp 1.24
Dev. 2.9 days, CP is PPL 2.37
PPU 0.11
1.16 indicating Ppk 0.11
process needs Cpm 0.35
centering to the LSL Process Data
LSL 10
of 10 and USL of 30 Target 20
days. Cpk is .1 USL 30
indicating that the Sample Mean 29.1203
Sample N 266
process is exceeding StDev(Within) 2.87033
the USL. StDev(O verall) 2.69154

12 16 20 24 28 32 36
 With an overall Exp. O verall Performance
O bserved Performance Exp. Within Performance
PPM of 371,895 PPM < LSL 0.00 PPM < LSL 0.00 PPM < LSL 0.00
defects per million PPM > USL 281954.89 PPM > USL 379619.67 PPM > USL 371895.18
PPM Total 281954.89 PPM Total 379619.67 PPM Total 371895.18
opportunity, the
current process has
a Sigma Quality Enter Key Slide Take Away (Key Point) Here
Level of 1.8 or a 62%
Bonacorsi
yield Consulting 15
Sigma Calculator: Continuous
Worksheet For Calculating Process Sigma
Measure
Data
Continuous Data Long-Term

1. Label The Normal Curve With The Following:


Enter Values in Yellow
 X value Xbar 15 Mean (Average)
Example:  X+s value
 USL & Shade Area To The Right S 2 Standard Deviation
 LSL & Shade Area To The Left USL 18 Delete if no USL (Upper Specification Limit)
LSL = 8 s s
USL = 22 LSL 5 Delete if no LSL (Lower Specification Limit)
Area 2
Area 1 Sigma = 3 Sigma Sigma Quality Level

10 18
x x+s
Example:
2. Determine Area 1: The average processing time = 15
( ) – ( )
Find Z 1 Z1 =
USL – x
= = 1.5 days (Xbar = 15)
s ( )
702009 O ##

The standard deviation was 2 days


Look up Z1 in Normal Table Norm Dist (Z1) = Normal Table Look Up for Z1 =
0.933193 (s = 2)

Area 1 = 1 – Look Up Area 1 = 1 – Norm Dist (Z1) = 1 – ( ) = 0.066807 A unit processed longer than 18
days was too late to the customer
3. Skip this step if there is no LSL (USL = 18)
2. Determine Area 2:
LSL – x ( ) – ( )
Find Z 2 Z2 = =
s ( )
=
-5 A unit processed faster than 5 days
was too early to the customer
Look up Z2 in Normal Table Norm Dist (Z2) = Normal Table Look Up for Z2 = (LSL = 5)
2.87E-07

Area 2 = Look Up Area 2 = 2.87E-07


Sigma Quality Level = 3
4. Determine Total Area: Total Area = Area 1 + Area 2 = ( ) + ( )= 0.066807

5. Yield = 1 – Total Area Yield = 1 – Total Area = 1 – ( ) = 0.933193

= x 100% = 93.3193%

6. Process Sigma Comes From


Table Look Up Of Yield SigmaST = Look Up Value in Sigma Table
= 3.00

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Bonacorsi Consulting 16
Measure
Sigma Calculator: Discrete Data
General Worksheet For Calculating Process Sigma
Enter Values
Below in Yellow
1 Number Of Units Processed N= 200
100
2 Total Number Of Defects Made (Include Defects Made And Later Fixed) D= 35
3 Number Of Defect Opportunities Per Unit O=
4 Solve For Defects Per Million Opportunities (DPMO) DPMO = #DIV/0!
5 Look Up Process Sigma In Abridged Sigma Conversion Table Sigma = #DIV/0!

