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# Measure Phase

## Six Sigma Statistics

Six Sigma Statistics

Welcome to Measure

Process Discovery

## Six Sigma Statistics

Basic Statistics

Descriptive Statistics

Normal Distribution

Assessing Normality

## Special Cause / Common Cause

Graphing Techniques

## Measurement System Analysis

Process Capability

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Purpose of Basic Statistics

## The purpose of Basic Statistics is to:

• Provide a numerical summary of the data being analyzed.
– Data (n)
• Factual information organized for analysis.
• Numerical or other information represented in a form suitable for processing by
computer
• Values from scientific experiments.
• Provide the basis for making inferences about the future.
• Provide the foundation for assessing process capability.
• Provide a common language to be used throughout an organization to
describe processes.

Relax….it won’t
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Statistical Notation – Cheat Sheet

## The Standard Deviation of sample data A particular (1st) individual value

The Standard Deviation of population data For each, all, individual values

## The variance of sample data The mean, average of sample data

The variance of population data
The grand mean, grand average
The range of data
The mean of population data
The average range of data

## Multi-purpose notation, i.e. # of subgroups, # A proportion of sample data

of classes
A proportion of population data
The absolute value of some term
Sample size
Greater than, less than

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Parameters vs. Statistics

Population: All the items that have the “property of interest” under study.

Population

Sample
Sample
Sample

## Population Parameters: Sample Statistics:

– Arithmetic descriptions of a population – Arithmetic descriptions of a
– µ,  , P, 2, N sample
– X-bar , s, p, s2, n

Types of Data

## Attribute Data (Qualitative)

– Is always binary, there are only two possible values (0, 1)
• Yes, No
• Go, No go
• Pass/Fail
Variable Data (Quantitative)
– Discrete (Count) Data
• Can be categorized in a classification and is based on counts.
– Number of defects
– Number of defective units
– Number of customer returns
– Continuous Data
• Can be measured on a continuum, it has decimal subdivisions that are
meaningful
– Time, Pressure, Conveyor Speed, Material feed rate
– Money
– Pressure
– Conveyor Speed
– Material feed rate

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Discrete Variables

## The number of defective needles in boxes of 100 0,1,2, …, 100

diabetic syringes

## The number of individuals in groups of 30 with a 0,1,2, …, 30

Type A personality

## The number of surveys returned out of 300 0,1,2, … 300

mailed in a customer satisfaction study.

## The number of employees in 100 having finished 0,1,2, … 100

high school or obtained a GED

## The number of times you need to flip a coin 1,2,3, …

before a head appears for the first time
(note, there is no upper limit because you might
need to flip forever before the first head appears.

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Continuous Variables

## Continuous Variable Possible Values for the Variable

The length of prison time served for individuals All the real numbers between a and b, where a is
convicted of first degree murder the smallest amount of time served and b is the
largest.

The household income for households with All the real numbers between a and \$30,000,
incomes less than or equal to \$30,000 where a is the smallest household income in the
population

The blood glucose reading for those individuals All real numbers between 200 and b, where b is
having glucose readings equal to or greater than the largest glucose reading in all such individuals
200

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Definitions of Scaled Data

• Understanding the nature of data and how to represent it can affect the
types of statistical tests possible.

## • Nominal Scale – data consists of names, labels, or categories. Cannot

be arranged in an ordering scheme. No arithmetic operations are
performed for nominal data.

## • Ordinal Scale – data is arranged in some order, but differences between

data values either cannot be determined or are meaningless.

• Interval Scale – data can be arranged in some order and for which
differences in data values are meaningful. The data can be arranged in
an ordering scheme and differences can be interpreted.

• Ratio Scale – data that can be ranked and for which all arithmetic
operations including division can be performed. (division by zero is of
course excluded) Ratio level data has an absolute zero and a value of
zero indicates a complete absence of the characteristic of interest.

Nominal Scale

the variable

## Time to weigh in!

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Ordinal Scale

values

## Automobile Sizes Subcompact, compact,

intermediate, full size, luxury

Major League

Interval Scale

## IQ scores of students in 100…

BlackBelt Training (the difference between scores
is measurable and has
meaning but a difference of 20
points between 100 and 120
does not indicate that one
student is 1.2 times more
intelligent )

Ratio Scale

## Grams of fat consumed per adult in the 0…

United States (If person A consumes 25 grams of fat and
person B consumes 50 grams, we can say
that person B consumes twice as much fat
as person A. If a person C consumes zero
grams of fat per day, we can say there is a
complete absence of fat consumed on that
day. Note that a ratio is interpretable and
an absolute zero exists.)

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Converting Attribute Data to Continuous Data

Continuous

## • Which is more useful?

– 15 scratches or Total scratch length of 9.25”
– 22 foreign materials or 2.5 fm/square inch
– 200 defects or 25 defects/hour

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Descriptive Statistics

– Mean
– Median
– Mode

## Measures of Variation (dispersion)

– Range
– Interquartile Range
– Standard deviation
– Variance

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Descriptive Statistics

## Open the MINITAB™ Project “Measure Data Sets.mpj” and

select the worksheet “basicstatistics.mtw”

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Measures of Location

Mean is:
• Commonly referred to as the average.
• The arithmetic balance point of a distribution of data.

