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Partitive and expressions of quantity

• PARTIVE= Part of a whole or undefined • Alcuni alcune and qualche


quantity. also express some or few
Di + definite article with countable nouns

Singular Alcuni (m) and Alcune (f)


M. Del dell’ dello precede plural nouns
F. Della dell’ •
Qualche (invariable) precede
Plural singular nouns
M. Dei degli
F. Delle
• Adding –mente to the feminine
singular form of an adjective.

• If an adjective ends in –le or –re


drop the final –e before adding
mente.

Ci
Ci>
(1) replace expression of location which are often
preceded by the prepositions: a, in, su, a
(2) phrases beginning with a after many common
verbs

(3) DIFFERENT lì and là> for a specific location. Ci point


the existence of something.
Same location OP (precede conjugated verb, attached
infinitive)
Ne
• NE>> Means some any when it replace the partitive.
Same placement rules of ci.
NE>
(1) Of it/them when replacing nouns with expressions of quantity.
• (2) Ne+ Adj of quantity the Adj must agree with the noun that NE
replaces
(3) di> Ne replaces phrases introduced by di, avere
paura/bisogno/voglia di

• PASSATO PROSSIMO is used with expressions of quantity, the past


participle must agree with the noun replaced.
• NOT when NE replaces a prepositional phrases
• Agreement with the passato prossimo with NE. (202-203)

When the noun is direct object (what? Whom?)> agrees with the
past participle.

(when Ne replaces a prepositional phrase -INOBJ, no agreement is


necessary)

• Hai parlato al dottore delle pillole di cui hai bisogno? (Ind. of what?-
prepositional phrase) No non ne ho parlato con lui.
• DIRECT OBJ Pronouns replace the D.O noun (this is
what a pronoun does…) IND.OBJ Pronouns Direct and
D.O pronouns
indirect pronouns have
mi ci
ti vi identical forms
EXCEPT for the third person
La (form)
lo (m) li (m)
la (f) le (f) Mi Ci
Ti Vi
• Before a coniugated verb
• In a two verb constructions with infinitive drop final
–e and attach pronoun to the end of the infinitive.
Le
• Dovere, Potere e Volere> Place the pronoun before
the conjugated verb or attach it to the infinitive
Gli (m) Gli (loro)
Le (f)
• DIRECT OBJ Pronouns replace the D.O
noun (this is what a pronoun does…)
• VIP When the DOP lo, la, li and
D.O pronouns le precede the verb in the PP
the past participle must agree
mi ci with the pronoun in gender
ti vi
La and number.
lo li
la le
• VIP Lo and La can be shortened
in l’ before
• Before a coniugated verb -verbs beginning with a vowel
• In a two verb constructions with sound and
infinitive drop final –e and attach -avere that begins h.
pronoun to the end of the infinitive.
• Dovere, Potere e Volere> Place the
pronoun before the conjugated verb or NOT plural LI and LE
attach it to the infinitive JUST LO and LA
IND OBJ IT IS DIFFERENT from the D.O.!

• IND OBJ Le and Gli never VIP When the DOP lo, la, li and le precede
elide before vowels the verb in the PP the past participle must
agree with the pronoun in gender and
(NESSUN APOSTROFO) number.

VIP DOP Lo and La can be shortened in l’


before
• IND OBJ The past -verbs beginning with a vowel sound and
participles do not agree in -avere that begins h.
gender and number with
the Indirect Obj Pron. NOT plural LI and LE
JUST LO and LA
• REFLEXIVE VERBS= Reflexive pronoun + Verb
Both agree with the subject.
io mi alzo
tu ti alzi
Lei/lui/lei si alza
noi ci alziamo
voi vi alzate
loro si alzano

• Reflexive pronouns are the same as direct and indirect object pronuns in all but
the third person (si) form.
Reciprocal Reflexives and Reflexives in the
passato prossimo.
Always conjugate the
reflexive verbs, including
reciprocals, with ESSERE in
the passato prossimo.

The past participle (because


of essere) has to agree with
the subject in gender and
number.
The verb Bere (to drink)
• Present Tense
Bevo
bevi
beve
beviamo
bevete
bevono

Past participle bevuto (same stem as present tense form)


Imperfetto e passato prossimo
• Passato prossimo • Imperfetto
● Once
● Habitual or recurring
● Specific number of times

● Definite time period in the past ● Unspecified number of


- completed times
● Momentary
● Infefinite period – Long

● Beginning or end of a past duration


action or event
● Describe circumstances
● Change of a state in the past
(time, weather, physical
appearance, emotional
Both past tenses, distinct uses state and condition, age...)
and not interchangeable
Azioni nel passato a confronto –
Agreement of tenses
● Imperfetto ● Passato prossimo
● Imperfetto ● Passato prossimo

Azioni lunghe e durative Puntuali o momentaenee


Long duration Specific and momentary

● Imperfetto
● Passato prossimo
Durativa che si scontra
con una momentanea
Long duration>
Momentary