Example:
200 pairs of boots were supplied (N = 200)
35 shoelaces were found broken (D = 35)
Each shoe had 1 lace and there were 2 shoes per pair (O = 2)

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Bonacorsi Consulting 17
Measure
Quick Wins
 5s
 4-Step Setup Reduction
 Inventory Reduction
 MSA Improvements
 Price reductions
 Reduced DOWNTIME (Non-value added steps or work)
 Pull System
 Kaizen events
 Other
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Bonacorsi Consulting 18
Measure
5s
Sort 5s FORM
 ? ITEM NAME
IDENTIFICATION
TAG NUMBER TAGGED BY
 ? TAG DATE

CLASSIFICATION
Set Order o RAW MATERIAL o TOOLS o FURNITURE o OTHER (EXPLAIN)
 ? o WIP o SUPP LIES o OFFICE MATERIAL
 ? o FINISHED GOOD o EQUIPMENT o BOOKS/MAGAZINES
QUANTITY CELL / AREA
Shine REASON
 ? o UNNECESSARY o LEFTOVER MATERIAL

 ? o DEFECTIVE o UNKNOWN

o NON-URGENT o OTHER (EXPLAIN)


Standardize DISPOSITION REQUIRED
 ? o DISCARD o TRANSFER

 ? o IN-CELL STORAGE o LONG-TERM STORAGE

o REDUCE o OTHER (EXPLAIN)


Sustain ACTION TAKEN
ACTION DESCRIPTION APPROVED BY
 ? DATE
 ? NEW LOCATION NEW CELL / AREA

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Bonacorsi Consulting 19
Measure
PDCA
 Plan:
Plan
 ? ?
 ?
 Do:
 ? Do
?
 ?
 Check:
 ? Check
 ? ?

 Act:
 ? Act
 ? ?

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Bonacorsi Consulting 20
Measure
Benchmark Analysis
Process
Gap /
CTQ Capability Benchmark Source Assumptions Risks
Opportunity
(X/Y)

Based on the information above, what is the performance objective*?


• Reduce defects by      %
• Reduce long-term DPMO from       to       .
• Improve short-term Z from       to       .
*If you do not benchmark, performance standards are based on:
• For a process with ≤ 3 sigma level, decrease % defects by 10x.
• For a process with > 3 sigma level, decrease % defects by 2x.
• Other….please explain (corporate mandate, compliance/legal, VOC data, etc)

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Bonacorsi Consulting 21
O
n-
tim

4.0
5.0
6.0
7.0
8.0
9.0
10.0
e
D
% el
C iv
er
om y
pl
et
e

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W O
rd
CTQ Importance

ar
ra er
nt
y
R
et
In ur
ve ns
nt
or
y
Tu
C rn
or
re s
ct
In
vo
Company

ic
e
Sp
ec Pr
i al ic
O e
r

22
R de
el rL
at
io ea
ns d
hi Ti
N p m
Comp 1

ew M e
an
Pr ag
od em
uc en
tD t
ev
Key Buying Factor Analysis

el
op
Br m
en
Pr
od
an
d t
uc Im
tO ag
Comp 2

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ff e e
rin
Pr
ox g
im Br
it y ea
dt
to h
C
us
to
m
er
Measure

Comp 3
Measure
Sources of Waste
Defect Overproduction Transportation
Sources of Waste
Area 1
<Area 1> Area 1  ?
Sub area 1
<Sub area 1> Sub area 1
 ?
NVA
?
Area 1
Area 1 Area 1
Sub area 1  ?
Sub area 1 Sub area 1
 ?
Processing Motion Inventory Waiting
?

