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CSWIP 3.

1 Welding Inspection

Practical Plate Inspection

TWI Training & Examination


Services

Course Reference WIS 5

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EDGE DATUM THIS FROM MEASURE

A
51
NOTES:
Slag
8
inclusion

87

22 Lack of sidewall
fusion

Page 1 of 3 EXAMPLE PLA


4mm. 153
12-14mm Name: [Block capitals] Mr. I C Plenty Signature: I C
Poor Centreline
Code/Specification used: TWI 09-09-03
B Welding process
2mm crack 40

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3mm in 50mm Welding position: Flat /PA Length & thickness of
WELD FACE

length or scale on the plate surface


230
Gas pore
1.5 Ø

236

241
Undercut smooth
30 1.5 max

Arc Strike

C
Copyright © 2006, TWI Ltd
EDGE DATUM THIS FROM MEASURE

A
23
NOTES:
10 Root concavity
2 deep

height : 4mm.
lignment: 2mm
tortion: 3mm in 50mm
n plate surface
128

Page 2 of 3 EXAMPLE PL
Incomplete root B

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penetration
50
WELD ROOT

247

Lack of root
20Fusion

C
Copyright © 2006, TWI Ltd
EXAMPLE WELD INSPECTION REPORT/SENTENCE SHEET

PRINT FULL NAME I C Plenty


SPECIMEN NUMBER 001
EXTERNAL DEFECTS Defects Noted Code or Specification Reference

Defect Type Pipe/Plate Accumulative Maximum Section/ Accept/Reject


Section Total Allowance Table N o 5
1 2 3 4

Excess weld metal height 15


A-C 4mm 2mm Reject
Excess weld metal appearance A-C Poor blend Smooth 8 Reject

Incomplete filling A-C 22mm None 5 Reject

Inadequate weld width (PIPE) A-C N/A ------------ ---------- Accept

Slag Inclusions A-C 70mm long 50mm 9 Reject

Undercut A-C 1.5mm depth 1mm 6 Reject

Surface Porosity A-C 1.5mm  1mm 2 Reject

Cracks/Crack-like defects A-C 40mm NONE 1 Reject*

Lack of fusion A-C 22mm NONE 3 Reject

Arc strikes A-C 3 NONE 7 Reject***

Mechanical damage A-C NONE ------------ ----------- Accept

Laps/Laminations A-C NONE ------------ ----------- Accept

Misalignment (Linear) A-C 2mm 2mm 15 Accept

Longitudinal seams (PIPE) A-C N/A ------------ ---------- Accept

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Root Defects

Misalignment A-C 2mm 2mm 9 Accept

Excessive Root Penetration A-C 4mm 2mm 15 Reject

Incomplete Root Penetration A-C 50mm NONE 13 Reject

Lack of Root Fusion A-C 20mm NONE 11 Reject

Root Concavity A-C 2mm depth 1mm 10 Reject

Root Undercut A-C NONE ------------ ---------- Accept

Cracks/Crack-like defects A-C NONE ------------ ---------- Accept

Slag inclusions A-C NONE ------------ 9 Accept

Porosity A-C NONE ------------ 2 Accept

Laps/Laminations A-C NONE ------------ ---------- Accept

This *pipe/plate has been examined to the requirements of code/specification TWI-N/WIS-PI


.........................................
and is accepted/rejected accordingly.

Comments:
* Request MPI testing to confirm crack and length.
** Large amount of spatter on weld face. Recommend this is removed and re inspected.
*** Recommend arc strikes are ground flush prior to MPI testing for cracks.

I C Plenty 22nd August 2003


Signature......................................................... Date.....................................................................................
*Delete which is not applicable. Use the other side for any comments.

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Inspection Practice Specification
Number TWI 09-09-03
All dimensions are given in mm
No Imperfection Comments Allowance
1 Cracks All types of cracks Not permitted