## Stat>Basic Statistics>Display Descriptive Statistics…>Graphs…

>Histogram of data, with normal curve

## Histogram (with Normal Curve) of Data Sample Population

Mean 5.000
80
StDev 0.01007
N 200
70

60

50
Frequency

40
Descriptive Statistics: Data
30
Variable N N* Mean SE Mean StDev Minimum Q1
20 Median Q3
Data 200 0 4.9999 0.000712 0.0101 4.9700 4.9900
10 5.0000 5.0100

0 Variable Maximum
4.97 4.98 4.99 5.00 5.01 5.02 Data 5.0200
Data

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Measures of Location

Median is:
• The mid-point, or 50th percentile, of a distribution of data.
• Arrange the data from low to high, or high to low.
– It is the single middle value in the ordered list if there is an odd
number of observations
– It is the average of the two middle values in the ordered list if there
are an even number of observations

Mean 5.000
80
StDev 0.01007
N 200
70

60

50
Frequency

## Descriptive Statistics: Data

40
Variable N N* Mean SE Mean StDev Minimum Q1 Median Q3
30
Data 200 0 4.9999 0.000712 0.0101 4.9700 4.9900 5.0000 5.0100
20
Variable Maximum
10 Data 5.0200

0
4.97 4.98 4.99 5.00 5.01 5.02
Data

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Measures of Location

Trimmed Mean is a:
Compromise between the Mean and Median.
• The Trimmed Mean is calculated by eliminating a specified percentage
of the smallest and largest observations from the data set and then
calculating the average of the remaining observations
• Useful for data with potential extreme values.

## Variable N N* Mean SE Mean TrMean StDev Minimum Q1 Median

Data 200 0 4.9999 0.000712 4.9999 0.0101 4.9700 4.9900 5.0000

Variable Q3 Maximum
Data 5.0100 5.0200

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Measures of Location

Mode is:
The most frequently occurring value in a distribution of data.

Mode = 5

## Histogram (with Normal Curve) of Data

Mean 5.000
80
StDev 0.01007
N 200
70

60

50
Frequency

40

30

20

10

0
4.97 4.98 4.99 5.00 5.01 5.02
Data

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Measures of Variation

Range is the:
Difference between the largest observation and the smallest
observation in the data set.
• A small range would indicate a small amount of variability and a large
range a large amount of variability.

## Variable N N* Mean SE Mean StDev Minimum Q1 Median Q3

Data 200 0 4.9999 0.000712 0.0101 4.9700 4.9900 5.0000 5.0100

Variable Maximum
Data 5.0200

## Interquartile Range is the:

Difference between the 75th percentile and the 25th percentile.

## Use Range or Interquartile Range when the data distribution is Skewed.

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Measures of Variation

## Standard Deviation is:

Equivalent of the average deviation of values from the Mean for a
distribution of data.
A “unit of measure” for distances from the Mean.
Use when data are symmetrical.

Sample Population

## Variable N N* Mean SE Mean StDev Minimum Q1 Median Q3

Data 200 0 4.9999 0.000712 0.0101 4.9700 4.9900 5.0000 5.0100

Variable Maximum
Data 5.0200

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Measures of Variation

Variance is the:
Average squared deviation of each individual data point from the
Mean.

Sample Population

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Normal Distribution

statistics.

## What are the characteristics of a Normal Distribution?

– Only random error is present
– Process free of assignable cause
– Process free of drifts and shifts

The Normal Curve

## The normal curve is a smooth, symmetrical, bell-shaped

curve, generated by the density function.

## It is the most useful continuous probability model as

many naturally occurring measurements such as
heights, weights, etc. are approximately Normally
Distributed.

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Normal Distribution

## Each combination of Mean and Standard Deviation generates a

unique normal curve:

## “Standard” Normal Distribution

– Has a μ = 0, and σ = 1

## – Data from any Normal Distribution can be made to

fit the standard Normal by converting raw scores
to standard scores.

## – Z-scores measure how many Standard Deviations from the

mean a particular data-value lies.

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Normal Distribution

The area under the curve between any 2 points represents the
proportion of the distribution between those points.

## The area between the

Mean and any other
point depends upon the
Standard Deviation.

m x
Convert any raw score to a Z-score using the formula:

## Refer to a set of Standard Normal Tables to find the

proportion between μ and x.

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The Empirical Rule

## The Empirical Rule…

-6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 +1 +2 +3 +4 +5 +6

## 68.27 % of the data will fall within +/- 1 standard deviation

95.45 % of the data will fall within +/- 2 standard deviations
99.73 % of the data will fall within +/- 3 standard deviations
99.9937 % of the data will fall within +/- 4 standard deviations
99.999943 % of the data will fall within +/- 5 standard deviations
99.9999998 % of the data will fall within +/- 6 standard deviations