?
< Insert your waste 
percentage as shown 
in pie chart >

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Bonacorsi Consulting 23
Sample Value Stream Mapping Measure
Symbols
Quotes
Machining C/T = 36 Sec

Set Up Time 7 Min I Flow


(Physical)
Uptime 86% Queue/ Electronic
Inventory Information
Data Box Flow
(Information)
Process Box
1

Electronic Physical Pull


Personnel
Data
System
“Go See”
Monitoring
FIFO
Truck Shipment FIFO Lane
Sign Off Point
Physical
Transport

Kanban Paper
Supplier/ Push Systems
Project Supermarket Station Kanban
Customer
Burst Replenishment

Bonacorsi Consulting 24
Value Stream Map – “Current Measure
State”
Service lead time = Order Mgmt Supervisor
384 min
SUPPLIERS Customer call time Weekly Update
= 24 min CUSTOMER

Phone Call Phone Call

Order Mgmt
Manual Update Screen for Acct Mgr

Automate
Monitoring P/T = 3 min
2-5
day Lost calls=10%
s
Volume=1200
Large
Business Simplify/
Improve Combine
6 Customers Visibility
Forecast
Improvement
Order Mgmt Order Mgmt Order Mgmt Order Mgmt DIST
Small
Customer Product Shipping
Business Pick
Info Pricing Info
4 4 Need 4 4 10 Pack & Ship
5 Customers
20
Simplify/ P/T = 2 min P/T = 6 Min P/T = 6 Min P/T = 2 Min Orders P/T = 120 Min
Mistake Proof
Home Error Rate=2% Error Rate=0% Error Rate=2% Error Rate=1% Error Rate=1%
3 Customers
Volume=800 Volume=800 Volume=800 Volume=800 Volume=1200
5 240
min min
3 min 2 6 6 2 120
min min min min min

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Bonacorsi Consulting 25
Value Stream Map (VSM) - “As Measure
Is”
< ERP > Questions
What are the biggest Opportunity 
Supplier Customer areas?

<Right Click, and select Add Text>

<Step1> <Step3> <Step3>


What is VA to NVA percentage?
1 2 1
<Right Click, and select Add Text>

What is the Takt Time?

<Right Click, and select Add Text>

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Bonacorsi Consulting 26
Value Stream Map (VSM) - Measure
“IDEAL”
< ERP > Questions
What is the VA to NVA percentage?
Supplier Customer
<Right Click, and select Add Text>

<Step1> <Step3> <Step3> How was IDEAL future state VSM 


constructed?
1 2 1

<Right Click, and select Add Text>

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Bonacorsi Consulting 27
Measure
Spaghetti Diagram
EAST

To Office Parking Lot Foyer

Order Order Order Order Reception


Lines indicate Supply Taker 1 Entry 1 Entry 2 Entry 3
paper/information Room
travel: (paper and Printer, Fax OM Lead CC &
office supplies) Order
- No set path Taker 2 Val 2
Records OM Supr Office

Copier
- Lots of rework Room CC & CC &
Order
Taker 3 Val 1 Val 3
(Order
Management)

Indicates an in-
Restrooms Cafeteria
box or outbox Vault
where work (finance)
(forms/
information) Engineering Offices
Planning &
waits to be
worked on or Scheduling
transferred
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Bonacorsi Consulting 28
AS-IS Process Mapping Symbols Measure

Bonacorsi Consulting 29
Swim Lane Process Oval shapes – Start/Stop
of process
Measure
Map
Diamonds – Decision
points
Rectangles – process
steps
Notify HR of Half-Moon – Delay/Queue
Client employee exit Time
Note: Steps in blue shapes are non-value added steps
Mgr date

Sends
Places
exit date Avg. Form No Re-verifies with mgr
information
Client to IT, Delay require on employee’s exit
into HR
HR telecom & 2 days approval? status
database
facilities

Yes
Sends
Sends Secure Avg. Avg.
Client Email
Email to approval( Delay Delay
to
Contact Admin s) 2 days
Admin
2 days

Create ticket if Utilize e-mail vendor’s Admin closes


request coming web tool to submit ticket and
NT
directly from delete request to manager notified
Admin client vendor

Avg. Avg. Generates ticket


Admin Delay Delay & forwards to
1 day 1 day Admin

Avg. Mark request


Email Delete Delay as completed
Vendor account 4 on admin web
days site

Bonacorsi Consulting 30
Measure
Process Map
Process Map (A 10 feet view) Questions
Inputs C/N/Co/S Process Steps Outputs
How was the data collected?