2 Porosity/Gas pores/elongated Cluster Max dimension of area L = 13mm Max


Gas cavities (wormholes) pipes Single pore Max dimension L = 1mm Max

3 Solid Inclusions Non metallic. Individual size Maximum 1mm


4 Solid Inclusions Metallic. Individual size Not permitted
5 Lack of Fusion Side wall/Root/Inter-run Not permitted
6 Incomplete Root Penetration Not permitted
7 Overlap/Cold lap Weld face/Root Not permitted
8 Incompletely filled groove Not permitted
9 Linear Misalignment 0.2t Maximum 4mm
10 Angular Misalignment Maximum 10º
11 Undercut Smoothly blended 10%t Maximum d 1mm
12 Arc Strikes Area to be tested by MPI Seek advice
13 Laminations Not permitted
14 Mechanical Damage Not permitted
15 Cap Height Shall fall below plate surface 0 –3mm h Maximum
16 Penetration Bead 0 –2mm h Maximum
17 Toe Blend Smooth
18 Spatter Clean & Re-inspect Refer to manufacturer
19 Weld Appearance All runs shall blend smoothly Regular
20 Root concavity 10%t Maximum

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Plate Sample 6A Cap
Welding Process MMA (SMAW)

?
Incomplete Filled Groove
?
Porosity Lack of
?
fusion
Slag Cap Undercut Cap Undercut
?
Inclusion ?
Intermittent ?
Intermittent

?
Cap Undercut
?
Arc Strike
Intermittent
?
Arc Strike

Note: spatter and surface slag requires removal, arc strikes


require blending and crack detection
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Plate Sample 6A Root
Welding Process MMA (SMAW)

Excess
?
Penetration
Excess
?
Penetration
?
Gas Pore

Root Undercut
?
Linear Misalignment

?
Surface Slag Lack of Root
? ?
Fusion

Note: Spatter and surface slag require removal

World Centre for Materials Joining Technology Copyright © 2006, TWI Ltd
Plate Sample 6B Cap
Welding Process MMA (SMAW)

?
Incomplete Filled Groove
?Porosity Lack of Sidewall
?
Lack of Sidewall Fusion Fusion?

?
Surface Slag

Overlap and Excess Cap Height Full Weld Length ?

Note: Surface slag requires removal and poor toe blending


full weld length
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Plate Sample 6B Root
Welding Process MMA (SMAW)

? ?
Slag Inclusion
Crater Pipe

?
Lack of Root Fusion
?
Lack of Root ?
Lack of Root Fusion
Penetration

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Plate Sample 6C Cap
Welding Process FCAW

Incomplete
?
Cap Undercut
Filled Groove +
Lack of
Sidewall
?
Surface slag & Spatter ?
Fusion Longitudinal
?
Crack

?
Slag Inclusion
?
Incomplete Filled
Groove + Lack of
Sidewall Fusion + Cap
Undercut Intermittent

Note: Spatter and surface slag requires removal

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Plate Sample 6C Root
Welding Process FCAW

Mechanical Damage
? ? Poor Stop/Start + Lack of
Burn Through
?
Root Penetration
?Excess Penetration

?
Lack of Root Fusion

Lack of Root Fusion


?

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Plate Sample 6D Cap
Welding Process MMA (SMAW)

?
Porosity
Incomplete
?
Filled Groove
Excess Cap Cap Lack of Sidewall Cap
Height? ?
Undercut ?
Fusion ?
Undercut

?
Overlap between Capping Passes

Note: Excess cap height and poor cap profile throughout.

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Plate Sample 6D Root
Welding Process MMA (SMAW)

?
Mechanical Damage

?
Lack of Root Fusion

?
Lack of Root Fusion

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Plate Sample 6E Cap
Welding Process MMA (SMAW)

Lack of
?
Sidewall
Fusion
?
Cap Undercut Intermittent ?
Cap Undercut Intermittent

?
Incomplete Filled Groove

?
Excess Cap Height

?
Incomplete Filled Groove

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Plate Sample 6E Root
Welding Process MMA (SMAW)

?
Poor Stop/Start + Crater Pipe ?
?Lack of Root Fusion Lack of Root Fusion
?
Root Undercut

?
Excess Root Penetration
?
Excess Root
Penetration

?
Crater Pipe
?Lack of Root
fusion

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Plate Sample 6F Cap
Welding Process MMA (SMAW)

Mechanical
Damage
?

?
Lack of Sidewall fusion ?
Crater pipe

?
Poor Toe Blend
?
Lack of Sidewall Fusion + Incomplete Filled Groove

Arc
?
Tack Weld ?
Strikes

Note: Arc strikes require blending and crack detection

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Plate Sample 6F Root
Welding Process MMA (SMAW)

Poor Stop/Start + Lack of Root


?
Penetration + Crater Pipe ?
Blow Hole
?
Arc Strikes Lack of Lack of
Mechanical Damage +
?
Lack of Root Fusion
Root
?
Fusion ?
Root
Fusion

?
Lack of Root Fusion
?
Arc Strikes

?
Arc Strikes

Note: Arc strikes require blending and crack detection

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Plate Sample 6G Cap
Welding Process MMA (SMAW)

?
Parent Material Damage
?
Arc Strikes
?
Arc Strikes
Lack of Sidewall Fusion +
?
Incomplete Filled Groove

?
Poor Toe Blend + Excess Cap Height

Porosity
?