<Right Click, and select Add Text>

What is percentage of NVA to 
VA?

<Right Click, and select Add Text>

Has the hidden factory been 
quantified?
FPY <Right Click, Add Text>

RTY <Right Click, Add Text>

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Bonacorsi Consulting 31
Measure
Business Impact
 State financial impact of project
 Separate “hard or Type 1” from “soft Type 2 or 3” dollars
 State financial impact of future project leverage opportunities
Annual Estimate Replicated Estimate
Revenue  • Type 1: ? • Type 1: ?
• Type 2: ? • Type 2: ?
Enhancement • Type 3: ? • Type 3: ?

Expenses  • Type 1: ? • Type 1: ?


• Type 2: ? • Type 2: ?
Reduction • Type 3: ? • Type 3: ?

Loss  • Type 1: ? • Type 1: ?


• Type 2: ? • Type 2: ?
Reduction • Type 3: ? • Type 3: ?

Cost  • Type 1: ? • Type 1: ?


• Type 2: ? • Type 2: ?
Avoidance • Type 3: ? • Type 3: ?

Total Savings • Type 1: ? • Type 1: ?


• Type 2: ? • Type 2: ?
• Type 3: ? • Type 3: ?

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Bonacorsi Consulting 32
Measure
Business Impact Details
 Type 1: Describe the chain of causality that shows how you determined the Type 1 savings. (tell
the story with cause–effect relationships, on how the proposed change should create the
desired financial result (savings) in your project )
 Show the financial calculation savings and assumptions used.
 Assumption #1 (i.e. source of data, clear Operational Definitions?)
 Assumption #2 (i.e. hourly rate + incremental benefit cost + travel)

 Type 2: Describe the chain of causality that shows how you determined the Type 2 savings. (tell
the story with cause–effect relationships, on how the proposed change should create the
desired financial result (savings) in your project )
 Show the financial calculation savings and assumptions used.
 Assumption #1 (i.e. Labor rate used, period of time, etc…)
 Assumption #2 (i.e. contractor hrs or FTE, source of data, etc…)

 Describe the Type 3 Business Impact(s) areas and how these were measured
 Assumption #1 (i.e. project is driven by the Business strategy?)
 Assumption #2 (i.e. Customer service rating, employee moral, etc…)

 Other Questions
 Stakeholders agree on the project’s impact and how it will be measured in financial terms?
 What steps were taken to ensure the integrity & accuracy of the data?
 Has the project tracking worksheet been updated?

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Bonacorsi Consulting 33
Measure
Current Status
 Key actions
completed
 Issues
 Lessons
learned
 Communication
s, team
building,
organizational
activities

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Bonacorsi Consulting 34
Measure
Next Steps
 Key actions
 Planned Lean Six Sigma Tool use
 Questions to answer
 Barrier/risk mitigation activities
Lean Six Sigma Project Issue Log
Last Revised:
Status Revised Due
No. Description/Recommendation Due Date Resp Comments / Resolution
Open/Closed/Hold Date
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

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Bonacorsi Consulting 35
Measure Stop
Does the team understand or has
gathered the right data to help
understand the process? Has the Measure
Tollgate Checklist Tollgate
Review
team baselined current process
performance?

 Has a more detailed Value Stream Map been completed to better understand the process and problem, and where in the 
process the root causes might reside?
 Has the team conducted a value­added and cycle time analysis, identifying areas where time and resources are devoted to 
tasks not critical to the customer?
 Has the team identified the specific input (x), process (x), and output (y) measures needing to be collected for both 
effectiveness and efficiency categories (i.e. Quality, Speed and Cost Efficiency measures)?
 Has the team developed clear, unambiguous operational definitions for each measurement and tested them with others to 
ensure clarity and consistent interpretation?
 Has a clear, reasonable choice been made between gathering new data or taking advantage of existing data?
 Sample size & sampling frequency established to ensure valid representation of the process we’re measuring?
 Measurement system checked for repeatability and reproducibility, potentially including training of data collectors?
 Has the team developed & tested the data collection form for usability and that it can provide consistent, complete data?
 Has baseline performance and process capability been established?  How large is the gap between current performance 
and the customer (or project) requirements? 
 Has the team been able to identify any ‘Quick Wins’?
 Has the team begun to fill in the financial benefits worksheets for type 1 and 2 savings?
 Have any opportunities to do Kaizen projects been identified to accelerate momentum and results?
 Have ‘learnings’ to­date required modification of the Project Charter?  If so, have these changes been approved by the 
Project Sponsor and the Key Stakeholders?
 New risks to project success have been identified, added to the Risk Mitigation Plan, & mitigation strategy put in place?
Enter Key Slide Take Away (Key Point) Here
Bonacorsi Consulting 36
Sign Off Measure

• I concur that the Measure phase was successfully completed on


MM/DD/YYYY
• I concur the project is ready to proceed to next phase: Analyze

Enter Name Here Enter Name Here


Green Belt/Black Belt Deployment Champion
Enter Name Here
Enter Name Here Sponsor / Process Owner
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Financial Representative
Here
Master Black Belt

Enter Key Slide Take Away (Key Point) Here

Bonacorsi Consulting 37
Bonacorsi Consulting
This Training Manual and all materials, procedures and systems herein contained or
depicted (the "Manual"), are the sole and exclusive property of Bonacorsi Consulting,
L.L.C.
The contents hereof contain proprietary trade secrets that are the private and
confidential property of Bonacorsi Consulting. Unauthorized use, disclosure, or
reproduction of any kind of any material contained in this Manual is expressly
prohibited. The contents hereof are to be returned immediately upon termination of any
relationship or agreement giving user authorization to possess or use such information
or materials. Any unauthorized or illegal use shall subject the user to all remedies, both
legal and equitable, available to Bonacorsi Consulting. This Manual may be altered,
amended or supplemented by Bonacorsi Consulting from time to time. In the event of
any inconsistency or conflict between a provision in this Manual and any federal,
provincial, state or local statute, regulation, order or other law, such law will supersede
the conflicting or inconsistent provision(s) of this Manual in all properties subject to that
law. Steven Bonacorsi is a Senior Master
Black Belt instructor and coach.
© 2006 by Bonacorsi Consulting, L.L.C. Steven Bonacorsi
All Rights has trained
Reserved.
hundreds of Master Black Belts, Black
Belts, Green Belts, and Project
Sponsors and Executive Leaders in
Lean Six Sigma DMAIC and Design for
Lean Six Sigma process improvement
methodologies.