Note: Arc strikes require blending and crack detection, Seek


advise on parent material damage
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Plate Sample 6G Root
Welding Process MMA (SMAW)

Parent material
?
gas cavities

?
Plate corrosion
?
Poor Stop/Start

?
Lack of Root Fusion

? slag ?
?
Crater pipe Surface
Surface Slag

?
Linear Misalignment

Note: Surface slag requires removal, plate corrosion requires


wire brushing
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Plate Sample 6H Cap
Welding Process MMA (SMAW)

?
Incomplete Filled Groove ?
Arc Strikes ? ?
?
Arc Strikes
Slag Inclusion Arc Strikes

Arc Strikes
?
Cap Undercut Intermittent ?
Cap Undercut
?
Arc Strikes
?

Note: Parent plate damage throughout, seek advice. Arc


strikes require blending and crack detection.
World Centre for Materials Joining Technology Copyright © 2006, TWI Ltd
Plate Sample 6H Root
Welding Process MMA (SMAW)

?
Crater pipe
?
Excessive root penetration
Linear misalignment +
?
lack of root fusion

?
Lack of root fusion

? Poor stop/start
?
Lack of root fusion ?
Arc strikes

Arc strikes

Note: Arc strikes require blending and crack detection, Seek


advise on parent material damage
World Centre for Materials Joining Technology Copyright © 2006, TWI Ltd
Plate Sample 6I Cap
Welding Process MMA (SMAW)

? ?
Spatter
Cap undercut
?
Arc strikes

?
Poor toe blend full weld length

Note: Arc strikes require blending and crack detection.


Spatter requires removal.
World Centre for Materials Joining Technology Copyright © 2006, TWI Ltd
Plate Sample 6I Root
Welding Process MMA (SMAW)

Arc strike

?
Lack of root penetration ?
Burn through
?
Poor stop/start ?

?
Linear misalignment

?
Lack of root penetration ?
Lack of root fusion

?
Mechanical damage Lack of root fusion
+ poor stop/start
?

Note: Arc strikes require blending and crack detection, Seek


advise on parent material damage
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Plate Sample 6J Cap
Welding Process MMA (SMAW)

Suspect crater cracking

?
Cap undercut ?
Arc strikes
?
Cap undercut
Porosity ?

?
Cap undercut intermittent
Cap undercut
?

Note: Material damage throughout, seek advice. Arc strikes


require blending and crack detection.
World Centre for Materials Joining Technology Copyright © 2006, TWI Ltd
Plate Sample 6J Root
Welding Process MMA (SMAW)

?
Mechanical damage
? fusion
Lack of root
Linear misalignment +
?
lack of root fusion

Lack of root penetration


?
Linear misalignment +
lack of root fusion
?

Note: Material damage seek advice on course of action.

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Plate Sample T4 Cap
Welding Process MMA (SMAW)

Mechanical damage
?
?
Cap undercut ?
Cap undercut

?
Spatter/irregular cap profile

Note: Grinding marks throughout seek advice on course of


action.
Excess
World Centre forcap height
Materials Joiningand poor cap profile throughout.
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Plate Sample T4 Root
Welding Process MMA (SMAW)

Root undercut ?
Arc strike
?
intermittent

?
Lack of penetration intermittent

?
Ground flush root

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Plate Sample H8 Cap
Welding Process MMA (SMAW)

Surface slag?
?
Arc strikes damage
?
Mechanical
?
Cap undercut intermittent

?
Cap undercut intermittent

Mechanical
damage ?
Note: Mechanical damage seek advice on course of action.
Excess cap height and poor cap profile throughout. Arc
strikes require blending and crack detection.
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Plate Sample H8 Root
Welding Process MMA (SMAW)

?
Arc strike ?
Lack of root
fusion

? ?
Spatter
?
Lack of root ?
Lack of root
fusion
Lack of root
fusion
fusion

?
Root undercut intermittent
?
Spatter

Note: Arc strikes require blending and crack detection.


Spatter requires removal
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Any Questions

?
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