Bonacorsi Consulting 38
Program Nam
Lean Six Sigm

DefineMeasure
AnalyzeImproveControl

LEAN
SIX SIGMA
Abridged Process Sigma Conversion Table…
Long-Term Process Defects Per Defects Per Defects Per Defects Per Defects Per
Yeild Sigma (ST) 1,000,000 100,000 10,000 1,000 100
99.99966% 6.0 3.4 0.34 0.034 0.0034 0.00034
99.9995% 5.9 5 0.5 0.05 0.005 0.0005
99.9992% 5.8 8 0.8 0.08 0.008 0.0008
99.9900% 5.7 10 1 0.1 0.01 0.001
99.8000% 5.6 20 2 0.2 0.02 0.002
99.9970% 5.5 30 3 0.3 0.03 0.003
99.9960% 5.4 40 4 0.4 0.04 0.004
99.9930% 5.3 70 7 0.7 0.07 0.007
99.9900% 5.2 100 10 1 0.1 0.01
99.9850% 5.1 150 15 1.5 0.15 0.015
99.9770% 5.0 230 23 2.3 0.23 0.023
99.9670% 4.9 330 33 3.3 0.33 0.033
99.9520% 4.8 480 48 4.8 0.48 0.048
99.9320% 4.7 680 68 6.8 0.68 0.068
99.9040% 4.6 960 96 9.6 0.96 0.096
99.8650% 4.5 1350 135 13.5 1.35 0.135
99.8140% 4.4 1860 186 18.6 1.86 0.186
99.7450% 4.3 2550 255 25.5 2.55 0.255
99.6540% 4.2 3460 346 34.6 3.46 0.346
99.5340% 4.1 4660 466 46.6 4.66 0.466
99.3790% 4.0 6210 621 62.1 6.21 0.621
99.181% 3.9 8190 819 81.9 8.19 0.819
98.930% 3.8 10700 1070 107 10.7 1.07
98.610% 3.7 13900 1390 139 13.9 1.39
98.220% 3.6 17800 1780 178 17.8 1.78
97.730% 3.5 22700 2270 227 22.7 2.27
97.130% 3.4 28700 2870 287 28.7 2.87
96.410% 3.3 35900 3590 359 35.9 3.59
95.540% 3.2 44600 4460 446 44.6 4.46
94.520% 3.1 54800 5480 548 54.8 5.48
93.320% 3.0 66800 6680 668 66.8 6.68
91.920% 2.9 80800 8080 808 80.8 8.08
90.320% 2.8 96800 9680 968 96.8 9.68
88.50% 2.7 115000 11500 1150 115 11.5
86.50% 2.6 135000 13500 1350 135 13.5
84.20% 2.5 158000 15800 1580 158 15.8
81.60% 2.4 184000 18400 1840 184 18.4
78.80% 2.3 212000 21200 2120 212 21.2
75.80% 2.2 242000 24200 2420 242 24.2
72.60% 2.1 274000 27400 2740 274 27.4
69.20% 2.0 308000 30800 3080 308 30.8
65.60% 1.9 344000 34400 3440 344 34.4
61.80% 1.8 382000 38200 3820 382 38.2
58.00% 1.7 420000 42000 4200 420 42
54.00% 1.6 460000 46000 4600 460 46
50% 1.5 500000 50000 5000 500 50
46% 1.4 540000 54000 5400 540 54
43% 1.3 570000 57000 5700 570 57
39% 1.2 610000 61000 6100 610 61
35% 1.1 650000 65000 6500 650 65
31% 1.0 690000 69000 6900 690 69
28% 0.9 720000 72000 7200 720 72
25% 0.8 750000 75000 7500 750 75
22% 0.7 780000 78000 7800 780 78
19% 0.6 810000 81000 8100 810 81
16% 0.5 840000 84000 8400 840 84
14% 0.4 860000 86000 8600 860 86
12% 0.3 880000 88000 8800 880 88
Bonacorsi Consulting
10%
8%
0.2
0.1
900000
920000
90000
40
92000
9000
9200
900
920
90
92
Table of the Standard Normal (z) Distribution
z 0.00 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09
0.0 0.0000 0.0040 0.0080 0.0120 0.0160 0.0190 0.0239 0.0279 0.0319 0.0359
0.1 0.0398 0.0438 0.0478 0.0517 0.0557 0.0596 0.0636 0.0675 0.0714 0.0753
0.2 0.0793 0.0832 0.0871 0.0910 0.0948 0.0987 0.1026 0.1064 0.1103 0.1141
0.3 0.1179 0.1217 0.1255 0.1293 0.1331 0.1368 0.1406 0.1443 0.1480 0.1517
0.4 0.1554 0.1591 0.1628 0.1664 0.1700 0.1736 0.1772 0.1808 0.1844 0.1879
0.5 0.1915 0.1950 0.1985 0.2019 0.2054 0.2088 0.2123 0.2157 0.2190 0.2224
0.6 0.2257 0.2291 0.2324 0.2357 0.2389 0.2422 0.2454 0.2486 0.2517 0.2549
0.7 0.2580 0.2611 0.2642 0.2673 0.2704 0.2734 0.2764 0.2794 0.2823 0.2852
0.8 0.2881 0.2910 0.2939 0.2969 0.2995 0.3023 0.3051 0.3078 0.3106 0.3133
0.9 0.3159 0.3186 0.3212 0.3238 0.3264 0.3289 0.3315 0.3340 0.3365 0.3389
1.0 0.3413 0.3438 0.3461 0.3485 0.3508 0.3513 0.3554 0.3577 0.3529 0.3621
1.1 0.3643 0.3665 0.3686 0.3708 0.3729 0.3749 0.3770 0.3790 0.3810 0.3830
1.2 0.3849 0.3869 0.3888 0.3907 0.3925 0.3944 0.3962 0.3980 0.3997 0.4015
1.3 0.4032 0.4049 0.4066 0.4082 0.4099 0.4115 0.4131 0.4147 0.4162 0.4177
1.4 0.4192 0.4207 0.4222 0.4236 0.4251 0.4265 0.4279 0.4292 0.4306 0.4319
1.5 0.4332 0.4345 0.4357 0.4370 0.4382 0.4394 0.4406 0.4418 0.4429 0.4441
1.6 0.4452 0.4463 0.4474 0.4484 0.4495 0.4505 0.4515 0.4525 0.4535 0.4545
1.7 0.4554 0.4564 0.4573 0.4582 0.4591 0.4599 0.4608 0.4616 0.4625 0.4633
1.8 0.4641 0.4649 0.4656 0.4664 0.4671 0.4678 0.4686 0.4693 0.4699 0.4706
1.9 0.4713 0.4719 0.4726 0.4732 0.4738 0.4744 0.4750 0.4756 0.4761 0.4767
2.0 0.4772 0.4778 0.4783 0.4788 0.4793 0.4798 0.4803 0.4808 0.4812 0.4817
2.1 0.4821 0.4826 0.4830 0.4834 0.4838 0.4842 0.4846 0.4850 0.4854 0.4857
2.2 0.4861 0.4864 0.4868 0.4871 0.4875 0.4878 0.4881 0.4884 0.4887 0.4890
2.3 0.4893 0.4896 0.4898 0.4901 0.4904 0.4906 0.4909 0.4911 0.4913 0.4916
2.4 0.4918 0.4920 0.4922 0.4925 0.4927 0.4929 0.4931 0.4932 0.4934 0.4936
2.5 0.4938 0.4940 0.4941 0.4943 0.4945 0.4946 0.4948 0.4949 0.4951 0.4952
2.6 0.4953 0.4955 0.4956 0.4957 0.4959 0.4960 0.4961 0.4962 0.4963 0.4964
2.7 0.4965 0.4966 0.4967 0.4968 0.4969 0.4970 0.4971 0.4972 0.4973 0.4974
2.8 0.4974 0.4975 0.4976 0.4977 0.4977 0.4978 0.4979 0.4979 0.4980 0.4981
2.9 0.4981 0.4982 0.4982 0.4983 0.4984 0.4984 0.4985 0.4985 0.4986 0.4986
3.0 0.4987 0.4987 0.4987 0.4988 0.4988 0.4989 0.4989 0.4989 0.4990 0.4990
3.1 0.4990 0.4991 0.4991 0.4991 0.4992 0.4992 0.4992 0.4992 0.4993 0.4993
3.2 0.4993 0.4993 0.4994 0.4994 0.4994 0.4994 0.4994 0.4995 0.4995 0.4995
3.3 0.4995 0.4995 0.4995 0.4996 0.4996 0.4996 0.4996 0.4996 0.4996 0.4997
3.4 0.4997 0.4997 0.4997 0.4997 0.4997 0.4997 0.4997 0.4997 0.4997 0.4998
Bonacorsi Consulting 41